Reading guide 11-2 Applying Mendel’s Principle Probability and Punnett Squares What is probability?



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Reading guide 11-2 – Applying Mendel’s Principle



Probability and Punnett Squares

1. What is probability?



2. In a parent pea plant with the allele pair Gg, what is the probability that one gamete will contain the G allele?

3. Complete the graphic organizer to define the characteristics of homozygous and heterozygous genotypes and phenotypes. Use the gene for pea flower color (P – purple, p – white)





Homozygous

Heterozygous

Genotype







Phenotype







4. The dominant allele for smooth pod shape in peas is S. The recessive allele for constricted pod shape is s. In the Punnett square, show the result of crossing two heterozygous parents (Ss). Write the genotype and the phenotype of each type of offspring in the space provided.




S

s

S

Genotype:

Phenotype:



Genotype:

Phenotype:



s

Genotype:

Phenotype:



Genotype:

Phenotype:




For Questions 5–9, refer to the Punnett square above.

5. What is the probability of a heterozygous offspring? Explain your answer.

6. What is the probability of a homozygous offspring? Explain.
7. What is the probability of a homozygous recessive offspring?
8. What is the probability of a smooth phenotype?
9. What is the probability of a homozygous recessive individual (ss) producing a gamete with a dominant allele (S)? Explain.

Independent Assortment

10. State the principle of independent assortment below.
11. Using the principle of independent assortment, complete the Punnett square to show the results of an F1 cross between two individuals heterozygous for both pod color (C = green and c = yellow) and pod shape (S = smooth and s + constricted). The gametes and some of the genotypes of the F2 offspring are given.




CS

cS

Cs

cs

CS

CCSS










cS










ccSs

Cs







CCss




cs




ccSs







For Questions 12–15, refer to the Punnett square above.

12. Which genotype belongs to an offspring that is homozygous recessive for both traits? What is the probability of that genotype?



13. What is the phenotype of an individual heterozygous for both traits?



Summary of Mendel’s Principles

For Questions 16–20, complete each statement by writing the correct word or words

16. The units that determine the inheritance of biological characteristics are .

17. A form of a gene is a(n) .

18. If two or more forms of a gene exist, some may be dominant and others may be .

19. The offspring of most sexually reproducing organisms have two copies of each gene. One came from each .

20. Alleles from different genes usually independently from each other when gametes form.

For Questions 21–25, match the term with its description.

21. Determine traits A. parents

22. Can be two of these in one gene B. alleles

23. Allele that is expressed C. dominant

24. Where genes come from D. segregate

25. What genes do during gamete formation E. genes
26. Explain the importance of Thomas Hunt Morgan’s experiments with fruit flies. Why was his work an important addition to Mendel’s research?





27. Four sisters begin attending your school. One has brown hair and brown eyes. Another has brown hair and blue eyes. The third also has blue eyes, but blond hair. The fourth has blond hair, too, but she has brown eyes. Explain how the principle of independent segregation accounts for these sisters having four different phenotypes for two traits.


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