Eye and other orbital contents, frontal area of scalp, frontal & ethmoid paranasal sinuses and parts of the nose.
After it arises it run backward to join the proximal part of Post. Cerebral artery.
Post. Communicating artery
The artery passes along the optic tract and choroid fissure at the medial edge of temporal lobe. It send branches to: optic tract, uncus, amygdala, hippocampus, GP, LGB & ventral part of int. capsule.
Subthalamus, ventral parts of thalamus & rostral parts of midbrain.
It's temporal branches supply: choroid plexus in inf. Horn of lateral ven. and Anastomose (With the post. Choroidal artery).
Ant. Choroidal artery
The larger between the terminal branches of the internal carotid, and the most continuous of the parent. It runs deep in the lateral sulcus, the central arteries arise from its proximal part, entering the base of hemisphere. Also a temporal, frontal and parietal branches emerge from the lateral sulcus supplying ++. It has a vast territory of distribution.
The lt. middle cerebral artery in most people supplies all the areas concerned with language*.
+Internal structures including internal capsule.
++ It also supplies a large cortex and subcortical white matter of Frontal, Parietal and temporal lobes.
Middle Cerebral Artery
The smaller terminal branch of the Carotid , directed medially above the Optic N., the Lt. & Rt. Almost meet at the midline but they're joined by the Ant. Communicating A., just above the connection, there's a VIB**, called medial striate artery (penetrate the Ant. Perforated substance).
The ant. Cerebral ascends in the longitudinal fissure. Pericallosal and callasomarginal is branches, the one continues along the upper surface of CC, and the other with the Cingulate sulcus.
Medial striate artery: ventral part of the head of the Caudate, and adjacent part of Putamen, ant. And genu of int. capsule.
Distal branches: medial part of orbital surface of frontal lobe, including the olfactory bulb & tract.
Anterior Cerebral: medial surfaces of frontal & parietal lobes, along with, the Corpus Callosum, lateral surface of the hemisphere including, Supplementary and cingulate motor area, and dorsal parts of primary motor/somatosensory areas.
Ant. Cerebral Artery
Vertebrobasilar System:see pic.3
Verteblar Artery Branches:
The anterior spinal artery arises from the two vertebral's arteries contribution, the posterior spinal artery arise from either the vertebral itself or the PICA (soon).
The Ant. & Post. run throughout the spinal cord and along with the radicular arteries which reinforce the two arteries with blood.
Rostral segment of cervical cord.
Ant. & Post. Spinal: partly the spinal cord
Largest branch of Vertebral A., it run in irregular course around Medulla and Cerebellum.
It also had branches to the dorsolateral region of the medulla.
Post. Cerebellar hemisphere, inf. Vermis, Central Nuclei of Cerebellum & Choroid Plexus of 4th ventricle.
Dorsolateral region of Medulla.
Posterior Inferior Cerebellar Artery - PICA
Basilar Artery Branches:
A slender twig of the AICA penetrate the upper Medulla and the lower Pons tegmentum.
Cortex and inf. Surface and the white matter beyond of the cerebellum
Anterior Inferior Cerebellar Artery-AICA
Sometimes it arises from the basilar but more frequently from the AICA.
Somewhere in the inner ear.
Paramedian Pontine: Basal part of Pons including, most corticospinal fibers, Pontine nuclei and transverse fibers. Also, medial part of Pontine tegmentum.
Arise close to the terminal bifurcation of the Basilar.
Cortex, white matter and Central Nuclei. Besides, some proximal parts supply sup. Pontine tegmentum, sup. Cerebellar peduncle and inf. Colliculus.
Superior Cerebellar Artery
Arise at the terminal bifurcation of the Basilar.
The terminal branches of post. choroidal anastomose with those of ant. Cerebral within the choroid plexus of lateral Ven..
Peripheral strip on lateral surface. Calcarine branch Vision's cortex
Hippocampal Gyrus along with parts of Hippocampus.
Post. choroidal the choroid plexus of body of lateral Ven. and that of 3rd Ven. the post. paty of thalamus, Fornix, midbrain's tectum
Posterior Cerebral Artery
*The cortical area concerned with language in the temporal & parietal lobe and Broca's expressive speech in inf. Frontal gyrus.
**VIB=Very Important Branch .
Anastomoses between Cortical Arteries:
the anastomoses of the ant., post. and middle cerebral arteries are concealed in sulci. The anasthomotic vessels may sustain other's vessels territory, the cerebral arteries are also connected through an arterioles in the Pia matter.
Anastomoses = השקה, مفاغرة
Circle Of Willis:
Ant. Communicating Ant. Cerebral Internal Carotid (a short segment) Post. Communicating Posterior Cerebral, then and back again…
Through the Communicating arteries, a little blood exchange occurs. The little circle provide alternative ways if some big artery, somehow, occluded. But unfortunately the little anastomoses is not always enough, e.g. elderly people.
For further reading please look up circle of Willis in Barr's, p. 375.
Central Arteries and their distribution:
An arteries that arise from the area of the Circle of Willis as four groups. These thin blood vessels also called, ganglionic, nuclear, striate or thalamic perforating arteries, supply parts of the corpus striatum, internal Capsule, Diencephalon and midbrain.