Plautus and Terence adopted Greek New Comedy of Menander
Horace claimed to adapt Greek meters to Latin
Lucretius adapted Epicureanism to Rome
Vergil's Eclogues virtually translated Theocritus, his Georgics adapted
Theocritus etc., his Aeneid paralleled Homer's works
smaller audience than classical Greek, more serious than Hellenism
"Latin literature is a borrowed creature."
scriba: poet or clerk
Roman character and literature spread throughout Europe.
Rome looked west; hence, Greek through Etruscan from very early Rome.
influence of Cumae: temple of Apollo, sibylline prophecies
Etruscan alphabet (variation of Greek), aristocracy, lucumones
Our version of Roman history is from late 3rd century BC: parallels with Greeks,
myths, tradition of 753 BC and seven kings, Roman expansion and
conflict of the orders (patricians vs plebeians), early heroes idealized
because of conflict with Carthage
Aeneid magnifies an institution (Rome), not an individual hero (except insofar as
Aeneas represents Rome or Roman virtues)
Roman heroes strut on their stage: epic, history, drama; gravitas, dignitas, austeritas,
integritas, fortitudo, pietas, following mos maiorum;
linguistic equivalent: responsibility, formalism, finish, formulae, sententiae
Festus: Scriba proprio nomine antiqui et librarios et poetas vocabant.
(Ancients properly by name of scribe labeled both 'bookster' and poet.)
Cato: Poeticae artis honos non erat. (Poetic skill had no honor.)
Polybius: Can anyone be so indifferent or idle as not to care by what means and under what kind of polity almost the entire inhabited world was conquered and brought under the dominion of the single city of Rome, and that within a period of not quite 53 years?
Ennius: Moribus antiquis res stat Romana virtusque.(Roman power rests on ancient habits.)
Livy: Go and proclaim to the Romans that it is the will of heaven that my Rome shall be the capital of the world...They must know and they must transmit to posterity the knowledge that no human resources can avail against Roman arms.
Vergil: Others, I doubt not, shall beat out the breathing bronze with softer lines, shall from marble draw forth the features of life, shall plead their causes better, with the rod shall trace the paths of heaven and tell the rising of the stars: remember thou, O Roman, to tell the nations of thy sway: these shall be thine arts: to crown peace with law, to spare the humbled, and to tame in war the proud.
(Aeneid VI: 847...)
Ammianus Marcellinus: At the time when Rome first began to rise into a position of worldwide splendor, destined to live so long as men shall exist, in order that she might grow into a towering stature, Virtue and Fortune, normally at variance, formed a pact of eternal peace.
Books and readers in the ancient world: CambridgeHistoryofClassicalLiterature: II 1)
oral culture: reading aloud (until c. 380 AD)
few Latin papyri survive
Ennius' decision to use dactylic hexamemter formally united Latin and Greek cultures.
Did a Greco-Roman culture exist?
Juvenal/Lucian: mutual hatred of Romans/Greeks
vs. Catullus/Cicero: assume Roman audience knew Greek
Marrou: Latin poetry came into existence so that teachers might have something to argue.
Cicero and Vergil became contemporary school texts.
**Quintilian: recte loquendi scientiam et poetarum ennarrationes
(the science of speaking rightly and telling poems)
litterator: form preceded sense, drill in letters
grammaticus: praelectio and ennarratio in great detail
Quintilianí's canon was narrowed by 400 AD to Vergil, Trenece, Sallust, Cicero
purpose of rhetoric: less need for real politics, declamation a public spectacle
Seneca the Elder: Suasoria and Controversia
literature of an elite except drama and some oratory; small public trials (recitation)
'who understand the speech of birds and learn more wisdom from another's liver'
Cedo tuum pedem mi, lymphis flavis fulvum ut pulverem
manibus isdem, quibus Ulixi saepe permulsi, abluam
lassitudinemque minuam manuum solitudine. Niptra
Give me your feet, that in yellow water I may wash away the yellow dust with these same hands with which I often soothed Ulysses' and with the softness of my hands let me wash away your weariness.' Accius: 170-86
born at Pisaurum
nephew of Pacuvius
40-50 mythological tragedies
"Possessed by his wild mood and savage spirit Tereus gazed upon her, maddened with burning passion; in his madness he resolves a cursed deed." Tereus
"Though fortune could strip me of kingdom and wealth, it cannot strip me of my virtue." Telephus
Wide awake a man must always be; many are the ambushes laid for the good and bad.
**Oderint dum metuant. (Let them hate so long as they fear.) Atreus
praetextae: Decius, Brutus (banned in 44 BC) more Ennius quotes
Musae quae pedibus magnum pulsatis OlympumAnnales I 1
muses, who with your feet strike great Olympus
Nam populos Italos rem atque poemata nostra cluebunt,
'for my subject and poem shall have renown among the peoples of Italy'
somno leni placidoque revinctus tied in light sleep
visus Homerus adesse poetaHomer the poet seemed to be present
Quom veter occubuit Priamus sub Marte Pelasgo aged Priam struck down under war
transnavit cita per teneras caliginis auras quickly crossed through slender mist
Est locus, Hesperiam quam mortales perhibebanta place mortals called Western land
O gnata, tibi sunt ante ferendae O daughter, first you must endure woes;
aerumnae, post ex fluvio fortuna resistet. then your fortune will rise (?) from a river
Teque pater Tiberine tuo cum flumine sancto And you father Tiber with holy flood
Haec ecfatus, ibique latrones dicta facessunt. By his command the robbers acted.
Iuno Vesta Minerva Ceres Diana Venus Mars
Mercurius Iovis Neptunus Vulcanus Apollo
Unus erit quem tu tolles in caerula caeli templa.One you will raise to the sky.
Iuppiter, ut muro fretus magis quamde manus vi! relies on wall not strength
Nec pol homo quisquam faciet impune animatas You or other will be punished;
hoc nec tu; nam mi calido dabis sanguine poenas. You will pay with hot blood.
O Tite tute Tati tibi tanta tyranni tulisti!
Romulus in caelo cum dis genitalibus aevum degit. Romulus lives with gods in sky.
Mensas constituit idemque ancilia. He established tables and shields.
At tuba terribili sonitu taratantara dixit.
Tarquinio dedit imperium simul et sola regni. gave Tarquin power and throne
Inicit inritatus, tenet occasus, iuvat res. single combat?
Aio te Aiacida Romanos vincere posse. ambiguous prophecy
Navus repertus homo, Graio patre Graius homo, rex. navus: active
Nec mi aurum posco nec mi pretium dederitis I demand neither gold nor reward
nec cauponantes bellum sed belligerantes not hesitating but fighting
ferro non auro vitam cernamus utrique. by sword not gold let us contest.
Poeni suos soliti dis sacrificare puellosPunic sacrificed sons to gods
Certare abnueo; metuo legionibus labem. I choose not to fight; I fear ruin.
Hostem qui feriet mihi erit Karthaginiensis, Whoever strikes at Rome will be a
quisquis erit; quoiatis siet. Carthaginian, whoever he may be.
Multa dies in bello conficit unus... One day causes much in war...
et rursus multae fortunae forte recumbunt; again by chance fortune falls;
haudquaquam quemquam semper fortuna secuta est.Fortune is not eternal.
Africa terribili tremit horrida terra tumultu. Africatrembleswithhorridsound.
Insece, Musa, manu Romanorum induperator Muse, tell what each leader did
quod quisque in bello gessit cum rege Philippo. in war with King Philip.
Unus homo nobis cunctando restituit rem.One man saved country by delay.
Noenum rumores ponebat ante salutem; put safety before rumor, glory now shines
ergo postque magisque viri nunc gloria claret.
Nunc est ille dies quom gloria maxima sese Now is the day when great glory
nobis ostendat, si vivimus sive morimur. shows tous, if we live or die
aedificant nomen, summa nituntur opum vi. they build a name, they strive with the greatest effort.
.Moribus antiquis res stat Romana virisque.State stands on old manners and power.
Nec metus ulla tenet; freti virtute quiescunt. With no fear they rest in strength.
Qui vicit non est victor nisi victus fatetur. victor only if vanquished concedes
Deque tetondit agros laetos atque oppida cepit. he strpped fields and took cities
Omnes mortales sese laudarier optant. All mortals wish to be praised.
(all above from Annales)
Serva cives, defende hostes, cum potes defendere. Achilles
Save your men, drive back (!) the enemy, when you can.
Quod est ante pedes nemo spectat, caeli scrutantur plagas. No one looks down, all scan sky for plague. Multis sum modis circumventus, morbo exilio atque inopia; Alcmaeon
tum pavor sapientiam omnem mi exanimato expectorat;
mater terribilem minatur vitae cruciatum et necem,
quae nemo est tam firmo ingenio et tanta confidentia
quin refugiat timido sanguen atque exalbescat metu.
I am surrounded by many woes-- by disease, exile, and want; fear drives me out of my wits; mother threatens me with horrid torture and death, horrors. No one so firm and trusty can withstand this, but his blood would not flee him in his fright and he himself not urn white with fear. Mater gravida parere se ardentem facem Alexander
visa est in somnis Hecuba, quo facto pater
rex ipse Priamus somnio mentis metu
perculsus, curis sumptus suspirantibus
exsacrificababt hostilis balantibus.
My pregnant mother Hecuba in a dream seemed to give birth to a burning
torch; my father King Priam himself, fearing the dream,
crushed by sighing cares, sacrificed bleating victims.
**O pater, O patria, O Priami domus! Andromache
Lapideo sunt corde multi quos non miseret neminis. Erechtheus
many stone-hearted with pity for no one nisi patrem materno sanguine exanclando ulciscerem. Eumenides
'unless by spilling out my mother's blood my father I avenged' Aes sonit franguntur hastae terra sudat sanguine. Hector
Bronze resounds, spears break, Earth sweats with blood."
Melius est virtute ius, nam saepe virtutem mali
nanciscuntur; ius atque aecum se a malis spernit procul.
"A better thing than bravery is justice;
For bravery the wicked often attain;
But justice and fair play do spurn themselves
Far from the wicked."
Nimium boni est huic cui nihil est mali in diem. a good to suffer no ill
Amicus certus in re incerta cernitur.A friend in need is a friend indeed.
Iuppiter tibi summe tandem male re gesta gratulor. ill deed done, I give you thanks
Ego proiector quod tu peccas? Tu delinquis, ego arguor?I taunted for your wrong?
Pro malefactis Helena redeat, virgo pereat innocens?Helen return, innocent die?
Tua reconcilietur uxor, mea necetur filia? wife OK, daughter die?
Otio qui nescit uti quom otium est, in otio not use leisure rightly,
plus negoti habet quam quom est negotium in negotio... work in leisure
Incerte errat animus, praeter propter vitam vivitur. weaklinglives only for life nam numquam era errans mea domo efferret pedem Medea
would never have left her house
nam ter sub armis malim vitam cernererather fight three times than one birthing
quam semel modo parere.
Salvete optima corpora; good bye sweet ones;
cette manus vestras measque accipite. give me your hands and take mine.
inspice hoc facinus priusquam fiat, prohibessis scelus. see this deed first and prevent it
Sed virum vera virtute vivere animatum addecet Nemea
fortiterque innoxium stare adversum adversarios.
Ea libertas est qui pectus purum et firmum gestitat;
Lies lurking in dim darkness, fraught with guilt."
Tum tu isti crede te atque exerce linguam ut argutarier possis. trust self to him and train tongue to deceive
Ego deum genus est semper dixi et dicam caelitum; Telamon
sed eos non curare opinor quid agat humanum genus.I believe that there are gods but they care not what we do.
Nam si curent, bene bonis sit, male malis; quod nunc abest.
For if they cared, good would gain good, bad bad, which does not happen. Palam muttire plebeio piaculum est.It is dangerous for commoner to speak openly. Telephus
Quem metuunt oderunt, quem quisque odit periisse expetit. unassigned
Whom they fear they hate; whom they hate they wish dead.
Vivam an moriar nulla in me est metus. I don't care whether I live or die.
Aliquot somnia vera sunt sed omnia non necesse est. comedy
Ille est nugator, nil, non nauci homo. a nothing, a nobody comedy
Malo hercle magno suo convivat sine modo! evil to live without restraint Saturae
Resistant occurrunt obstant obstringillant obagitant. They loiter, meet, hinder, hamper, and harrass.