It was very dark as Carol walked home from the library. She was thinking about tomorrow’s test when she heard heavy breathing then felt a strong hand on her shoulder. She turned and stared into the terrifying eyes of a huge man holding a chain saw. Without thinking, she swung her book bag with all of her might, hit the enormous man in this stomach, knocked out his breath, and saw him double over. Carol ran home faster than she had ever run before. Her roommate couldn’t believe that 5’1”, 98-pound Carol had the strength to knock out the man’s breath and speed on home. When Carol first got home, her heart was pounding, her breathing was rapid, her nerves were on edge, she was sweating, and her mouth was dry. It was not until several hours later that Carol had calmed down enough to go to sleep.
Which part of Carol’s nervous system gave her the strength to knock out the man’s breath and run home faster than the wind? Sympathetic
Which part of Carol’s nervous system helped calm down her body? Parasympathetic
It was Saturday night and Mark had drunk too many beers. He was standing on the second floor balcony, loudly boasting that he was going to do a swan dive into the swimming pool. Everyone told him not to dive because he was too drunk and the pool was too shallow. Mark wouldn’t listen because he wanted to show off to the new coed. Shouting, “Look at me,” he jumped off the balcony and dove into the pool. He struck his head on the bottom and broke his neck. Although he survived the accident, Mark cannot move any parts of his body or feel any sensations from his shoulders down. However, all of other sensory and motor functions from the shoulders up are completely normal.
Why doesn’t Mark have any sensations below his shoulders? Spinal cord broken at the place where the nerves would enter for movement.
Why can’t Mark move any of his muscles below his shoulders? Messages from the somatic nervous system can’t transmit signals b/c the spinal cord is broken.
It was Friday the 13th and Janice was being especially careful as she walked down a busy downtown street. While she was stepping out on the street to avoid a construction ladder, leaping over a large crack in the pavement and shielding her eyes from the sun, she was hit by a city bus. The paramedics arrived to find Janice unconscious and not breathing. They immediately gave her CPR and tried mouth to mouth resuscitation, but Janice did not start breathing. The paramedic believed she damaged a portion of her brain and that was the reason she stopped breathing.
Which part of Janice’s brain damaged? Medulla
John is the kind of person who must have at least eight hours of sleep every night. If he doesn’t get his eight hours, he is cranky, irritable, and a pain. However, during the last month, something unusual has happened to John. He has gone from this usual eight hours a night to only three hours a night. Although he now has more time for work and play, he became worried about sleeping only three hours when his friends asked him, “What’s wrong with you?” John thought it might be some hidden psychological problem, so he went to a therapist, but that didn’t help. Next, John went to his family doctor who prescribed sleeping pills, but that didn’t help either. Finally, John went to a neurologist who did a brain scan. The neurologist told John that he has a brain tumor. The tumor is affecting a part of the brain involved in the regulation of sleep.
Which part of John’s brain is being affected by the brain tumor? Pons
There is a tiny bug that lives under beds and comes out at night when a person is sound asleep. The bug crawls into the person’s ear and keeps on going until it reaches the brain. Very quietly so as not to wake the person, the bug begins to eat away its favorite part of the person’s brain. The next morning, as the person gets up, he or she walks to the bathroom in a very clumsy way. The person has no trouble holding the toothbrush but has great difficulty making smooth, circular brushing strokes. At lunch time, the person has no trouble holding a quarter but has great trouble making the fine movements needed to put the quarter into the vending machine’s slot. Throughout the day, the person has no trouble starting movements but has difficulty making smooth movements and walks as if drunk.
Which part of the brain did the bug eat away? Cerebellum
At eight o’clock on a Saturday night in Las Vegas, Bruno was waiting in the big hall and heard the crowd cheer when his name was announced. He walked down the aisle, climbed into the ring, and raised his gloved hands to greet the crowd. For about two hours of his time and effort, Bruno was going to be paid five million dollars. Bruno had earned a reputation as being fast and strong and was likely to be the next heavyweight boxing champion. In the first two rounds, his punches matched his reputation. In the middle of the third round, Bruno caught an unexpected vicious punch that snapped back his head. Before he knew what hit him, Bruno was lying on the mat, unconscious. Bruno never regained consciousness and remained in a coma. Now many months later, Bruno’s chances of coming out of the coma are very small because one part of his brain was damaged by the knockout punch.
What part of Bruno’s brain did the knockout punch damage? Reticular formation (no arousal)
Although Michelle is usually smiley and happy, some very weird things have happened to her this week that caused her to be a little concerned. On Monday, she was sitting in her art class watching a video where she suddenly could not see and discovered that she was completely blind. On Tuesday, she was practicing the violin when she realized that she couldn’t hear anything and was totally deaf. On Wednesday, not blind and deaf, she was in the cafeteria eating a pizza when she realized that she could not taste anything and had lost all sense of taste. By Thursday, Michelle was getting concerned about her life and what could happen next. She pinched herself to make sure that she was all right but discovered that she couldn’t feel a thing. In four
days, she had lost her ability to see, hear, taste, and touch.
What part of Michelle’s brain was being destroyed by a tumor? Thalamus (not sending messages)
Harry was always one to accept a dare, and this dare seemed like fun. All he had to do was put on a pair of roller skates and skate backward for 100 feet. Harry had not been on skates since he was ten but was confident he could remember. He put on the skates, stood up, and took the first tentative steps. He was moving forward okay, but now came the hard part, turning 180 degrees and skating backward. He tried to twist his body and turn his feet, but everything got tangled up and he fell over backwards with his head hitting the concrete with a loud thud. When Harry slowly sat up, he rubbed his head and wondered why he was seeing stars.
Why was Harry seeing stars? Occipital lobe
9. Sharon has never told anyone her most secret fear. She’s terrified because of the strange things that happen to her. Sometimes she has terrible sexual desires that she can just barely restrain. Sometimes she goes from restaurant to restaurant and eats 4-8 meals a day. Sometimes she goes to a water fountain and drinks water for 15 minutes straight. Sometimes she feels tremendous love for her boyfriend and then, without warning, hates his guts. Sometimes she is happy and then suddenly becomes angry. There is a tumor growing in Sharon’s brain that is causing these strange behaviors.
a. In what part of the brain is the tumor growing? Hypothalamus
Sam was getting off an elevator when he dropped an important folder. As he reached down to pick it up, the elevator doors closed and squeezed his head between them. Ever since the elevator door accident, Sam has not been the same. Fox example, he goes to the same video store several times a week and always hands the clerk the same beat-up note with one work on it, Batman. The clerk always asks, “Have you ever seen Batman before?” Sam always shakes his head and replies, “No, it’s the first time. Is it any good?” So far, Sam has rented Batman seventy-four times and can’t remember ever having seen it.
a. Which part of Sam’s brain was damaged, causing this particular kind of memory problem?
Hippocampus Susie was a very healthy, happy baby except that she was born deaf. She had no other sensory or motor problems. When Susie was 18 years old, a neurosurgeon discussed her having a new but experimental brain operation. During this operation, tiny holes would be drilled into her skull, and then very thin wires would be implanted into certain parts of the brain. The neurosurgeon explained that these tiny wires would be connected to a stimulator. When the stimulator was turned on, an electrical current flowed through the wires and stimulated the brain cells or neurons at the ends of the wires. Susie agreed to have the surgery, which was successful. After a two week recovery period, the wires were connected to the stimulator. The stimulator was turned on and for the first time in her life, Susie heard sounds.
In which lobe were the tiny wires implanted in Susie’s brain? Temporal
In which part of the brain were the tiny wires implanted? Auditory cortex
Each time Dave talked, people laughed and said that he had one of the best comedy routines that they had ever heard. Dave would begin with what seemed like a normal sentence but after a few words he would start taking about an entirely different topic, and after a few more words he would go off on another area. The result was that Dave never seemed to finish a sentence or make any sense but he talked in a fluent manner. For example, Dave might sound like this: “Like, it’s all sunny cause books cost a lot, and there’s no reason for a car, and don’t buy shoes, and I like hamburgers on sale except in bad times.”
Which part of Dave’s brain was damaged and caused him to speak in a fluent way, but not make any sense. Wernicke’s area (comprehension)
Your grandmother had a stroke. A stroke means that one of the arteries in her brain became blocked. As a result, part of her brain was damaged by a lack of blood and oxygen. The stroke affected granny’s ability to speak. The good news is that she will be able to understand most of what is spoken to her. The bad news is that she will not be able to speak in a fluent fashion. Instead, her speech pattern will be very broken. Before the stroke, granny could say, “I need to go to the grocery store and buy several cans of chicken soup and see if the lettuce is fresh.” After the stroke, granny can only say, “Go store, buy soup, see lettuce.”
Which part of Granny’s brain was damaged by the stroke? Broca’s area
In which lobe is this part of the brain located? Frontal