Interesting info Region supply Origin

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Interesting info

Region supply


Vessel's name

Internal Carotid System: see pic. 1,2

Divide into middle & ant. Cerebral arteries. Could be seen beyond Optic nerve and lateral to the optic chiasm or under the Ant. Perforated substance.


Common carotid artery

Internal carotid artery

It arises from the internal carotid just before it's terminal bifurcation.


Internal carotid artery

Collateral branches

Ant. Arteries-the hypothalamic factors have access to its capillaries, controlling the output of pituitary hormones.

Post. arteries-Post. Neural lobe of pituitary gland.

Post. Communicating arteries that arise from internal carotid

Hypophysial Arteries

The 1st branch of internal carotid after it enters the subarachnoid space, it passes through the optic foramen.

Eye and other orbital contents, frontal area of scalp, frontal & ethmoid paranasal sinuses and parts of the nose.

Internal carotid

Ophthalamic artery

After it arises it run backward to join the proximal part of Post. Cerebral artery.


Internal Carotid

Post. Communicating artery

The artery passes along the optic tract and choroid fissure at the medial edge of temporal lobe. It send branches to: optic tract, uncus, amygdala, hippocampus, GP, LGB & ventral part of int. capsule.

Subthalamus, ventral parts of thalamus & rostral parts of midbrain.

It's temporal branches supply: choroid plexus in inf. Horn of lateral ven. and Anastomose (With the post. Choroidal artery).

Internal carotid

Ant. Choroidal artery

The larger between the terminal branches of the internal carotid, and the most continuous of the parent. It runs deep in the lateral sulcus, the central arteries arise from its proximal part, entering the base of hemisphere. Also a temporal, frontal and parietal branches emerge from the lateral sulcus supplying ++. It has a vast territory of distribution.

The lt. middle cerebral artery in most people supplies all the areas concerned with language*.

+Internal structures including internal capsule.

++ It also supplies a large cortex and subcortical white matter of Frontal, Parietal and temporal lobes.

Internal Carotid

Middle Cerebral Artery

The smaller terminal branch of the Carotid , directed medially above the Optic N., the Lt. & Rt. Almost meet at the midline but they're joined by the Ant. Communicating A., just above the connection, there's a VIB**, called medial striate artery (penetrate the Ant. Perforated substance).

The ant. Cerebral ascends in the longitudinal fissure. Pericallosal and callasomarginal is branches, the one continues along the upper surface of CC, and the other with the Cingulate sulcus.

Medial striate artery: ventral part of the head of the Caudate, and adjacent part of Putamen, ant. And genu of int. capsule.

Distal branches: medial part of orbital surface of frontal lobe, including the olfactory bulb & tract.

Anterior Cerebral: medial surfaces of frontal & parietal lobes, along with, the Corpus Callosum, lateral surface of the hemisphere including, Supplementary and cingulate motor area, and dorsal parts of primary motor/somatosensory areas.

Internal Carotid

Ant. Cerebral Artery

Vertebrobasilar System:see pic.3

Verteblar Artery Branches:

The anterior spinal artery arises from the two vertebral's arteries contribution, the posterior spinal artery arise from either the vertebral itself or the PICA (soon).

The Ant. & Post. run throughout the spinal cord and along with the radicular arteries which reinforce the two arteries with blood.

Rostral segment of cervical cord.

Ant. & Post. Spinal: partly the spinal cord

Vertebral Artery

Spinal Arteries

Largest branch of Vertebral A., it run in irregular course around Medulla and Cerebellum.

It also had branches to the dorsolateral region of the medulla.

Post. Cerebellar hemisphere, inf. Vermis, Central Nuclei of Cerebellum & Choroid Plexus of 4th ventricle.

Dorsolateral region of Medulla.

Vertebral Artery

Posterior Inferior Cerebellar Artery - PICA

Basilar Artery Branches:

A slender twig of the AICA penetrate the upper Medulla and the lower Pons tegmentum.

Cortex and inf. Surface and the white matter beyond of the cerebellum

Basilar artery

Anterior Inferior Cerebellar Artery-AICA

Sometimes it arises from the basilar but more frequently from the AICA.

Somewhere in the inner ear.

AICA/Basilar Artery

Labyrinthine Artery

Nothing interesting

Paramedian Pontine: Basal part of Pons including, most corticospinal fibers, Pontine nuclei and transverse fibers. Also, medial part of Pontine tegmentum.

Cercumferential Pontine: lateral parts of Pons, middle cerebellar peduncle and lateral tegmentum part.

Basilar Artery

Pontine Arteries

Arise close to the terminal bifurcation of the Basilar.

Cortex, white matter and Central Nuclei. Besides, some proximal parts supply sup. Pontine tegmentum, sup. Cerebellar peduncle and inf. Colliculus.

Superior Cerebellar Artery

Arise at the terminal bifurcation of the Basilar.

The terminal branches of post. choroidal anastomose with those of ant. Cerebral within the choroid plexus of lateral Ven..

Peripheral strip on lateral surface. Calcarine branch Vision's cortex

Te,poral branch

Hippocampal Gyrus along with parts of Hippocampus.

Post. choroidal the choroid plexus of body of lateral Ven. and that of 3rd Ven. the post. paty of thalamus, Fornix, midbrain's tectum

Posterior Cerebral Artery

  • *The cortical area concerned with language in the temporal & parietal lobe and Broca's expressive speech in inf. Frontal gyrus.

  • **VIB=Very Important Branch  .

Anastomoses between Cortical Arteries:

the anastomoses of the ant., post. and middle cerebral arteries are concealed in sulci. The anasthomotic vessels may sustain other's vessels territory, the cerebral arteries are also connected through an arterioles in the Pia matter.

Anastomoses = השקה, مفاغرة

Circle Of Willis:

Ant. Communicating  Ant. Cerebral  Internal Carotid (a short segment)  Post. Communicating  Posterior Cerebral, then and back again…

Through the Communicating arteries, a little blood exchange occurs. The little circle provide alternative ways if some big artery, somehow, occluded. But unfortunately the little anastomoses is not always enough, e.g. elderly people.

For further reading please look up circle of Willis in Barr's, p. 375.

Central Arteries and their distribution:

An arteries that arise from the area of the Circle of Willis as four groups. These thin blood vessels also called, ganglionic, nuclear, striate or thalamic perforating arteries, supply parts of the corpus striatum, internal Capsule, Diencephalon and midbrain.




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