Source:PLASTIC AND RECONSTRUCTIVE SURGERY 109 (7): 2373-2383 JUN 2002
Document Type: Article
Cited References: 19Times Cited: 3
Abstract: A series of experimental studies were performed in monkeys to study the effect of mandibular distraction osteogenesis on the inferior alveolar nerve at different times before and after distraction. A mandible osteotomy was performed and distraction was carried Out unilaterally in 10 young rhesus monkeys and bilaterally in six. The intact nerves on the contralateral side of the 10 monkeys were used for the control. Care was taken to avoid destroying the integrity of the inferior alveolar nerve during the surgical procedure. After a 5-day latency period, the distraction device was activated at a rate of 6.5 mm twice each clav for 15 days. Sensory nerve action potential testing was applied before and 1 day after the operation, at completion of distraction. and at 2, 4, 6. 9, and 12 weeks of fixation. Necropsy was performed at the completion of distraction and 2 4, 6, and 12 weeks of fixation. The mental nerves were taken, sectioned, and stained with lead citrate and uranyl acetate, and examined with a transmission electron microscope. The inferior alveolar nerves in the distraction gap were obtained, and paraffin slides were made and stained with hematoxylin and eosin, Luxol fast blue, and Bodian methods.
The authors found that immediately after the mandible osteotomy, most nerves showed signs of slight acute injury; the latency was increased by 5.553 percent, and the amplitude was decreased to 1808 muV. This might be caused by the surgical procedure or by compressions produced by swelling tissues around the nerves, When distraction was completed, the latency was prolonged for an average of 22.18 percent, and the amplitude average had attenuated to 28.54 percent (804 muV) of the preoperative value on the distracted side. Most nerve fibers exhibited signs of degeneration, such as myelin disruption, swelling of cell organs greatly increased in axoplasm, axon tearing, and myelin fragments engulfed by macrophages. These were nerve reactions to the tensions produced by inaudible lengthening. As time elapsed, the nerve's action potential recovered gradually because of its repairing ability, the latency shortened, amplitude increased, Schwann cells proliferated and formed new myelin sheaths, and the tearing axons reconnected. After 12 weeks of consolidation, there was still a latency of 12.384 percent prolongation because of the prolonged conduction distance, and the average amplitude was restored to 2786 kV, the approximate preoperative value. The nerve seemed to be repaired completely: its myelin thickness, axon diameter, and ultrastructure were all similar to those of the control. It was concluded that mandibular distraction osteogenesis can produce some degree of harmful effects on the function and Structure of inferior alveolar nerves, but it is reversible and relatively slight. Along with the regeneration of the nerve's myelin and axon, the nerve function can gradually rehabilitate to a normal level.
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Addresses: Wang XX (reprint author), Peking Univ, Sch Stomatol, Dept Oral & Maxillofacial Surg, Orthognath Surg Ctr, S Zhongguancun Ave 22, Beijing, 100081 Peoples R China
Peking Univ, Sch Stomatol, Dept Oral & Maxillofacial Surg, Orthognath Surg Ctr, Beijing, 100081 Peoples R China
Publisher: LIPPINCOTT WILLIAMS & WILKINS, 530 WALNUT ST, PHILADELPHIA, PA 19106-3621 USA