What are the divisions of the Cranium?

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  1. What are the divisions of the Cranium?


  • Frontal

  • Parietal

  • Occipital

  • Temporal

  • Ethmoid

  • Sphenoid


  • 1 mandibular

  • 2 maxilla

  • 2 nasal??

  • 2 nasal concha

  • 2 pallatine

  • 2 lacrimal

  • 2 zygomatic

  • 1 vomer


  1. What is the main joint of the cranium?

  • TMJ****

  • Protrusion, retraction, extrusion (lateral deviation)


  1. What are the names of the sutures of the skull? Where are they located? What type of sutures are they?


Sutures of the Skull

  • Squamosal

    • (on each side) Between parietal and temporal bone, laterally

    • Squamous type

  • Lambdoid

    • Between parietal and occipital bone, posteriorly

    • Dentata (serrate)

  • Coronal

    • Between parietal and frontal bones, anteriorly

    • Suture limbosa type

  • Sagittal

    • Between parietal bones to cranial midline, superiorly

    • Suture dentata (Serrate)

  • Temporal bone -> has an overlapping suture, squamous, suture where it can glide like a wheel


  1. What are the landmarks of the points of the cranium? Where are they located?

  • Nasion

    • Between eyes, where frontal bone and 2 nasal bones meet

  • Glabella

  • Bregma

    • Point where sagittal and coronal sutures meet

  • Vertex

    • Most superior part of the cranium when standing; approx. midline and middle of sagittal suture

  • Lambda

    • Point where sagittal and lambdoid sutures meet. Is a depression; may be palpable.

  • Inion

    • Tip of the external occipital protuberance

  • Pterion

    • H-shaped formation where the following structures meet:

      • Greater wing of sphenoid

      • Squamous portion of temporal bone

      • Frontal bone

      • Parietal bone

  • Asterion

    • Where 3 sutures meet:

      • Parieto-mastoid suture

      • Occipito-mastoid suture

      • Lambdoid suture

  • Basion

    • Mid-point of the anterior margin of foramen magnum

  • Opisthion

    • Mid-point of the posterior margin of foramen magnum

  • Obelion

    • Intersecting point of sagittal suture and the mid-line from both parietal foramen


  1. What are the names and location of the internal and external cranial fossa? What are their characteristics?

  • Internal cranial fossa

    • Anterior - ethmoid, frontal, sphenoid

    • Middle - sphenoid, temporal

    • Posterior - temporal, occipital (largest and deepest)

  • External cranial fossa

    • Temporal fossa (temporalis)

    • Jugular fossa

    • Submandibular fossa

    • Sublingual fossa


  1. What is the name and location of the paranasal sinuses?

  • Frontal Sinus

    • Above and between the eyes, in the frontal bone

  • Maxillary Sinus

    • Under the eyes and just lateral to the nose in the maxillary bone, in the maxilla bone

  • Sphenoid Sinus

  • Ethmoid Sinus

    • Between the nose and eyes, in the ethmoid bone


What are the names, location and contents of the foramen of the cranium?


Cranial fossa






supraorbital foramen

supraorbital artery, supraorbital vein

supraorbital nerve


anterior cranial fossa

foramen cecum

emissary veins to superior sagittal sinus from the upper part of the nose[1]



anterior cranial fossa (osama)

foramina of cribriform plate


olfactory nerve bundles (I)


anterior cranial fossa

anterior ethmoidal foramen

anterior ethmoidal artery

anterior ethmoidal vein

anterior ethmoidal nerve


anterior cranial fossa

posterior ethmoidal foramen

posterior ethmoidal artery

posterior ethmoidal vein

posterior ethmoidal nerve



optic canal

ophthalmic artery

optic nerve (II)


middle cranial fossa

superior orbital fissure

superior ophthalmic vein

oculomotor nerve (III)

trochlear nerve (IV)

lacrimal, frontal and nasociliary branches ofophthalmic nerve (V1)

abducent nerve (VI)


middle cranial fossa

foramen rotundum


maxillary nerve (V2)



incisive foramen/incisive canal

terminal branch of palatine descendens artery

Terminal part of[1] nasopalatine nerve (V2)



greater palatine foramen

greater palatine artery

greater palatine vein

greater palatine nerve



foramen sphenopalatinum

sphenopalatina artery

sphenopalatina vein

nasopalatine nerve

rami nasales posteriores superiores (V2)

palatine and maxilla


lesser palatine foramina

lesser palatine artery

lesser palatine vein

lesser palatine nerve, greater palatine nerve[1]

sphenoid and maxilla


inferior orbital fissure

inferior ophthalmic veins

infraorbital artery

infraorbital vein, tributary of pterygoid plexus

zygomatic nerve and infraorbital nerve ofmaxillary nerve (V2)

orbital branches of pterygopalatine ganglion



infraorbital foramen

infraorbital artery

infraorbital vein, tributary of pterygoid plexus

infraorbital nerve


middle cranial fossa

foramen ovale

accessory meningeal artery, emissary veinconnecting cavernous sinus with pterygoid plexus

mandibular nerve (V3)

lesser petrosal nerve (occasionally)[1]


middle cranial fossa

foramen spinosum

middle meningeal artery

meningeal branch of the mandibular nerve (V3)


middle cranial fossa

foramen lacerum

artery of pterygoid canal, Meningeal branch ofascending pharyngeal artery, Occipital arteryemissary vein

nerve of pterygoid canal through its anterior wall.


posterior cranial fossa

internal acoustic meatus

labyrinthine artery

facial nerve (VII), vestibulocochlear nerve (VIII)


posterior cranial fossa

jugular foramen

internal jugular vein, inferior petrosal sinus,sigmoid sinus, Occipital artery

glossopharyngeal nerve (IX), vagus nerve (X),accessory nerve (XI)


posterior cranial fossa

hypoglossal canal


hypoglossal nerve (XII)


posterior cranial fossa

foramen magnum

anterior and posterior spinal arteries, vertebral arteries

lowest part of medulla oblongata, three meninges, ascending spinal fibers of accessory nerve (XI)[1]


posterior cranial fossa

stylomastoid foramen

stylomastoid artery

facial nerve (VII)

Frontal bone

  • Supraorbital foramen

  • Foramen Secum


Ethmoid bone

  • Cribiform plate -> olfactory nerve (CN I)

  • Anterior ethmoidal foramen

  • Posterior ethmoidal foramen


Sphenoid bone

  • Superior orbital fissure


  1. What are the names and function of the muscles of the eye?

  • Superior Rectus: Moves the eye superiorly (elevation)

  • Medial Rectus: Moves the eye medially (adduction)

  • Lateral Rectus: Moves the eye laterally (abduction)

  • Inferior Rectus: Moves the eye inferiorly (depression)


  • Superior Oblique: Moves the eye by internal rotation, depression and adduction

  • Inferior Oblique: Moves the eye by external rotation, elevation and abduction


  1. What is the name and function of the muscle of the scalp?

  • Frontalis - Moves the scalp anterior and inferiorly (from back to front)

  • Occipitalis - Moves the scalp posterior and inferiorly

  • Temporalis - Moves the scalp medially and laterally (from front to back)


  1. What is the name and function of the muscles of the oral cavity?

  • Mylohyoid muscle - depresses the mandible and elevates the tongue flex

  • Geniohyoid muscle - depresses the mandible and elevates the hyoid bone

  • Thyrohyoid muscle - depresses and stabilizes hyoid and elevates larynx during swallowing

  • Stylohyoid-

  • Buccinator muscle - moves the mouth unilaterally; fish face

  • Superior/middle/inferior pharyngeal constrictor - pushes bolus of food downwards

  1. What is the name and function of the muscles of the tongue?



  • Styloglossus muscle - elevates the sides of the tongue during swallowing

  • Palatoglossus muscle - elevates the back of tongue during swallowing

  • Hyoglossus muscle - retracts and depresses tongue

  • Genioglossus muscle - protracts the tongue forward



  • Superior longitudinal muscle - elevates and assists in retraction or deviation of the tip of the tongue

  • Inferior longitudinal muscle - retracts tongue

  • Transverse muscle - narrows and elongates tongue

  • Vertical muscle - flattens and broadens tongue


Important because the tongue can get in the way of eating or talking if SD is present.

  • Possible it feels like something is in the way or trouble swallowing.

  • Esophagus can be pushing food back out because of irritation so it's important to look at the mandible and the muscles attached.

    • Can cause a lot of little muscle dysfunctions of mastication (for example)

  • You can manipulate fluid secretion; secretion of these glands activates through the same area as bones and muscles go through so if you have SD in area, you can get dry mouth or something



  1. What is the name and function of the muscles of facial expression?

  • Depressor supercilii - depresses skin and eyebrow above the eye

  • Buccinator muscle - moves the mouth unilaterally

  • Orbicularis occuli - closes the eye lids

  • Orbicuaris oris - compression and protrusion of lips

  • Procerus - depresses medial angle of eyebrow

  • Platysma - depresses angles of mandible and mouth

  • Risorius - aids in grimace, pulls corners of mouth laterally

  • Depressor anguli oris - pulls angle of mouth laterally and downward

  • Depressor septi nasi - depresses nasal septum and flares nostrils

  • Zygomaticus Major - elevate the mouth and draws angle of mouth laterally

  • Zygomaticus Minor - elevates upper lip and angle of the mouth

  • Levator labii superioris - elevates upper lip

  • Levator Labii Superficialis alaeque nasi - flares nostrils and elevates upper lip

  • Anterior auricularis- draws ears upward and forward

  • Superior auricularis -> elevate ears

  • Posterior auricularis->draws ears upward and backwards


  1. What s the name and function of the muscles of mastication?

  • Temporalis

  • Superficial masseter - protrusion, elevation and adduction of the mandible

  • Deep masseter - elevation, adduction and protrusion of the mandible

  • Pterygoid Medial - protraction and elevation of mandible

  • Pterygoid Lateral - protraction of mandible, aids in mastication


You can use these muscles to manipulate the sphenoid bone and muscles of mastication


  1. What are the names of the cranial nerves? What is their course/foramen? What type of nerve are they? What is their function?KNOW WHAT MUSCLE'S ARE INNERVATED BY THESE NERVES














Cranial Nerves








Vestibulochoclear (auditory)






Special Sensory

Special Sensory

(General visceral) Motor

General somatic Motor










Cribiform Plate

Optic Canal

Superior Orbital Fissure

Superior Orbital Fissure

Olphthalmic: Superior Orbital Fissure

Superior Orbital Fissure

Stylomastoid Foramen

Internal Acoustic Meatus

Jugular Foramen

Jugular Foramen

Jugular Foramen

Hypoglossal Canal




Levator __

Controls sphincter in pupil 

Orbital oblique muscles

Maxillary: Foramen Rotundum


Motor: facial expression

Sensory: anterior 2/3 of tongue 











Mandibular: Foramen Ovale









  1. What are the arteries of the neurocranium and viscerocranium?



  • Anterior & Posterior Cerebral Arteries

  • Anterior & Posterior Communicating Arteries

  • Internal & External Carotid Artery

  • Basilar Artery

  • Occipital artery

  • Vertebral artery



  • Fascial Artery

  • Maxillary Artery

  • Lacrimal Artery

  • Zygomaticofacial Artery

  • Internal carotid Artery


  1. What structures drain into the internal and external jugular vein?


Internal Juglar Vein

  • Facial vein

  • Lingual vein

  • Occipital vein

  • Superior & Middle thyroid veins


External Jugular Vein

  • Posterior auricular vein -> posterior to the ear

  • Retromandibular vein -> drain face



  1. What are the lymphatic vessels of the head, face and neck? Where do they drain?


Superficial Lymph Nodes -> drains into deep lymph nodes

  • Occipital

  • Mastoid

  • Pre-auricular

  • Parotid

  • Submental

  • Submandibular

  • Facial

  • Superficial cervical


Deep Lymph Nodes


  1. What are the names and function of the salivary glands?

Exocrine gland, secrete salivary gland. Keep mucosis lubricated

  • Major

    • Exocrine secrete as a whole, produce more saliva than minor

    • Parotid gland ->25-30% of saliva

    • Submandibular gland -> 70% of saliva

    • Sublinguil gland -> 3-5% of saliva

      • Each gland open into the inferior surface of the oral cavity posterior to the submandibular duct papilla


  1. What are the major venous sinuses of the brain? Where do they drain?

Empty into internal jugular vein


  1. Where is the CSF produced? What is its pathway? Where is it absorbed? What is its function?

  • Coroid plexus and lateral third and four ventricles

    • Goes to subarachnoid space -> CSF spreads through these channels

    • Provides absorbent space for shock absorption

  • Problem with CSF, there will be pressure put on the brain

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