The Skeletal System ch. 6 & 7, p. 139-190



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The Skeletal System

CH. 6 & 7, p. 139-190

Organization of the Skeletal System

p. 129-131

The Axial Skeleton

  • The Skull - cranial and facial bones

  • Auditory Ossicles - 3 total bones

  • Hyoid Bone - located above the larynx

  • Vertebral Column - 26 bones in the adult

  • Rib Cage/Sternum

The Appendicular Skeleton

  • Pectoral Girdle - scapula and clavicles

  • cingulum membri superioris - girdle - articulates with sternum and vertebral column

  • Upper Extremities - humerus, radius, ulna, carpal bones, metacarpals and phalanges

  • Pelvic Girdle - 2 ossa coxae, cingulum membri inferioris - articulates with sacrum

  • Lower Extremities - femur, tibia, fibula, tarsal bones, metatarsals and phalanges

Functions of the Skeletal System

  • 1) Support - rigid framework

  • 2) Protection

  • 3) Body Movement - levers

  • 4) Provide an Anchoring Point for Muscles

  • 5) Calcium/Phosphorus metabolism

  • 6) Hematopoiesis

Terminology, p. 133, Table 6.2

  • Condyle - a large rounded projection or knob

  • Facet - a flattened or shallow articulating surface

  • Head - a prominent rounded articulating bone end

  • Alveolus - a deep pit or socket

  • Foramen - a hole or rounded opening

  • Fissure - a narrow slit like opening

  • Sinus - a cavity or hollow space in a bone

  • Sulcus - a groove

  • Crest - a narrow ridge like projection

Terminology, cont.

  • Epicondyle - a projection located superior to a condyle

  • Process - any boney protuberance

  • Spine - a sharp slender process

  • Trochanter - a massive process, on the femur

  • Tubercle - a small rounded process

  • Tuberosity - a large roughened process

  • Fossa - a flattened or shallow surface, depression

Shapes of Bones

  • Long Bones - longer than wide

  • Short Bones - somewhat cube shaped

  • Flat Bones - cranial bones, ribs, scapula

  • Irregular Bones - vertebrae and certain bones of the skull

  • Accessory Bones - extra bones

  • Wormian Bones - sutural bones

Structure of a Typical Long Bone

  • Shaft - Diaphysis

  • a) Periosteum - dense regular connective tissue

  • 1) Sharpey’s fibers - connect periosteum to bone

  • Epiphysis - spongy bone on each end of the diaphysis

  • a) Epiphyseal plate - growth center

  • b) Articular cartilage - hyaline cartilage

  • c) Red Marrow - hematopoiesis

  • Medullary cavity - central cavity within the diaphysis - lined with endosteum and filled with fat (yellow marrow)

Bone Cells

  • Osteogenic cells - in periosteum and endosteum, can become blast or clasts

  • Osteoblasts - lay down osteoid

  • Osteocytes - mature bone cells, reside in lacunae, regulate calcium release into blood stream

  • Osteoclasts - break down bone

  • Bone-Lining cells - derived from osteoblasts along the surface of most bones, reg. Ca/P movement

Spongy and Compact Bone

  • Spongy Bone - trabecular bones, located deep to compact bone.

  • Compact Bone - forms external portion of bone, very dense, composed of cylindrical columns of bone.

  • Haversian System - osteon

  • Lamellae - concentric rings of bone

  • Central Canal - contains artery, vein and lymphatics

  • Lacunae - spaces where osteocytes reside

  • Canaliculi - small channels which connect lacunae

  • Perforating canals - Volkmann’s canals

Bone Growth

  • Endochondral Ossification - long bones, etc.

  • Intramembranous Ossification - flat bones

Homeostasis and Physiologic Function of Bone

  • Hematopoiesis

  • Calcium Storage and Release

  • Function of Calcium

  • Blood clotting

  • Nerve transmission

  • Muscle contraction

  • Control of Calcium Levels in the Blood

  • Bone

  • Kidney

  • Parathyroid Glands

  • Diet/GIT

Disorders of Calcium Metabolism

  • Hypocalcemia - tetany

  • pH is proportional to HCO3/CO2

  • Hypercalcemia

  • Essential Nutrients for Bone Development

  • calcium, phosphorus, magnesium

  • Vit D - absorption of Ca

  • Vit. A - osteoblast function

  • Vit C - necessary for osteoid synthesis

  • protein

The Axial Skeleton

p. 139-160

The Skull

  • Divisions of the Skull

  • a) Cranial Bones - 8 bones in all

  • 1) Cranial Cavity - where the brain is

  • a) Calvaria - roof of the cranial vault
  • b) Cranial fossa - floor of the cranial cavity
  • b) Facial bones - 14 bones are not in contact with the brain. All paired except for vomer and mandible

Fontanels

  • Anterior - Frontal - bregmatic, closes by 18-24 months

  • Posterior - Occipital, closes by 2months - becomes the lambda

  • Anterolateral - Sphenoidal - closes by 3 months of age, becomes the pterion

  • Posterolateral - Mastoid - closes by 1 year of age, becomes the asterion

Sutures

  • Sagittal Suture

  • Coronal Suture

  • Lambdoidal Suture

  • Squamous Suture

  • Metopic Suture - extends from anterior fontanel rostrally to the glabella, closes by age 6 years

The Cranial Bones

p. 146 - 149

Frontal Bone




  • Frontal Squama - flattened portion of the forehead

  • Supraorbital Margin - arch, ridge

  • Supraorbital foramen - supraorbital nerve

  • Roof of the orbit

  • Supracilliary Ridge - deep to eyebrow

  • Glabella - most forward projecting part of head, AKA mesophryon, antinion, intercilium

  • Metopic Suture –closed by age 6

  • Bregma

  • Frontal Sinus

Parietal Bones

  • Coronal Suture

  • Sagittal Suture

  • Parietal Foramina - emissary veins

  • Temporal Lines - origin of temporalis m.

Temporal Bones

  • Squamous Suture

  • Squamous Portion

  • a) zygomatic process

  • b) mandibular fossa

  • c) groove for the middle temporal artery

  • Tympanic Portion

Temporal bones, cont.

  • Mastoid Portion

  • a) Mastoid process

  • b) Mastoid foramen

  • c) Stylomastoid foramen - CN VII

  • d) Mastoid sinus

  • Petrous portion

  • a) Groove for the Sigmoid Sinus

  • b) Carotid canal - internal carotid artery

  • c) Bones of the middle ear - malleus, incus, stapes

  • d) internal acoustic meatus - CN VII and VIII

  • e) Jugular foramen - CN IX, X, XI, internal jugular v.

Occipital Bone

  • Lambdoid Suture

  • Foramen magnum - SC, CN XI, Vertebral aa., meninges

  • Occipital condyles

  • Hypoglossal canal - CN XII

  • Condyloid canal - emissary veins

  • External occipital protuberance - inion

  • Nuchal lines

  • Clivus - from dorsum sellae to foramen magnum

  • Pharyngeal Tubercle

  • Groove for the Transverse Sinus

Sphenoid Bone - the wedge

  • Greater wing

  • Groove for the middle meningeal artery

  • Lesser wing

  • Anterior clinoid ( = to resemble 4 poster bed) process

  • Body

  • sphenoidal sinus - pernasal sinus

  • jugum or yoke, connects the lesser wings

  • Chiasmatic groove

  • Groove for the internal Carotid a.

  • Pterygoid Plates - lateral wall of nasal cavity

  • Optic canal - CN II

  • Superior Orbital Fissure - CN III, IV, VI and V1 (ophthalmic division of CN V)

  • Foramen Rotundum - V2 - maxillary div.

  • Foramen Ovale - V3 - mandibular div.

  • Foramen Spinosum - middle meningeal a.

13 bones of the skull that do not touch the sphenoid


2 nasal, 2 lacrimal, 6 ear bones, 2 inferior nasal conchae, 1 mandible

Ethmoid Bone

  • Perpendicular plate

  • Ethmoidal air cells - ethmoid sinus

  • Crista Galli - anterior attachment for falx cerebri

  • Superior and Middle Nasal Conchae - AKA turbinates

  • Cribriform Plate - CN I

Facial Bones

p. 149 - 152

Maxilla

  • Alveolar Process - area around alveolus

  • Palatine Process - Horizontal Plate - Hard Palate

  • Median Palatine Suture

  • Incisive Foramen - Nasopalatine nerve

  • Infraorbital Foramen - branch of V2

  • Maxillary Sinus

  • Frontal Process

  • Zygomatic Process

  • Intermaxillary suture

  • Inferior Orbital Fissure - V2

Palatine Bones

  • Horizontal Plate - posterior 1/3 of hard palate

  • Greater Palatine Foramen

  • Lesser Palatine Foramen

Zygomatic Bones

  • Temporal Process

  • Zygomaticofacial Foramen - Zygomatic n.

Lacrimal Bones

  • Lacrimal Sulcus

  • Nasolacrimal Canal

Facial bones, cont.

  • Nasal Bones

  • Internasal Suture

  • Inferior Nasal Conchae

  • Vomer Bone

  • Inferior portion of the nasal septum

  • Does not touch the occipital bone

Mandible

  • Jawbone - to chew - only movable bone in the skull

  • Body

  • symphysis menti - fuses at 1-2 years of age

  • mental (chin) protuberance

  • mental tubercle

  • mental foramen - mental nerve - branch of V3

  • Angle of the mandible

  • Ramus

  • condylar process

  • head

  • neck

  • pterygoid fossa

Hyoid Bone

  • Body

  • Greater Cornu (Horn)

  • Lesser Cornu - stylohyoid ligament

Bones Which Form the Orbit

  • Frontal Bone

  • Ethmoid Bone

  • Sphenoid Bone

  • Maxillary Bone

  • Lacrimal Bone

  • Zygomatic bone

  • Palatine Bone

Auditory Ossicles

  • Three small paired bones within the middle ear cavity of the petrous portion of the temporal bone

  • malleus - hammer - touches the tympanic membrane

  • incus - anvil

  • stapes - stirrup

Bones Which Enclose the Nasal Cavity

  • Ethmoid Bone

  • Frontal Bone

  • Maxilla

  • Palatine Bone

  • Nasal Bone

Bones which do not touch the sphenoid bone

  • There are 13 of them and they are………..

  • Hint - they are all paired except one (this list does not include the hyoid bone)


2 nasal, 2 lacrimal, 6 ear bones, 2 inferior nasal conchae, 1 mandible

Holes in the Skull

  • Supraorbital foramen - supraorbital nerve

  • Cribriform plate - Olfactory nerve (CN I)

  • Optic canal - Optic nerve (CN II)

  • Superior orbital fissure - CN III, IV, VI and V1

  • Foramen rotundum - Maxillary nerve (V2)

  • Foramen ovale - Mandibular nerve (V3)

  • Foramen spinosum - middle meningeal vessels

  • Foramen lacerum - loop of internal carotid artery

  • Carotid canal - internal carotid artery

  • Internal acoustic meatus - CN VII and CN VIII

  • Stylomastoid foramen - CN VII

  • Jugular foramen - CN IX, X and XI, and sigmoid sinus

  • Hypoglossal canal - CN XII

  • Foramen magnum - Spinal cord, meninges, vertebral arteries, spinal roots of CN XI

  • Greater palatine - greater palatine nerve

  • Incisive foramen - nasopalatine nerve

  • Inferior orbital fissure - maxillary div. of CN V

  • Mandibular foramen - inferior alveolar nerve

  • Mental foramen - mental nerve

  • Nasolacrimal duct - nasolacrimal (tear) duct

  • Zygomaticofacial foramen - zygomaticofacial n.

The Vertebral Column

p. 153 - 159

The Vertebral Column

  • Functions

  • Support and Weight Bearing

  • Provide attachments for muscles

  • Protection of Spinal Cord

  • Permit passage of spinal nerves

  • Motion

  • Shock absorption

Human Vertebral Formula

  • C7, T12, L5, S5, Cy 3-6

  • Spinal Curves

  • Primary Curves - present at birth - kyphotic - posterior curves - thoracic and sacral

  • Secondary Curves - develop at 3 months of age and as baby begins to stand erect - Lordotic - anterior curves - cervical and lumbar

A typical vertebra looks like the other ones in that group

  • Body - weight bearing portion

  • Neural Arch = 2 pedicles + 2 lamina

  • pedicles

  • lamina

  • vertebral notches

  • Intervertebral foramen - ovoid holes formed by the superior vertebral notch of one vertebra and the inferior vertebral notch of the superior vertebra.

  • Flexion verses extension

  • First pair between C2 and C3, and last one between L5 and S1

  • Vertebral foramen - neural ring

  • vertebral canal - neural canal

  • Boundaries

  • posterior portion of the vertebral body

  • vertebral arch

  • Shape

  • cervical, lumbar and sacral regions - triangular

  • thoracic region - circular, smallest

  • Transverse process - from lamina-pedicle junction

  • Superior and Inferior Articular processes

  • Articular facets

Joints of the Spine

  • Zygapophyseal Joint - synovial, multiaxial, plane,

gliding

  • Intervertebral Joint - symphysis, amphiarthrotic

  • IVD - intervertebral disc

  • 23 in total - first one between C2 and C3, last one L5 and S1

  • Function

  • shock absorption
  • attach vertebral bodies together
  • form secondary curves to the vertebral column
  • form anterior wall of the IVF ( intervertebral foramen)
  • Components - nucleus pulposus and annulus fibrosus

Cervical Vertebrae

p. 156 - 157

The Atlas, C1

  • Lateral mass - no body

  • Superior and Inferior Articular processes

  • Anterior Arch

  • anterior tubercle

  • articular facet for the dens

  • Transverse process

  • transverse foramen

  • costotransverse bar - intertubercular bar

  • anterior and posterior tubercles

  • Posterior Arch

  • groove for the vertebral artery

  • posterior tubercle

Axis, C2, Epistropheus

  • Odontoid process - dens

  • Anterior Articular Facet for the Atlas

  • Posterior Articular Facet for the Transverse Ligament of the Atlas

  • attachments for the alar ligaments on lateral aspects

  • Lateral Mass

  • Body - lip on anterior surface that overlaps superior surface of the body of C3

  • Bifid Spinous process - can palpate 2 inches below the EOP

Facts about Cervical Vertebrae

  • Typical Cervical Vertebrae - C3,4,5,6

  • Bifid Spinous process

  • Transverse foramen

  • Atypical Cervical Vertebrae - C1,2,7

  • First IVF - between C2 and C3

  • First IVD - between C2 and C3

Facts about Cervical Vertebrae

  • Uncinate process

  • hook shaped process on the lateral borders of the superior surface of the bodies of C3-T1

  • prevents posterior linear movement (translation) of the vertebral bodies and limits lateral flexion

C7

  • Vertebral Prominens

  • transverse processes do not posses a costotransverse bar

  • the vertebral artery does not go through the transverse foramen, but the vein does

  • no anterior lip to overlap T1

  • all mammals have 7 cervical vertebrae with 3 exceptions: duck billed platybus, 3 toed sloth, sea manatec

Thoracic Vertebrae

  • Also called Dorsal vertebrae

  • Humans have 12; 2-8 are typical

  • Spinous processes are directed inferiorly

  • Costal Facets - where ribs articulate, most have 3 on each side

  • Surfaces of the articular process are aligned on a frontal plane

  • T1, 9, 10, 11 and 12 are atypical

  • All have transverse costal facets except T11 and T12

  • Bodies have whole facet of 1/2 facet called a demifacet

  • T1 has a whole superior facet and an inferior demifacet and articulates with the first and second rib respectively

  • T2-T8 have 2 demifacets on each side of their bodies.

  • T9 has a single superior demifacet on each side

  • T10, T11 and T12 have whole facets on either side of their bodies. Each articulate with only one pair of ribs

Atypical thoracic vertebrae

  • T1 - articulates with rib 1 and 2

  • T9 - may have no demifacets and articulate with rib 9, or it may have superior and inferior demifacets and articulate with 2 ribs

  • T10 - has only a full pair of facets, rib 10

  • T11 - has only a full pair of facets, no transverse costal facets, short spinous process, articulates with rib 11

  • T12 - no transverse costal facets, articulates with rib 12, inferior articular facets face laterally

Lumbar Vertebrae

  • Mamillary processes - on superior facets

  • Accessory processes - on inferior base of TP

  • The surfaces of the articular facets are oblique to a sagittal plane - superior facets are concave and face posteromedial, inferior facets are convex and face anterolateral

  • L5 - largest circumference but not as thick as other lumbars, atypical as it has a wedge shaped body (anterior portion of body is of greater height than the posterior region

The Sacrum

  • Auricular surface

  • Sacroiliac joint

  • Median Sacral Crest

  • Anterior and Posterior Sacral Foramina

  • Sacral Canal

  • Superior articular process

  • Sacral Tuberosity

  • Transverse lines

  • Sacral Promontory

  • Lateral masses

Ligaments of the Spine

  • Anterior Longitudinal Ligament

  • anterior aspect of vertebral bodies and IVD

  • axis to first sacral segment

  • Posterior Longitudinal Ligament

  • attaches axis (continuous with the Tectorial membrane) to the first sacral segment

  • inside of the neural canal

  • attaches body to body and IVD’s

  • Interspinous Ligament

  • connects adjacent spinous processes

  • Supraspinous Ligament

  • attach the tips of the spinous processes, C7 to S1

  • Ligamentum Nuchae

  • superior continuation of the supraspinous ligament

  • triangular in shape

  • attaches to the EOP and the median nuchal line, posterior tubercle of the atlas, and spinous processes of the cervical vertebrae

  • Ligamentum Flavum

  • connects adjacent lamina, one on each side, elastic lig.

  • Ligamentum Flavum

- connects adjacent lamina, one on each side, elastic ligament

The Rib Cage

  • Sternum

  • Manubrium

  • Jugular notch

  • clavicular notch

  • costal notch

  • manubriosternal joint - sternal angle, Angle of Louis

  • Body of the Sternum

  • Costal notches

  • Xiphoid Process

  • Costal Margin - fusion of cartilage of ribs 8,9,10

  • Costal Angle - formed by the 2 costal margins

Sternum

  • Manubrium

  • Jugular notch

  • Clavicular notch

  • Costal notch

  • Manubriosternal joint

  • Body of the Sternum

  • Xiphoid Process

Ribs

  • 12 pairs of ribs

  • Ribs 1 thru 7 - Vertebrosternal (True) ribs

  • Ribs 8 thru 10 - Vertebrocondral (False) ribs

  • Ribs 11 ans 12 - Floating ribs

  • Components of a typical rib

  • Head Body

  • Tubercle Costal groove

  • Neck Intercostal space

  • Angle Costochondral joint

The Appendicular Skeleton

CH. 7, p. 169 - 188

The Pectoral Girdle

p. 169 - 172

The Clavicle - Collar Bone

  • Acromial Extremity - lateral end

  • Conoid Tubercle - coracoclavicular ligament

  • Sternal Extremity

  • Costal Tuberosity - costoclavicular ligament

  • Groove for the Subclavius muscle

The Scapula

  • Spine of the scapula

  • acromion - lateral end of spine

  • Fossae of the Scapula

  • supraspinous fossa - supraspinatus m.

  • infraspinous fossa - infraspinatus m.

  • subscapular fossa

  • Glenoid cavity

  • supraglenoid tubercle - long head of biceps brachii m.

  • infraglenoid tubercle - long head of triceps brachii m.

  • Coracoid process - 3 muscles attach here

The Scapula, cont.

  • Margins (borders) of the scapula

  • lateral border (axillary margin)

  • medial border (vertebral margin)

  • superior border

  • suprascapular notch - scapular notch - suprascapular nerve

  • Angles of the Scapula

  • inferior angle

  • medial angle

  • superior angle

  • Neck

The Humerus

  • Head

  • Anatomic neck vs. surgical neck

  • Greater tubercle

  • Lesser Tubercle

  • Intertubercular groove

  • Deltoid Tuberosity

  • Radial groove - spiral groove - musculospiral groove - radial nerve

  • Medial epicondyle - flexors of carpus and digits

The Humerus, cont.

  • Lateral epicondyle - extensor muscles of the carpus and digits

  • Medial and lateral supracondylar crests

  • Trochlea

  • Capitulum

  • Coronoid fossa

  • Olecranon fossa

The Ulna

  • Olecranon process

  • Semilunar notch - trochlear notch

  • Coronoid process

  • Ulnar tuberosity

  • Radial notch

  • Styloid process

  • Interosseous margin

  • Posterior border of ulna

The Radius

  • Head

  • Radial tuberosity

  • Styloid process

  • Ulnar notch

  • Grooves on the posterior surface

  • groove for ECRL and ECRB mm.

  • dorsal tubercle

  • groove for the Ex Pollicis Longus m.

  • groove for the Ex Dig. And Ex. Indicis mm.

The Carpus

  • Proximal Row of Carpal Bones - medial to lateral

  • Pisiform - sesamoid bone in the tendon of FCU m.

  • Triquetral - triangular bone

  • Lunate - articulates with radius

  • Scaphoid bone - navicular bone, articulates with radius

  • Distal Row - medial to lateral

  • Hamate bone - hamulus

  • Capitate - Os Magnum

  • Trapezoid - Lesser multangular

  • Trapezium - Greater multangular

Metacarpal Bones and Phalanges

  • Metacarpal bones

  • Base

  • Body

  • Head

  • Phalanges

The Pelvic Girdle

  • Formed by two Ossa Coxae - hip bones

  • Greater pelvis (false) - superior to pelvic brim

  • Lesser (true) pelvis - inferior to brim of pelvis

  • Pelvic Brim

  • Pelvic Inlet

Bones of the Pelvis

p. 177 - 180

Ilium

  • External surface

  • Iliac crest

  • anterior superior iliac spine and anterior inferior iliac spine

  • posterior superior iliac spine and posterior inferior iliac spine

  • Gluteal Lines

  • Iliac Fossa

  • Greater Sciatic Notch

  • Auricular Surface for the sacrum

  • Iliac tuberosity

  • Inguinal ligament - pubic tubercle to ASIS

Ischium

  • Spine of the Ischium

  • Ischiatic tuberosity

  • Lesser Sciatic Notch

  • Body

  • Ramus of the Ischium

Pubis

  • Superior Pubic Ramus

  • pubic tubercle

  • pecten pubis

  • obturator groove

  • Inferior Pubic Ramus

  • Symphysis

The Pelvis, cont.

  • Obturator Foramen

  • Acetabulum

  • acetabular notch

  • acetabular fossa

  • lunate surface

  • Sex related differences in the pelvis

The Femur

  • Head

  • fovea capitis

  • Neck

  • Greater and lesser trochanter

  • Shaft

  • Linea aspera

  • Gluteal tuberosity - third trochanter

  • Epicondyles

  • Adductor tubercle

  • Condyles

  • Intercondylar fossa

  • Popliteal fossa

  • Patellar surface

The Tibia

  • Medial Condyle

  • Lateral Condyle

  • Gerdy’s tubercle - insertion of the iliotibial tract

  • Tibial Plateau

  • Intercondylar eminence

  • Medial and lateral intercondylar tubercle

  • Tibial Tuberosity

  • Shaft

  • Interosseous crest

  • Medial Malleolus

  • Inferior Articular surface

  • Fibular notch

The Fibula

  • Head

  • Interosseous border

  • Lateral Malleolus

The Tarsal Bones

  • Talus

  • posterior process

  • groove for the FHL m.

  • medial and lateral tubercles

  • Calcaneus

  • tuberosity

  • sustentaculum tali

  • groove for the FHL m.

  • Navicular

  • Cuboid - groove for the peroneus longus m.

  • Cuneiform bones

Metatarsals and Phalanges

  • Metatarsals

  • base, body, head

  • Mt 5 has a tuberosity on its base

  • Phalanges

  • proximal, middle and distal

  • Hallux has only two phalanges

Arches of the Foot

  • Longitudinal Arch

  • medial portion is more elevated than lateral portion. The talus is the keystone of the medial portion and the cuboid is keystone for the lateral portion.

  • Transverse Arch

  • extends across the width of the foot. Formed by the calcaneus, navicular, cuboid and all 5 Mt’s.




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