Part II — THE MIND OF MAN We must distinguish between the “mind” — man’s mental ability — and the “brain” — the physical organ that is the seat of the mind. As Norman L. Munn says,
“No one has ever seen a mind. A surgeon cutting in the brain sees only nerves and blood vessels; to know what is going on in the brain he must ask the patient. . . .Only through language can we get any sort of direct picture of the working of the mind.” (The Evolution of Mind; June, ‘57, “Scientific American’).
Men in all ages have marvelled at the miracles of man’s mind.
“Of all wonders,” wrote Sophocles “none is more wonderful than man who has learned the arts of thought and speech.”
Dr. Henry Fairfield Osborn, noted modern anthropologist, wrote, “To my mind, the human brain is the most marvelous and mysterious object in the whole universe.”
“The brain is a mystery,” said Sir Charles Sherrington, of London; “it has been and still will be. HOW DOES THE BRAIN PRODUCE THOUGHTS? That is the central question and we have still no answer to it. . . .Despite significant advances, we have not yet accumulated more than fragmentary insight into what goes on in the brain. . . .which is of HARDLY IMAGINABLE COMPLEXITY.”
Another scientist bears witness to the same fact. “Today, even though we are awed and even frightened by the intellectual achievements of man’s mind, the mechanisms that make it possible are still unknown. Knowledge of the outward form of the brain is well advanced. But what of the neuron mechanisms involved in CONSCIOUSNESS, THOUGHT, PERCEPTION, BEHAVIOUR, MEMORY?. . . .They are unknown.” (Wilder Penfield. Prof. of Neurology, McGill University, in an article in the 1955 Smithsonian Institute Annual Report).
The Physical Nature of the Brain The brain, spinal cord and associated nerves comprise the “Central Nervous System.” The brain of the average man weighs about 3.3 pounds — 1500 grams — “a mass of pink-gray jelly-like substance composed of some ten to fifteen billion nerve cells.” There are three important parts to the brain:
(1) The Cerebrum. It is the main part of the brain. It is in two halves; each is heavily convoluted. About 65% of the surface area of the cerebrum is buried in the folds of the fissures that form the convolutions; so, by using massive convolutions, the Creator increased the efficiency of the brain threefold. The cerebrum, with its covering of “gray matter” (the cerebral cortex), which is only 1 inch thick and 400 square inches in area, is the seat “of consciousness, memory, imagination and reason.”
“The ten to fifteen billion nerve cells in this cerebral cortex are the center of operations. Each of the sense organs reports on its own lines to specific, well defined regions of operations. Those for the eyes are at the back of the brain, those for the ears are well down on each side, etc.
“All messages to the brain are sifted and decoded, decisions are made and orders relayed to appropriate stations of the body. It STAGGERS THE IMAGINATION HOW EFFICIENTLY IT DOES THE JOB. With five or six times as many workers (the microscopic brain cells) as there are people in the entire world, and WITHOUT SUPERVISORS. . . .it can handle equally well the information conveyed by the cells’ call ‘soups on!’ or ‘fire!’ or ‘play ball!’, by the sight of an object in a store window, a page of differential equations, a beautiful woman, the tiny spot of light from a distant star, or the blinking of a traffic signal.” (The Physiology of Imagination).
“It is a far reaction,” Sir Charles Sherrington, noted Oxford Scientist, reminds us, “from an electrical reaction in the brain to suddenly seeing the world around one, with all its distances, its color and its variations of light and shade.” (The “electrical reaction” he refers to is real, but unbelievably minute. And the neurons — brain cells in the cortex — are inconceivably complex in their composition and action).
“The study of the densely packed fine structure of the cortex has generated an immense literature on the various neuron types and their arrangement and interconnection in the half-dozen layers in which the cortex is divided. WE DO NOT EVEN BEGIN TO COMPREHEND the functional significance of this richly complex design. . . .Each of the ten billion neurons receives connections from perhaps 100 other neurons and these connect to still 100 more! THE PROFUSION OF INTERCONNECTIONS AMONG THE CELLS OF THE GREY MATTER IS BEYOND ALL IMAGINATION. It is ultimately so comprehensive that the whole cortex can be thought of as one great unit of integrated activity. If we now persist in regarding the brain as a machine, then we must say that IT IS BY FAR THE MOST COMPLICATED MACHINE IN EXISTENCE. . . .It is infinitely more complicated than the most complicated man-made machines — the electric computers.
“Each of the 10 billion neurons is an independent, living unit. It receives impulses from other cells through intricately branching dendrite fibers which sprout from its central body; it discharges impulses to other cells via a single slender fiber, the AXON, which branches profusely to make contact with numerous receiving cells via their DENTRITES. . . . Connections between cells are established by the SYNAPSES — specialized junctions. . . .At these synapses the transmitting cell secretes highly specific chemical substances, whose high-speed reaction carries the signal from one cell to the next. THE WHOLE OF THIS ALL IMPORTANT PROCESS OCCURS ON AN EXQUISITELY SMALL SCALE. A neuron operates on a power of about a thousand-millionth of a watt!” (Condensed from “THE PHYSIOLOGY OF IMAGINATION.” by John C. Eccles, President, Australian Academy of Sciences, “The Scientific American,” Sept., ‘58).
The above is a highly technical discussion of the working of the cerebral cortex, but we include it to alert the reader to some appreciation of how inconceivably complex are the workings of the brain. To help us better understand how truly remarkable the human brain is, we offer this contrast:
“It takes 500 TONS of equipment for just ONE telephone exchange. Sixty-two thousand man hours of work are needed to install this one 10,000 line dial Exchange. Eighty miles of cables and 2,600,000 soldered connections are needed for this apparatus.” The human brain, of course, does INFINITELY more than a 500-ton mass of telephone equipment which merely carries messages, but gives no commands, can not remember, reason, speak or imagine.
(2) The Cerebellum. It is beneath the back part of the Cerebrum — and much smaller. The cerebellum controls the voluntary actions of our muscles, partly on orders from the cerebrum. It is that part of the brain concerned with our control of the body, as “balance, the body’s movements, and its muscular habits and aptitudes.” With his “incomparable cerebrum,” and his likewise “incomparable cerebellum,” man can attain special techniques like those of the pianist, surgeon or artist.
The ability to preserve our balance “is an enormously involved process;” so much so that “probably 1,000,000,000 nerve cells take part in every move we make to keep our bodies straight.”
(3) The Medulla Oblongata. It is the enlarged bulb at the top of the spinal column. It is a center to control the automatic functions of the body, as breathing, and the pumping of the heart.
Volumes by the score have been written on both the Cerebellum and the Medulla Oblongata, and an incredible mass of wonders and miracles have been discovered about these portions of the brain — pertaining to both their composition and functions. We must leave to others the privilege of enumerating them, for the wonder of reverent minds.
Having said little about the marvels of the cerebrum — the main portion of the brain — and its incomparable cortex, we now want to point out the great GULF that exists
Between the Brain of an Ape and the Brain of Man.
There is a vast gulf when SIZE is considered.
Prof. C. Judson Herrick, distinguished Chicago neurologist, says, “The brain of the most incompetent normal man is TWICE as big as the most accomplished ape.” And the average size brain of man is “THREE times as large as the average size brain of an ape,” relative to body sizes.
Not only is man’s brain much larger, but it also has certain areas and lobes that the brain of an ape DOES NOT HAVE.
The portions of the brain of an ape that receive sense impressions and bring about muscular movements are about as large, relatively speaking, as those of a man. But in man there is a tremendous development in the “association areas” where the process of reasoning, and other higher functions of the mind, go on. “The “association areas” also enable man to read, speak, understand a language, and learn by experience.
Another authority says, “A certain small area of the cortex, in the frontal lobe, called ‘Broca’s convolution,’ is man’s SPEECH center; monkeys and apes DO NOT HAVE THIS AREA AT ALL.”
And here is an additional weighty testimony: “The most remarkable change in brain form, passing up the scale from monkey to man, is the comparative ENLARGEMENT of the frontal and anterior lobes, and there can be little doubt that this (enlargement) is associated with man’s supremacy in the intellectual sphere.” (p.436, Annual Report for 1955, Smithsonian Institute).
HOW DID MAN GET THIS ENLARGED BRAIN? And how are we to account for the fact that only man has the brain areas that give the powers of speech (using organized language), reasoning, the ability to learn from experience, and the miracle of a creative imagination? One can easily see that “between the brain of the higher apes and man is a VAST GULF” for which evolution has no satisfactory explanation.
WHAT THE MIND OF MAN DOES The mind of man has capabilities that set it apart as God’s Masterpiece of creation. Not only does the mind of man control and direct the muscular activity of his body (both voluntary and automatic), but also it has the power to remember the past, plan for the future, make decisions and carry them out; it can reason, imagine and dream; it makes man self-conscious and world-conscious. There are many more activities of the mind. *
* J. P. Guilford (University of Southern Calif.) says, “about 40 mental dimensions or factors of the mind have so far been mapped out — with others yet to be identified.” Among them he lists “originality, judgment, foresight, ability to visualize and to express ideas verbally, and to comprehend what others say.” (Popular Medicine). The mind also is equipped with “self-restoring powers” after a period of depression or a nervous breakdown, given sufficient time. (Morton M. Hunt, ‘Family Weekly,” 1-12-’64.
Here are some of the more wonderful of the capabilities of the mind:
(1) It is the Mind that makes our sense organs work.
“We know something about how the sense organs in the eye, the ear, the nose and the skin transmit stimuli of light, sound, floating particles and touch into afferent streams of nerve impulses, but without the subtle powers of MIND, working in and through the brain, all these sense perceptions would be lost. Neither the highly complex ear nor eye would work at all WITHOUT THE MIND BEHIND THEM.”
(2) It is the Mind of Man that makes real to him the Outside World. Sir Charles Sherrington impresses on us this miracle.
“I am seated in my room and turn to look through the window. I perceive sun and sky, field and road, the approaching friend. There is ‘near’ and ‘far’ in the scene; there is color; some objects move — others do not. WHERE IS THIS SCENE? Out beyond the window? Yes; but also, IT IS IN MY BRAIN. It is a transmutation, a wonderful transition, as inexplicable as fairy magic. . . .It is the work of the brain! . . .
“To glimpse the marvel of this, we must strip from our minds the habituation of lifelong routine. Then only can it appear to us in its NAKED WONDER — the more intriguing, because still inexplicable . . . And there is another strange thing about it, namely, that this unexplained phenomenon DOES NOT EXCITE ANY WONDER IN US. WHY?”
(3) The Mind of Man makes Man CONSCIOUS of himself.
This has been called “the most celebrated achievement of the human mind.” (Fred Kohler).
Fred Kohler, ardent evolutionist, in his book “Evolution and Human Destiny” says, “One of the most remarkable achievements of the human mind IS ITS ABILITY TO BE CONSCIOUS OF ITSELF AND ITS FUNCTIONING. ‘Consciousness’ represents actually a situation in which matter has become aware of its own existence. This is indeed such a remarkable circumstance that it has been considered to be beyond the possibility of any scientific understanding. . . .and has led to the belief that MAN IS IN SOME FUNDAMENTAL ASPECTS DIFFERENT FROM ALL OTHER CREATURES, and that his mind must contain some principle not explicable in terms of it being an extremely complex aggregate of matter.” (pages 95, 96, 97; Caps ours).
In his book, “The Nature of the Universe,” Fred Hoyle noted astronomer and evolutionist, comments on the miracle and mystery of CONSCIOUSNESS. “How,” he asks, “is a machine produced that can THINK ABOUT ITSELF AND THE UNIVERSE AS A WHOLE? At just what stage in the evolution of living creatures did INDIVIDUAL CONSCIOUSNESS ARISE? I do not say that questions such as these are unanswerable, but I do say that it will not be simple to answer them,” (p. 123).
This astounding miracle of the mind of man that makes man SELF-CONSCIOUS and WORLD-CONSCIOUS, though it is such an inexplicable mystery to this scientist, is readily understood by the person who believes in special Creation. It is explained by the fact that when God created man, He not only made his body, but also He made him a living soul (see Genesis 2:7), self-conscious, world-conscious, universe-conscious — and conscious of his fellow-men. The Bible speaks of this miracle in 1 Corinthians 2:11.
“For what man knoweth the things of man, save the spirit of man which is in him?”
(4) The mind of Man can Learn to do most anything: It can create Machines. In its inventive or creative ability the mind of man is so far ahead of the animal creation that one can not speak accurately of a “missing link” — one must say “a missing CHAIN.”
“In this respect the mind of man OVERWHELMINGLY TRANSCENDS its predecessors. Though the ape can learn, its powers of learning are strictly limited. But the evident fact of man is, HE CAN LEARN TO DO ANYTHING. He can make any kind of object, any kind of a machine, or a book. Only man’s brain can create machines outside his body. The difference then between man’s mind and that of his nearest rivals is the difference between the unlimited and the limited. . . The brain of man is the supreme organ of life.” ( P. 1969, Book of Popular Science).
(5) The Mind of Man has the Power to REMEMBER, and to learn from past Experiences. What is this strange power of mind that enables the brain to store away in its secret repositories beyond the immediate sphere of consciousness MILLIONS OF FACTS AND OBSERVATIONS that can be brought forth to active recollection on demand or when needed? This is a miracle so stupendous as to be totally incredible did we not all know it to be true! How can a man conjure at will the image of his long-dead grandmother? or the old homestead where he spent his childhood, and the thousands of precious memories associated with it?
In some persons memory is truly phenomenal. The late Charles Evan Hughes could write a thirty-minute speech, and then deliver it from memory — word-for-word — the same day.
John von Neuman, reputed to be “one of the world’s greatest scientists,” had “mastered college calculus by the age of eight and could memorize on sight a column in a telephone book and repeat back the names, addresses and numbers without error.” (See Life Magazine, issue of Feb., 25, ‘57).
So prodigious is man’s ability to memorize and remember that we are told “the brain’s ten billion cells can hold, potentially, more information than is contained in the nine million volumes in the Library of Congress.” Another authority says, “in the 70 years of his life a person can receive into his mind 15 TRILLION SEPARATE BITS OF INFORMATION.”
And think of this miracle; Recent research has “located the recording mechanism for remembered experiences” in an area of the brain having a “total surface of about 25 square inches — and only a tenth of an inch thick — in the cerebral cortex.” (See “The Tape Recorder in Your Brain,” 9-’58 Coronet, page 57).
“The brain’s tissue (the seat of the memory) include some thousand billion billion protein molecules. THAT number is believed ample for the purposes of human memory.” (Ibid).
(6) The Mind of Man has the Power to FORGET some things.
We do not actually recall physical pain.
“Unconsciously certain self-protective devices in the mind erase from memory some painful memories, unpleasant appointments and embarrassing situations” — though not entirely — as though to save us from an overload of painful memories. The keen edge of grief and loss soon wear off. Many frightening dreams are forgotten before even the sleeper awakes — “hidden from view by the self-protective unconscious mind that is always on guard.” (Popular Medicine).
(7) The Miracle of the Unconscious or Subconscious Mind. Much of the prodigious amount of information stored in the mind is in the storehouse of the unconscious mind. The subconscious mind seems to retain EVERYTHING it has ever received! And though it is difficult, seemingly impossible, to bring much of it up to the surface, modern psychologists are discovering new ways to induce the subconscious mind to dislodge its long hidden secrets.
“The most wonderful part of your mind is undoubtedly the unconscious, which lies below the immediately recoverable memory and is thousands of times larger. We do not yet know much about the unconscious mind, but we are learning. . . . By means of several devices we now know how to bring back lost memories.” (“Your Brain’s Unrealized Powers,” Reader’s Digest).
(8) Man’s Mind is “Educable” — it has the power to Learn from Experience, History and Teachers.
Unlike the beasts, who never advance, from generation to generation, man learns from history, from his own experience and the experience of others. He builds on the inherited knowledge of the past. The accumulated knowledge has rapidly increased, especially since the invention of printing. In recent years accumulated knowledge has snowballed, so that in our times man has accomplished truly amazing things!
Mankind has developed such marvels as highspeed photography, airplanes that ravel faster than sound, television, radio, the X-ray, nuclear fission, and a thousand and one other miracles that previous generations could never have realized for the simple reason that ACCUMULATED KNOWLEDGE had not yet advanced to the point that permitted the intricate inventions of our modern age.
(9) Man’s Mind alone is created with the ability to learn and use LANGUAGE. Beyond all question, this is one of the greatest gifts God gave to man. The ability to learn a language and use it distinguishes him from all lower animals, and enables him to communicate knowledge to others and to learn from others.
“A child learns the use of words not merely as mechanical signs and signals (as an animal does) but as AN INSTRUMENT OF THOUGHT. This insight is beyond the reach of any animal. Even the most intelligent sub-human reacts only to SOUNDS and not to the meaning of words. The late Edward Lee Thorndike demonstrated this with an experiment on his cats. He trained them to dash to the food box when he said, ‘I must feed those cats;’ but then when he later exclaimed at the cats’ meal time, ‘Today is Tuesday’ (using the same intonations as they were accustomed to) the cats speed to the box. And the words ‘My name is Thorndike’ evoked the same response. . . . A chimpanzee, intelligent as it is, SIMPLY CANNOT MASTER LANGUAGE. It can be taught to speak a few words, but each word takes months and eight words seem to be about its limit. . . .With a body as large and complex as ours, the chimpanzee has only ONE-THIRD as much brain to manage it. Furthermore, in the ape’s brain the frontal area, which is concerned with associations and symbolic functions, IS MUCH SMALLER IN RELATION TO THE REST OF THE BRAIN than ours. It seems to lack entirely the section in the left frontal lobe known as ‘Broca’s area,’ a part of the human brain known to be involved in speech.”
“Through the use of LANGUAGE man is able to gain mastery of his environment, learn from the past, penetrate the future. . . .and man’s future is largely under his own control, thanks to the gift of LANGUAGE.” (Norman L. Munn, in “The Evolution of Mind,” Scientific American, 6, ‘57).
Fred Kohler, evolutionist, senses the vast importance of LANGUAGE. He says, in “Evolution and Human Destiny,” There is little doubt that some several million years ago the ancestors of present-day man consisted of one or several species of primates. . . .Now it is known that the other primates (apes and their relatives) CANNOT BE TAUGHT LANGUAGE to any appreciable extent. . . .(They) lack the necessary organs and nervous equipment. . . .Even if animals are brought up among human beings they develop NO LANGUAGE WHATSOEVER. . . .Animal learning is based upon observation by the individual animal and the trial and error response to such observation. It is NOT based on any appreciable interchange of information with other members of the species. . . .The entirely new method of learning that is constantly available to man as a result of the development of language, increases the effective experience of each individual. . . and has achieved the developing intelligence of society.”
“It is probable that the circumstances of the dawning of language in man was an extremely important factor responsible for making him what he is today.”
Contemplating on the ability of man to use LANGUAGE, he deducts, “When the ratio of brain development in man, to that in the higher animals, is compared with corresponding ratio of their mental achievements, one finds that man’s accomplishments SEEM VASTLY OUT OF PROPORTION. How then is one to explain that man’s ability is so very much greater than one would expect on the basis of his brain development alone, basing the comparison on animal standards?” (See pages 73-82).
HOW ARE WE TO ACCOUNT FOR MAN’S VASTLY SUPERIOR MENTAL POWERS AND ACHIEVEMENTS over the animals, out of all proportion to his increased brain size? The answer is, when God created man, HE endowed him with these privileges, responsibilities and abilities. How deep is the thought suggested in the Scripture, “God CREATED MAN IN HIS OWN IMAGE AND LIKENESS” Genesis 1:26, 27)!
Would anyone be so foolish as to suggest but a “missing link” between the chattering monkey or the guttural growls of the Gargantuan gorilla and the smooth-flowing speech of a silver-tongued orator such as William Jennings Bryan? No, my friends, that gulf is NOT a mere “missing link” — it is a gorge as wide and as deep as the ocean!
(10) The Mind of Man is capable of THINKING: REASONING.
He holds debates, courts, parliaments — and “bull sessions.” He argues, defends, accuses, tries and condemns. From childhood on up he forever wants to know “WHY.” He is inquisitive, logical (and at times very illogical) and inventive. He creates books, machines, paintings and poems. This ability to think — reason — has given us an Einstein, standing before the blackboard, writing down the equation that unlocked the secrets of the atom! Between the gibbon in the treetop, clutching a banana, and the engineer at his desk, using trigonometry and the slide rule, is more than a “missing link” — it is a chasm as wide as a hundred Grand Canyons!
(11) The Mind of Man is capable of Creative IMAGINATION.
Ludwig von Beethoven’s “Symphony No. 5 in C-Minor” was a “triumphant masterpiece.”
A contemporary composer, hearing it for the first time, was so moved by it he ejaculated, “unbelievable! . . .Marvelous! It has so bewildered me (by its charm) that when I wanted to put on my hat, I could not find my head!” And yet this marvelous, almost matchless, creation ORIGINATED IN BEETHOVEN’S IMAGINATION. Though he was growing deaf, and could not hear his own playing, he “heard” the full richness of this immortal composition FIRST IN HIS OWN IMAGINATION — and then he set it down in notes. “The fateful opening chords and the glorious theme have made it the most popular symphony of all time.”
The mind’s ability in the field of “creative imagination” has produced much of the literature of the world — dramas, melodramas, tragedies, sonnets, poems, stories and novels; it also has produced many of the inventions of the world, which were FIRST created in the imagination of the inventor, and then developed into practical realities.
Frank Barron, Research Psychologist at the University of California, gave this tribute to the “Charm of Imagination.”
“The sorcery and charm of imagination, and the power it gives to the individual to transform his world into a new world of order and delight makes it one of the most treasured of all human capabilities.” (See “The Psychology of Imagination,” by Frank Barron, Scientific American, 9-’58).
Picture a William Shakespeare at his desk, writing one of his immortal sonnets or dramas. Between a William Shakespeare or a Ludwig von Beethoven and the eight
simple words of “Viki,” the world’s “most educated chimpanzee,” * — words spoken with no understanding of their meaning, but mere words, to obtain a reward, as a dog barks to get a bit of food — there is an expanse that separates as wide as stellar spaces! No use looking for a missing link; scores of chains are missing!
* “Viki” is the name of a chimpanzee taken in their home when three days old by Prof. and Mrs. Keith Hayes, at the Yerkes Laboratories of Primate Biology, at Orange Park, Florida. “It was a three-year experiment in bringing up a baby chimpanzee as one would bring up a child.” The story go the experiment is told in the book — “THE APE IN OUR HOUSE,” by Kathy Hayes.
Beside these capabilities of the mind of man that we have listed, there are scores more, such as “perception,” “apperception,” “intuition,” “analytical capacity,” “cognition,” etc.
The greatness of the mind of man can be measured somewhat by his mental achievements. The mind of man has conceived and created great telescopes, with which he has surveyed and mapped the heavens, peering billions of light years out into space. He has made microscopes with which now he can actually see the atom! He is able also to study the microscopic world as never before, and he is discovering wonders undreamed of a century ago. He has “cyclotrons” and “accelerators” that cost a hundred million dollars to construct. He has scaled the highest peaks, travelled over both poles, and is discovering marvels in the abysmal undersea depths. He has discovered the secrets of nuclear fission and nuclear fusion — and has gone to the moon. He has discovered and is using many “wonder drugs” and is able to travel in his jet planes faster than the speed of sound.
Though the mind of man had not attained the measure of mastery over nature as it has now, * Dr. Alfred Russell Wallace knew the vast superiority of the mind of man over the mind of apes — and so he was led to ask Charles Darwin, “HOW DID MAN GET HIS WONDERFUL BRAIN?”
* The generation-by-generation INCREASE in knowledge that has characterized the history of the human race is neither evolution nor proof of evolution. Man’s brain from the beginning of his creation had the same potential it has now. Loren C. Eiseley, Prof. of Anthropology at the University of Pennsylvania, says, “There is evidence that Homo sapiens has NOT altered markedly for hundreds of thousands of years.” (Scientific American, 11-’50). Man’s brain capacity and his IQ have not increased: the ancient Greeks and more ancient Egyptians and dwellers in the Mesopotamian valley of 5,000 years ago were as intelligent as our generation, though they did not have the vast store of accumulated KNOWLEDGE to draw on that our generation has.
Wallace’s question and the modern perplexity engendered by that question are discussed in the Nov. ‘55 issue of Harper’s Magazine, in an article on “WAS DARWIN WRONG ABOUT THE HUMAN BRAIN?” by Prof. Loren C. Eiseley, anthropologist. We quote from this frank discussion.
To explain “the rise of man through the slow, incremental gains of natural selection, Darwin had to assume a long struggle of tribe with tribe. . . .for man had far outpaced his animal associates. To ignore ‘The life Struggle’ would have left no explanation as to how humanity by natural selection alone managed to attain an intellectual status so far beyond that of the animals with which it had begun its competition for survival.”
But Wallace pointed out that “MEN WITH SIMPLE CULTURES (such as ‘stone age men’ in the world today) POSSESS THE SAME BASIC INTELLECTUAL POWERS which the Darwinians maintained could only be elaborated by competitive struggle.”
“Man and his rise now appear short in time — EXPLOSIVELY SHORT. There is every reason to believe that whatever the. . . forces involved in the production of the human brain, a long, slow competition of human groups would NOT result in such similar mental potentialities among all peoples everywhere. SOMETHING — some other factor — HAS ESCAPED OUR SCIENTIFIC ATTENTION.*
* Yes, Dr. Eiseley, something HAS escaped the “scientific attention” of most of our scientists today — and that “something” obviously is the fact that GOD CREATED MAN AND HIS VASTLY SUPERIOR BRAIN.
Loren C. Eiseley continues, “There are certain strange bodily characters which mark man as being MORE than the product of dog-eat-dog competition with his fellows:
“(1) He possesses a peculiar larval nakedness, difficult to explain on ‘survival’ principles;
“(2) His period of helpless infancy and childhood are prolonged;
“(3) He has aesthetic impulses;
“(4) He is totally dependent, in the achievement of human status, upon the careful training he receives in human society.
“(5) Unlike solitary species of animals, he cannot develop alone — he has suffered a major loss of precise instinctive controls of his behavior. In place of this biological lack, society and parents condition the infant and promote his long-drawn training;
“(6) We are now in a position to see the wonder and terror of the human predicament: MAN IS TOTALLY DEPENDENT ON SOCIETY.
“(7) The profound shock of the leap from animal to human status. . . involved the growth of prolonged bonds of affection. . . .because otherwise its naked helpless offspring would perish.
“(8) Modern science would go on to add that many of the characters of man, such as his LACK OF FUR, THIN SKULL, and GLOBULAR HEAD suggest mysterious changes in growth rates. . . which hint that the forces creating man drew him fantastically out of the very childhood of his brutal forerunners. Once more the words of Wallace come back to haunt us: ‘WE MAY SAFELY INFER THAT THE SAVAGE POSSESSES A BRAIN CAPABLE, if cultivated, and developed, of performing work of a kind and degree FAR BEYOND WHAT HE EVER REQUIRES TO DO’!” *
* We now know Wallace was right. Modern communications and transportation, plus societal adjustments, have abundantly proven the point. “Men with black skins, whose fathers lived in grass huts and hunted lions with spears, NOW STAND BEWIGGED IN COURT, pleading cases with an Oxford accent. Men with yellow skins, whose fathers used their wives as beasts of burden to plough their fields NOW CROUCH IN COCKPITS OF MIG-7’s, as they roar over the Formosa strait.” (See “Races in Turmoil,” Newsweek, 9-15-58).
Even Fred Hoyle admits (in Evolution and Human Destiny”) that “members of primitive cultures possess a brain potential EQUIVALENT TO THAT OF CIVILIZED MAN. . . .An infant removed from such a group (having a primitive or “stone-age” culture) will on the average share the conceptual characteristics of the society he is raised in.”
Obviously, all men everywhere, whether occidental, oriental, “civilized” or in a primitive “stone age culture,” HAVE ABOUT THE SAME RELATIVE BRAIN SIZE, and the same MENTAL POTENTIAL. In other words, “civilization” is built on ACCUMULATED KNOWLEDGE rather than on superior mental powers or brain potential.
Then Prof. Eiseley makes this startling statement about “the most miraculous creation. . . .the human brain.” “Today we can make a partial answer to Wallace’s question, SINCE THE EXPOSURE OF THE PILTDOWN HOAX all of the evidence at our command — and it is considerable — points to man in his present form, AS BEING ONE OF THE YOUNGEST AND NEWEST OF ALL EARTH’S SWARMING INHABITANTS. . . .Most of our knowledge of him (man) . . . is now confined, since the loss of Piltdown to the last half of the Ice Age. If we pass backward beyond this point. . . it is (to the scientist) like peering into the mists floating over an unknown landscape. Here and there through the swirling vapor one catches a glimpse of a shambling figure, or a half-wild primordial face stares back at one from some momentary opening in the fog. Then, JUST AS ONE GRASPS AT A CLUE, the long gray twilight settles in and the WRAITHS AND THE HALF-HEARD VOICES PASS AWAY. . . .
“Ironically enough, science, which can show us the flints and the broken skulls of our dead fathers, HAS YET TO EXPLAIN HOW WE HAVE COME SO FAR SO FAST, nor has it any completely satisfactory answer to the question asked by Wallace long ago. Those who would revile us by pointing to an ape at the foot of our family tree grasp little of the awe with which the modern scientist now puzzles over man’s lonely and SUPREME ASCENT. The true secret of Piltdown, though thought by the public to be merely the revelation of an unscrupulous forgery, lies in the fact that it has forced science to re-examine the history OF THE MOST MIRACULOUS CREATION IN THE WORLD — the human brain.” (Caps ours); condensed from “Was Darwin Wrong about the Human Brain?” in Harpers Magazine, 11-’55).
Prof. Eiseley still clings to the empty shell of evolution; but he virtually admits that Wallace must be right. The amazing Brain of Man demands a special Creation. In fact, Prof. Eiseley uses these words, directly quoted — “The most miraculous creation in the world — the human brain.”
Part III. MAN ALSO HAS AN EMOTIONAL, MORAL AND SPIRITUAL NATURE. In addition to his superb brain and mind, man has a soul, a “psyche,” — a moral, spiritual and emotional nature — that distinguishes him from the lower animals.
After creating man, God breathed into his (man’s) nostrils “the breath of life” and man became a LIVING SOUL. See Genesis 2:7.
(1) Man’s Emotional Nature. In addition to man’s powerful INSTINCTS * — far higher and different from what animals have — man has a highly complex EMOTIONAL nature, far above and beyond what animals have.
* Psychologists speak of the “parental instinct,” “the fighting instinct,” “the fear instinct,” “the instinct of self sacrifice,” the instincts of “sympathy, suggestion, curiosity, wonder, and imitation,” as well as other instincts of lesser importance.
In animals such emotions and qualities as fear and hatred are largely instinctive. But in man we see the full development of a broad gamut of emotions and moral qualities — both good and bad — that includes love and hate, joy and sorrow, peace and anxiety, trust and unbelief, hope and despair, satisfaction and frustration, elation and despondence, mercy and vengeance, pride and humility, courage and cowardice, approval and disgust, ambition and apathy, perseverance and pliability, nobility and meanness, gratitude and ingratitude, envy and good will, steadfastness and vacillation, zeal and lethargy, righteousness and unrighteousness, independence and dependence, — and a hundred more emotions and moral qualities that have enriched or degraded our lives and our literature. *
* The richness of our language and our literature depends largely on the wealth of emotional experiences of men: patriotism, romance, love, hate, nobility, meanness, fidelity, ambition, wonder, curiosity, etc. The intriguing fabric of human experiences, made possible by a wide range of deep emotions, it is utterly unknown to any animal. We refer to “the patience of Job.” “the courage of Richard the lion-hearted,” “the zeal of the evangelist,” etc.
Consider this brief list, then think of the paucity of the emotional life in animals. The few emotions animals seem to have are more instinctive and are far more simple than man’s vast domain of rich emotions. How can one account for the GREAT GULF between the emotional life of animals and that of man? The only answer is, Man is a special creation, with God-like gifts and qualities of mind and soul.
(2) Man’s Esthetic Nature. Inherent in the soul of man are such abilities and qualities as an appreciation of things beautiful and harmonious, as expressed in music, the arts, song and poetry. We can enjoy a symphony and a sonata, a poem, a lovely woman and a beautiful picture, a gorgeous sunset, a majestic snow-capped peak, a delicate fern frond, an exquisite lily or orchid, as well as the scintillating grandeur of the distant nebulae. We are inspired by Michelangelo’s “David,” or “Moses;” we are enchanted by the ceiling of the Sistine chapel or Raffael’s Madonna; we revel in the art gallery as well as in the pristine beauty of the everglades and the rapturous song of the nightingale. We look with awe at a sunset over lake Victoria Nyanza, and are enthralled by the vista from the top of Pike’s peak. The soul of an ape, a monkey, or a dog, has NO RESPONSE WHATEVER to a poem, a sunset or a beautiful painting, but finds its satisfaction in a banana, a bag of nuts, or a bone. How can one account for this tremendous gulf? It becomes increasingly obvious that man is a special creation — created in the very image and likeness of God. (Genesis 1:26, 27).
(3) Man’s Unique Moral Nature. When God created man He made him a free moral agent with the power of CHOICE. This great gift also involved a paralleling great responsibility: blessing would follow a right choice, judgment would follow a wrong choice. Unquestionably, this gift of a free will is man’s highest endowment. After his creation, man (Adam and Eve) were put to the test — and they failed, and rebelled against God’s government. So our original parents sinned (Genesis 3:1-7), and through them SIN and DEATH entered the race (see Romans 5:12). We now observe in the world the double phenomena: universal SIN and universal DEATH. Animals, in the same world judged by sin, also suffer the experience of death. See Romans 8:20-23.
Why moral evil is present in mankind, without ANY EVIDENCE WHATEVER OF THE GRADUAL MORAL BETTERMENT OF THE RACE * (save that which results from the influence of the Bible) is also an inexplicable phenomenon that utterly refutes the theory of evolution. According to evolution the morals of mankind should gradually improve — but they do not.
* Whatever moral betterment the race has experienced has usually been the result of the acceptance of the teachings of the bible. When so-called “civilized” nations like modern Germany DEPART from historic Christianity, a Hitlerian barbarism takes over, resulting in atrocities of the worst sort, such as the attempted genocide of the Jews, and the horrors of brainwashing. When men reject Christianity and turn to communism — dialectic materialism — similar evils follow: mass murders, the enslavement of large segments of society and torturous brainwashings. To the extent that our own country has departed from Bible teachings and Bible standards, the evils of materialism, state socialism, juvenile delinquency, alcoholism and crime have proportionately increased.
Herbert Spencer glibly spoke (as do modern evolutionists and communists) of “the universal law of progress which ordains that surely evil and immortality disappear. . . .surely must man become perfect.”
History tells us that the horrors of wars have been getting steadily WORSE, especially the wars of our century. Hitler’s crimes against the Jews and Communism’s “brainwashing” techniques and torture surpasses the tortures of the dark ages.
The Gospel facts of (1) Man’s origin by special creation in the image of God (Genesis 1:26, 27); (2) His “Fall” and the entrance of sin (Genesis 3:1-7) and (3) His consequent judgment — death and separation from God; and (4) His “redemption” as a race through the atonement of Christ (Romans 5:12-19; 1 Corinthians 15:3, 4); and (5) the “salvation” of all individuals in the race who repent and accept Christ and His Gospel (John 3:16; Romans 10:9, 10; Acts 2:21; Acts 16:31) are fully unfolded in the New Testament and are the subjects of DIVINE REVELATION in the Bible. The amazing thing is, the Divine Revelation of the facts of the special creation of man, and his subsequent fall and ruin are abundantly attested to by facts of human experience. Evolution has no acceptable way of explaining either the phenomena of SIN and DEATH in human experience, or the REGENERATION of believers in Christ.
Man has a conscience that enables him to distinguish between right and wrong, good and evil. Man has a will that enables him to resist evil and say “no” to wrong — but it also enables him to yield to sin and do wrong. Man’s moral accountability to his Creator is unique in all creation; no animal is so gifted and honored by the Creator.
(4) Man’s Spiritual Nature. God not only gave man a superior soul, He also gave him a spirit that make him GOD-CONSCIOUS. Men everywhere instinctively KNOW there is a Higher Power, and that they must give account to Him. The base religions of the world seek to placate evil spirits, and so seek to avoid retribution for their failures. But though the religion of many cultures is base, yet all men everywhere have some sort of “religion,” the perfect witness to the fact that all men are created with a SPIRIT as well as a soul.
Scattered over the world are several hundred tribes without a written language, living in various types of primitive cultures. Among them are the Negritos of the Philippines, scores of wild Indian tribes of Central and South America, the aborigines of Australia, the Ituri pigmies of Africa, the Onges, one of the most primitive of all cultures, who live on the Andaman Islands in the Bay of Bengal — so degraded they do not even know how to make a fire; the Wobangs, white pigmies of the interior of New Guinea; native Papuans; Samongs, the tree people who live in remote forests in the East Indian Archipelago; the Botocudos, who live in interior Brazil, and “have not yet reached the old Stone Age level of development.” They slit the lower lip and ear lobes and insert large wooden plugs in them. Then there are also the Kubus, who rove the jungles of Southern Sumatra, said to be “the most primitive tribe on the earth;” and the Troglodytes of Southern Tunisia who live in caves. ALL OF THESE PRIMITIVE PEOPLE HAVE SOME FORM OF RELIGION — proof that they are “God-conscious” and that they believe they must give account to a Superior Being. True, their worship is perverted — but the SPIRIT that makes the knowledge of God possible is there, even though it is depraved.
It is a miracle of God’s grace that He did endow man with the ability to KNOW HIM and to worship Him. To man alone, as far as life on earth is concerned, eternal life is offered through Christ. We read that “Christ tasted death for every MAN” (Hebrews 2:9), and that “God so loved the world that He gave His only begotten Son that whosoever believeth on Him should not perish but have everlasting life” (John 3:16).
Further Evidence that Man did Not Descend from Monkeys, Apes
or their Relatives
Darwin taught in his DESCENT OF MAN that the early ancestors of man must have been “more or less monkey-like animals” of the anthropoid group. Many attempts have been made to discover the “MISSING LINK” between man and apes, or between man and monkeys, but “NO MISSING LINK HAS EVER BEEN FOUND” (Popular Science). Because of this fact — truly terrifying to the evolutionists — many biologists today “no longer believe that man descended directly from. . . the apes.” Most evolutionists now teach that man descended directly from a “common ancestor” of apes, monkeys and men. “ ‘Proconsul’ is probably the common ancestor of apes and man” (Life). Actually, no one seems to know what this “common ancestor” — called “Proconsul” by some — was like; * it exists only in the imagination of evolutionists. There is no such creature.
* Prof. Julian Huxley says, “Ten or twenty million years ago man’s ancestral stock branched off from the rest of the anthropoids, and these relatives of man have been forced into their own lines of Specialization.” (Evolution: The Modern Synthesis).
Francis Vere, criticising Prof. Huxley’s statement, says, “This assertion is totally unwarranted; there is not one tittle of evidence to support it. ‘Ten to twenty million years’ give Prof. Huxley a good slice of time in which to indulge his fancy.” But remember the words of Sir Wilfred Le Gros Clarke, F. R. S., in a lecture at Oxford, “We must admit that WE HAVE NO FACTUAL EVIDENCE on which to base an answer to the question, ‘When did the “hominoid” and “anthropoid” lines separate?’ THE FOSSIL RECORD OF THE EARLIEST STAGES OF HOMINID EVOLUTION IS COMPLETELY BLANK.” (“Requiem For Evolution,” by Francis Vere).
Since no MISSING LINK between man and apes has been found, science now theorizes that “man and the anthropoid apes (gorillas, chimpanzees, gibbons and the orangutans) sprang from the same limb of a common family tree. One branch is represented by the apes, the other by man.” (Scientific American).
This is a favorite trick of modern evolutionists. “They assume that the actual ‘ancestors’ of all ‘specialized types’ are some ‘generalized ancestors’ for which no fossils can be found.” (W. Henning).
this modern evasion actually greatly weakens their argument and focuses attention to the “VAST GULF” that actually does exist between apes and men. And by further removing the original stock from which “man and apes descended” they themselves create a vastly greater gulf to bridge! If the step is great between apes and men — and Huxley said that the gap between monkeys and apes is greater than that apes and men — IT IS FAR GREATER BETWEEN SOME SUPPOSED ‘PROCONSUL’ (lower on the scale than apes) AND MEN. In other words, if we can prove there is an “unbridgeable chasm” between apes and men, we also demonstrate that there is a far greater chasm between man and the supposed, lower-than-monkeys “Proconsul.”
Argument for Evolution from “Comparative Anatomy” Evolutionists argue that “all elements in the human skeleton are ‘readily comparable’ to the similar bones in apes: both have a cranium, both have ribs, both have the femur (leg) bones, etc. They further call attention to similarities in the main body organs: heart, lungs, eyes, ears, etc, and that “the brain of the apes. . . .has the same convolutions as man’s.”
But similarity of anatomy is accounted for by the fact that apes, monkeys and men live in a similar environment — our world, with its atmosphere, water, chemical elements and food types— and so all apes, monkeys, and men NEED a heart, lungs, skull, brain, legs, eyes, etc., to live in the common environment. Similarity of anatomy does not prove evolution any more than the similarity between a Lincoln and a Ford means that the Lincoln “evolved” from the Ford. It simply means that THE SAME INTELLIGENCE MADE THEM BOTH.
Instead of being mislead by the similarities into accepting the evolution dogma, let us note well the striking DIFFERENCES between apes and men — differences so great as to create a chasm unbridged and unbridgeable by any theory of “natural selection.” Between these two realms — apes and men — there are NO MISSING LINKS, * either in the world of living animals or in the world of fossils.
* “Missing Link” is used here as it is commonly used. It has come to indicate a fossil or animal that bridges gaps between various major or lesser groups.
There are Many Kinds of Monkeys and Apes Before we list some of the many differences between apes and men, we call attention to the fact that there are scores of kinds of monkeys and several kinds of apes (gorillas, gibbons, chimpanzees and orangutans) all radically different from each other; whereas men, the world over, are built on practically the same pattern!
It is worthy of mention that man is the only species in his genus and the only genus in his family! This is a powerful argument for Creation: for man is UNRELATED.
Apes are tropical animals ranging from the three-foot Gibbon, a tree-dweller, to the six-foot, terrifying Gorilla, with the fiendish features, who may be several times heavier than man. Science agrees, “Neither Gibbon nor Gorilla can in any way be considered a Missing Link.” When an ungainly Orangutan seeks to stand upright, its arms reach almost to the ground; it has comparatively short legs.
The male Proboscis monkey has a grotesquely elongated “Roman” style nose (snout). Why? Shall we ape Darwin’s line of argument and suggest that this odd nasal appendage developed by “natural selection” because the female of the species preferred males with such unusual protuberances? Nonsense!
There is another natural “clown” among the monkeys — the male mandrill. It is a short-tailed baboon, with a swollen blue face, a red nose and red lips, a yellow beard, and with swellings below its eyes. It is a rare caricature! If the female of the species were responsible for this apparition, she surely did a good job of it!
The pigmy marmoset monkey is as small as a squirrel. The sacred monkeys of India are “whitish animals with blackish faces,” having great projecting eyebrows.
From which of these species did man descend? And from whence came the other apes and monkeys? Did man descend, let us ask, from the Mandrill baboon, nature’s caricature? or from the fiendish gorilla? No evolutionist today is foolish enough to claim man’s direct descent from any one of the living apes or monkeys; but he cleverly evades the issue by fabricating an imaginary “proconsul” that is as unreal as his “pro-avis” (the missing link that is still missing, between reptiles and birds). There just aren’t such animals as the “pro-avis” and the “proconsul.”
Since evolution teaches the GRADUAL change from proconsul to men, we ask — WHERE ARE THE INTERMEDIARY STAGES? No such “links” exist, either in the world of living animals or in the fossil world. The only place they exist is in the imagination of the evolutionists!
Many Authorities call Attention to the
STRIKING DIFFERENCES BETWEEN APES AND MEN “Man with his highly developed brain, his upright posture, his sense of duty and his appreciation of beauty is VERY DIFFERENT from the lower primates” (Book of Knowledge, Vol. 1, page 205).
“Apes have long arms; men short. Men have chins; apes have none. Apes have massive canine teeth; men do not. Apes can not oppose the thumb to the fingers; men can. Lacking this, no ape could be a competent tool-using animal.” (Article on Anthropology, Pageant magazine, 10-’47).
“HOW TO HUMANIZE APE — Reshape his hands, develop pelvis, refine vocal organs, change the anatomy of his brain to produce man’s ability for abstraction, symbolism and foresight; change the anatomy of his nervous system so he can develop skills basic to our culture.” (Dr. Keith J. Hayes, Yerkes Laboratory of Primate Biology, Orange Park, Fla.,).
“There is a subtle and misleading omission by scientists of facts opposing the supposed ape and man similarity. Why do they not tell us that female humans have a membrane (hymen) which female apes do not have, and that human males lack a bone (baculum) which apes have? Female apes have a poorly developed breast. From man’s much longer head-hair to the obviously different foot, from buttocks to chest-rib shape — with its longer collar bone — the entire ape is APE, not human.
“The sperm and ovum differ. The diet is different. The human child, after birth, is greatly changed in leg length, and its skull will not calcify for some time. This is not so of the ape. The apes brain is different, lacking the vital ‘Broca (speech) area’.
“Our research has shown FULLY 150 VITAL DIFFERENCES between apes and men — not to speak of mental, moral and spiritual matters. And probably NO APE ORGAN OR STRUCTURE IS OR CAN BE QUITE LIKE A HUMAN’S.” (Professor Leroy Victor Cleveland, Author, Anti-Evolution Compendium).
As a matter of fact, there are thousands of vital differences between apes and men, too numerous to list. But here are a few others of the more obvious:
Adapted to arboreal life, a chimpanzee before it is a month old can grasp a branch and suspend its own weight for more than a minute. (Dr. Keith Hayes). This is utterly impossible for a human baby of that age. Babies, as we all know, are born much more dependent on their parents and on society than apes or monkeys — and they stay dependent on society for a much longer time than any other form of life on earth.
Apes and monkeys spend at least part of their time in trees, and some of them rarely descend to the ground. Men live on the ground in houses. Apes sleep in crudely constructed nests.
Apes have fur; men must wear clothes. * Men light and use fires; Apes neither make a fire nor put sticks on a fire to keep it burning. Apes do not plant or keep gardens. Apes neither cry nor laugh. Apes live mostly on leaves, buds and fruit. Most monkeys have cheek pouches on the inside of their mouths where they can stuff extra food they gather. Men store their extra food in midriff bulges or double chins.
* In his DESCENT OF MAN Darwin explained this difference by saying that many females liked their monkey mates with less hair — and so there gradually evolved HAIRLESS MAN! This is totally unscientific, for monkeys live in hordes, and are promiscuous. They are either pregnant or nursing a baby, almost all the time; so they do not seem to have much concern about what male monkey is their mate, whether hairy or not.
BONES “Every bone of a gorilla,” admitted Prof., Huxley, “bears marks by which it might be distinguished from the corresponding bones of man.”
In half-erect monkeys the backbone is so curved that the weight of the body is bound to fall forward unless a very special effort is made; but in adult men the backbone is such that the weight of the body is well-balanced and distributed in an upright position.
The pelvis of an ape is not designed for an upright posture. “Man stands alone because man alone STANDS.”
The Foot If anthropologists want to determine whether a skeleton is that of a man or ape, let them examine the FOOT, not the skull. If they could examine the brain inside the skull, they could easily decide if it be that of a man or an ape, for the brain of a man has certain lobes that the brain of an ape does not have. But the brain soon disintegrates after death. Mere skulls may be very misleading. The skulls of males, females and children ARE ALL OF DIFFERENT SIZES, with considerable variation is shapes — both for men and apes. Then too there are skulls deformed from diseases. BUT BY EXAMINING THE FOOT ONE CAN KNOW IMMEDIATELY IF IT BE THE “HIND HAND” OF AN APE OR THE FOOT OF A MAN. In the apes, the big toe is really a thumb — made to grab with. Man’s toes are unique: they are short and small and not like a thumb. The specialized foot of man is made to walk on and not to grab things with.
“It is our FOOT, not our hand, that is the ONE PECULIAR FEATURE of our limb skeleton. Our ape ancestors were not four-footed types, but four-handed ones, and their ‘hind hands’ were better grasping organs than the front ones! (Man and the Vertebrates. Chapter on “The Human Body,” pages 373, 374).
All will agree with Sir Arthur Keith, “A child has never been seen with an anthropoid foot.” “And what is more striking still,” adds Prof., F. Wood Jones, “the human foot as soon as it is formed in the embryo is of characteristic HUMAN TYPE.” (Problems of Man’s Ancestry,” Page 38).
One more significant fact: “Apes are dying out. It seems probable that before long they will be extinct.” On the other hand, the populations of mankind are rapidly increasing, the world over.
SUMMARY It is clear that the body of man, starting with two minute cells, is so complex, so intricate and involved in operation, that it had to be created by an all-powerful Intelligence. It is equally clear that brain and mind of man, with its amazing powers of speech, reason, memory and imagination, is so fantastically wonderful it had to be created by a Master Genius, infinite in His creative resources. To believe that such marvels as the eye and the ear, the brain and the hand, the liver and the blood, could develop by random mutations, or natural selection, is the height of absurdity.
The gulf between men and apes, or between men and some imagined predecessor of the apes, in every conceivable realm: physical, mental, moral, emotional, spiritual, is so vast — and with no “missing links” to span the gulf — that one is forced to the conclusion that man could NOT have evolved from the lower animals, but was, as the Bible says, “created in the image of God.”
Few prominent evolutionists in recent years have come so close to admitting that evolution is an unproven and unproveable theory as Prof. Eiseley. Listen to his picturesque portrayal of man’s dilemma; this is what happens when man rejects the Biblical account and tries to solve the problem of man’s origin.
“There are great gaps of millions of years from which WE DO NOT POSSESS A SINGLE COMPLETE MONKEY SKELETON, let alone the skeleton of a human fore-runner. . . . For the whole Tertiary Period which involves something like 60 to 80 million years, we have to read the story of Primate evolution from a few handfuls of broken bones and teeth. . . .
In the end we may shake our heads, baffled. . . . It is as though we stood at the heart of a maze and no longer remembered how we came there. . . .Until further discoveries accumulate, each student will perhaps inevitably read a little of his own temperament into the record. . . . .They will catch glimpses of an elfin human figure which will mock us from a remote glade in the forest of time. OTHERS JUST AS COMPETENT WILL SAY THAT THIS ELUSIVE. . . . ELF IS A DREAM, SPUN FROM OUR DISGUISED HUMAN LONGING FOR AN ANCESTOR LIKE OURSELVES.” (Caps Ours. Prof. Loren C. Eiseley, Prof., of Anthropology, University of Pa., in the June, ‘56 “Scientific American’)
We do not agree with all Prof. Eiseley teaches, but this inference he suggests is certainly true: authorities reach different conclusions from the evidence available. There is no positive evidence to refute creationism, but much proof that neither the body nor mind of man could have evolved from animals. Besides, we have the clear teaching of God’s Word that He created man in His own image (Gen. 1:26-27