Structure, Composition and Evolution of the South Indian and Sri Lankan Granulite Terrains from Deep Seismic Profiling and other Geophysical and Geological Investigations: a legends initiative

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9. Need for collaboration

International collaboration is called for, both on geological and geophysical grounds. With respect to geology, we have already argued, and here re-emphasize, that the investigation of lithospheric structure and processes in southern India and Sri Lanka cannot be completed with­out consideration of what is exposed in the adjacent parts of Gondwana (e.g., Kröner et al., 2003). Whereas a pan-Gondwana perspective is already extant among geologists, there has been no similar geo­physical perspective, at least insofar as deep seismic studies are involved.

From the geophysical point of view, collaboration in planning of future surveys is virtually de rigueur given the complexity and instrumental requirements of a modern, hyperspectral geo­physical profile. As substantive as is the geophysical acquisition equipment owned by the NGRI, a future experiment would gain immeasurably from the additional resources that could be provided by such countries as the United States, Germany, Australia, U.K. and France. For example, deployment of the multichannel profiling system of NGRI could be integrated with a deployment of portable reflection/refraction instruments (e.g. Texans/REFTEKS) available to U.S. researchers through the IRIS consortium. One candidate survey configuration would have the NGR multichannel system record structural details at near-vertical incidence whereas 800 channels of IRIS “Texans” provide wide aperture for physical property estimation and/or 3D control. Moreover, 3 component IRIS REFTEKS could provide critical shear wave informa­tion from the same source used for simultaneous CMP reflection and wide-angle recording. Alter­natively, deployment of large numbers of recorders could reduce survey costs by providing recording redundancy (e.g. stacking fold) in place of source redundancy.

Modern seismic surveys of the lithosphere go well beyond the simple exercise of running an oil exploration system with longer recording times. In the INDEPTH project, for example, the seismic component involved simultaneous CMP profiling (as used in oil exploration), 3 com­ponent wide-angle recording, and passive broadband teleseismic recording (e.g. Brown et al., 2001). In addition, an extensive program of complementary magnetotelluric surveys and ground mapping was carried out. Such interdisciplinary approaches require careful, long-term planning and coordination of instrumentation pools and personnel.

Another aspect of the collaboration is the desirability of having different kinds of geophysical surveys, as well as additional geological observations, collected along the same route. The integration of seismic and magnetotelluric methods, for example, has been particularly fruitful in recent international lithospheric surveys. (e.g. Nelson et al., 2002).

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Figure Captions
Fig. 1. SNORCLE deep reflection profile in northwestern Canadian shield. After Cook et al., 1998.
Fig. 2. Global deep seismic reflection programs.
Fig. 3. (top) Deep Seismic reflection techniques. (bottom) Integration of deep reflection and receiver function imaging along SNORCLE transect in NW Canadian shield (After Bostock, 1998.
Fig. 4. Gondwanaland reconstruction. After Lawver et al. (1999).
Fig. 5. The East African Orogen. After Stern (1994).
Fig. 6. Relative sizes of the Gondwanaland fragments.
Fig. 7. Geologic terranes of southern India. From Geological Excursion Guide; Tectonics and evolution of the Precambrian Southern Granulite Terrain, India and Gonwanian Correlations.
Fig. 8. Topography of southern India.
Fig. 9. Magnetic anomaly map of southern India.

Fig. 10. Geological reconstruction of Gondawanaland. After Kroener et al., (2003).

Fig. 11. Geology of Sri Lanka (Courtesy of W. Kehelpanala).
Fig. 12. DSS and deep reflection profiles in India. From Reddy and Rao (2002).
Fig. 13. Portion of seismic reflection data (top), line drawing (middle) and interpretation of Aravelli deep seismic transect. (after Tewari et al., 1998’ Tewari and Rao, 2003).
Fig. 14. Line drawing (top) and interpretation of coincident reflection/wide-angle seismic transect across the Central Indian Suture (Reddy et al., 2000)
Fig. 15. The Kuppam-Palani geotransect (Reddy et al., 2003).
Fig. 16. Sample of seismic reflection data from Kuppam-Palani geotransect (Reddy et al., 2003).
Fig. 17. Seismic stations used for passive seismic studies of lithospheric structure. Circles indicate permanent stations; triangles indicate temporary deployments of broadband instruments. After Kumar et al. (2001).
Fig. 18. Proposed seismic deployments for detailing lithospheric structure in southern India and Sri Lanka.

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