History of the Rise of the Huguenots



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History of the Rise of the Huguenots

Volume 2
By Henry Baird


START OF THIS PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK THE RISE OF THE HUGUENOTS


Produced by Sigal Alon, Daniel J. Mount, Taavi Kalju and

the Online Distributed Proofreading Team at

http://www.pgdp.net
Reformated by Dr. Ted Hildebrandt, 2015
Gordon College, Wenham, MA 01984

HISTORY OF THE
RISE OF THE HUGUENOTS.

BY
HENRY M. BAIRD,


PROFESSOR IN THE UNIVERSITY OF THE CITY OF NEW YORK.

IN TWO VOLUMES.


VOL. II.
FROM THE EDICT OF JANUARY (1562), TO THE

DEATH OF CHARLES THE NINTH (1574).

London:

HODDER AND STOUGHTON,



27, PATERNOSTER ROW.

MDCCCLXXX.(1880)


Hazell, Watson, and Viney, Printers, London and Aylesbury.




CONTENTS
OF
VOLUME SECOND.

BOOK II.
CHAPTER XIII.


1562-1563.
Page

THE FIRST CIVIL WAR 3

Unsatisfactory Character of the Edict of January 3

Huguenot Leaders urge its Observance 3

Seditious Sermons 5

Opposition of Parliaments 6

New Conference at St. Germain 7

Defection of Antoine of Navarre, and its Effects 9

He is cheated with Vain Hopes 10

Jeanne d'Albret constant 10

Immense Crowds at Huguenot Preaching 11

The Canons of Sainte-Croix 12

The Guises meet Christopher of Wuertemberg at Saverne 13

Their Lying Assurances 15

The Guises deceive Nobody 17

Throkmorton's Account of the French Court 17

The Massacre of Vassy 19

The Huguenots call for the Punishment of the Murderers 23

The Pretence of Want of Premeditation 24

Louis of Conde appeals to the King 26

Beza's Remonstrance 27

An Anvil that had worn out many Hammers 28

Guise enters Paris 28

The Queen Mother takes Charles to Melun 30

Her Letters imploring Conde's Aid 31

Revolutionary Measures of the Triumvirs 32

Condé retires to Meaux 33
Page
La Noue justifies his Prudence 33

The Huguenot Summons 34

Admiral Coligny's Reluctance to take up Arms 34

Guise and Navarre seize the King and bring him to Paris 36

Montmorency's Exploit at the "Temples" 37

He earns the Title of "Le Capitaine Brulebanc" 37

Conde throws himself into Orleans 38

His "Justification" 39

Stringent Articles of Association 40

The Huguenot Nobles and Cities 41

Can Iconoclasm be repressed? 42

An Uncontrollable Impulse 43

It bursts out at Caen 44

The "Idol" of the Church of Sainte-Croix 45

Massacre of Huguenots at Sens 46

Disorders and War in Provence and Dauphiny 47

William of Orange and his Principality 48

Massacre by Papal Troops from Avignon 49

Merciless Revenge of the Baron des Adrets 50

His Grim Pleasantry at Mornas 51

Atrocities of Blaise de Montluc 51

The Massacre at Toulouse 52

The Centenary celebrated 53

Foreign Alliances sought 54

Queen Elizabeth's Aid invoked 55

Cecil's Urgency and Schemes 56

Divided Sympathies of the English 56

Diplomatic Manoeuvres 57

Conde's Reply to the Pretended "Petition" 59

Third National Synod of the Protestants 61

Interview of Catharine and Conde at Toury 62

The "Loan" of Beaugency 63

Futile Negotiations 64

Spasmodic Efforts in Warfare 65

Huguenot Discipline 66

Severities of the Parisian Parliament 68

Military Successes of the "Triumvirs" at Poitiers and Bourges 71

Help from Queen Elizabeth 73

Siege of Rouen 76

Ferocity of the Norman Parliament 80

Death of Antoine, King of Navarre 81

The English in Havre 84

Conde takes the Field and appears before Paris 85

Dilatory Diplomacy 90

The Battle of Dreux 93

Page
Montmorency and Conde Prisoners 94

Riotous Conduct of the Parisians 96

Orleans Invested 98

Coligny again in Normandy 99

Huguenot Reverses 101

Assassination of Duke Francois de Guise 103

Execution of Poltrot 105

Beza and Coligny accused 106

They vindicate Themselves 106

Estimates of Guise's Character 109

Renee de France at Montargis 110

Deliberations for Peace 113

The "Noblesse" in favor of the Terms--the Ministers against them 114

The Edict of Pacification 115

Remonstrance of the English Ambassador 116

Coligny's Disappointment 116

Results of the First Civil War 118

It prevents France from becoming Huguenot 119

* * * * *

Huguenot Ballads and Songs 120
CHAPTER XIV.

1563-1567.

THE PEACE OF AMBOISE AND THE BAYONNE CONFERENCE 126

Charles demands Havre of the English 126

The Siege 127

How the Peace was received 128

Vexatious Delays in Normandy 129

The Norman Parliament protests and threatens 130

A Rude Rebuff 131

Commissioners to enforce the Edict 132

A Profligate Court alienated from Protestantism 132

Profanity a Test of Catholicity 134

Admiral Coligny accused of Guise's Murder 135

His Defence espoused by the Montmorencies 135

Petition of the Guises 136

The King adjourns the Decision 137

Embarrassment of Catharine 137

Charles's Majority proclaimed 138

The King and the Refractory Parisian Parliament 139

The Pope's Bull against Princely Heretics 141

Proceedings against Cardinal Chatillon 141

The Queen of Navarre cited to Rome 141

Spirited Reply of the French Council 142

Page


Catharine seeks to seduce the Huguenot Leaders 144

Weakness of Conde 145

Recent Growth of Protestantism 146

Milhau-en-Rouergue 147

Montpellier--Bearn 148

Jeanne d'Albret's Reformation 148

Attempt to kidnap her 150

Close of the Council of Trent 152

Cardinal Lorraine's Attempt to secure the Acceptance of its Decrees 154

His Altercation with L'Hospital 155

General Plan for suppressing Heresy 156

"Progress" of Charles and his Court 157

Calumnies against the Huguenots 159

Their Numbers 159

Catharine's New Zeal--Citadels in Protestant Towns 160

Interpretative Declarations infringing upon the Edict 160

Assaults upon Unoffending Huguenots--No Redress 162

Conde appeals to the King 163

Conciliatory Answers to Huguenot Inhabitants of Bordeaux and Nantes 164

Protestants excluded from Judicial Posts 165

Marshal Montmorency checks the Parisian Mob 166

His Encounter with Cardinal Lorraine 166

The Conference at Bayonne 167

What were its Secret Objects? 168

No Plan of Massacre adopted 169

History of the Interview 170

Catharine and Alva 172

Catharine rejects all Plans of Violence 175

Cardinal Granvelle's Testimony 176

Festivities and Pageantry 176

Henry of Bearn an Actor 177

Roman Catholic Confraternities 179

Hints of the Future Plot of the "League" 180

The Siege of Malta and French Civilities to the Sultan 181

Constable Montmorency defends Cardinal Chatillon 182

The Court at Moulins 183

Feigned Reconciliation of the Guises and Coligny 184

L'Hospital's Measure for the Relief of the Protestants 185

Another Altercation between Cardinal Lorraine and the Chancellor 186

Progress of the Reformation at Cateau-Cambresis 187

Insults and Violence 192

Huguenot Pleasantries 192

Alarm of the Protestants 193

Attempts to murder Coligny and Porcien 194

Alva sent to the Netherlands 195

Page


The Swiss Levy 196

Conde and Coligny remonstrate 197

Discredited Assurances of Catharine 198

"The very Name of the Edict employed to destroy the Edict itself" 199

* * * * *

The Huguenot Attempts at Colonization in Florida 199

The First and Second Expeditions (1562, 1564) 199

Third Expedition (1565) 200

Massacre by Menendez 200

Indignation of the French Court 201

Sincere Remonstrances 201

Sanguinary Revenge of De Gourgues 202


CHAPTER XV.

1567-1568.


THE SECOND CIVIL WAR AND THE SHORT PEACE 203

Coligny's Pacific Counsels 203

Rumors of Plots to destroy the Huguenots 203

D'Andelot's Warlike Counsels prevail 204

Cardinal Lorraine to be seized and King Charles liberated 205

The Secret slowly leaks out 206

Flight of the Court to Paris 207

Cardinal Lorraine invites Alva to France 208

Conde at Saint Denis 209

The Huguenot Movement alienates the King 210

Negotiations opened 210

The Huguenots abate their Demands 211

Montmorency the Mouthpiece of Intolerance 211

Insincerity of Alva's Offer of Aid 212

The Battle of St. Denis (Nov. 10, 1567) 213

Constable Montmorency mortally wounded 215

His Character 216

The Protestant Princes of Germany determine to send Aid 217

The Huguenots go to meet it 219

Treacherous Diplomacy 220

Catharine implores Alva's Assistance 221

Conde and John Casimir meet in Lorraine 222

Generosity of the Huguenot Troops 223

The March toward Orleans 223

The "Michelade" at Nismes 224

Huguenot Successes in the South and West 226

La Rochelle secured for Conde 226

Spain and Rome oppose the Negotiations for Peace 228

Santa Croce demands Cardinal Chatillon's Surrender 229

Page


A Rebuff from Marshal Montmorency 229

March of the "Viscounts" to meet Conde 230

Siege of Chartres 231

Chancellor L'Hospital's Memorial 232

Edict of Pacification (Longjumeau, March 23, 1568) 234

Conde for and Coligny against the Peace 235

Conde's Infatuation 235

Was the Court sincere? 236

Catharine short-sighted 238

Imprudence of the Huguenots 238

Judicial Murder of Rapin at Toulouse 239

Seditious Preachers and Mobs 240

Treatment of the Returning Huguenots 241

Expedition and Fate of De Cocqueville 242

Garrisons and Interpretative Ordinances 244

Oppression of Royal Governors 245

"The Christian and Royal League" 246

Insubordination to Royal Authority 247

Admirable Organization of the Huguenots 247

Murder runs Riot throughout France 248

La Rochelle, etc., refuse Royal Garrisons 250

Coligny retires for Safety to Tanlay, Conde to Noyers 251

D'Andelot's Remonstrance 252

Catharine sides with L'Hospital's Enemies 254

Remonstrance of the three Marshals 255

Catharine's Intrigues 255

The Court seeks to ruin Conde and Coligny 256

Teligny sent to remonstrate 256

The Oath exacted of the Huguenots 257

The Plot Disclosed 259

Intercepted Letter from Spain 259

Isabella of Spain her Husband's Mouthpiece 261

Charles begs his Mother to avoid War 262

Her Animosity against L'Hospital 263

Another Quarrel between Lorraine and the Chancellor 263

Fall of Chancellor L'Hospital 264

The Plot 265

Marshal Tavannes its Author 266

Conde's Last Appeal to the King 267

Flight of the Prince and Admiral 268

Its Wonderful Success 269

The Third Civil War opens 270

* * * * *

The City of La Rochelle and its Privileges 270

CHAPTER XVI.

1568-1570.


Page

THE THIRD CIVIL WAR 274

Relative Advantages of Huguenots and Roman Catholics 274

Enthusiasm of Huguenot Youth 274

Enlistment of Agrippa d'Aubigne 275

The Court proscribes the Reformed Religion 275

Impolicy of this Course 277

A "Crusade" published at Toulouse 278

Fanaticism of the Roman Catholic Preachers 279

Huguenot Places of Refuge 280

Jeanne d'Albret and D'Andelot reach La Rochelle 281

Successes in Poitou, Angoumois, etc. 282

Powerful Huguenot Army in the South 284

Effects a Junction with Conde's Forces 284

Huguenot Reprisals and Negotiations 287

William of Orange tries to aid the Huguenots 288

His Declaration in their behalf 290

Aid sought from England 291

Generously accorded by Clergy and Laity 292

Misgivings of Queen Elizabeth 294

Her Double Dealing and Effrontery 295

Fruitless Sieges and Plots 297

Growing Superiority of Anjou's Forces 298

The Armies meet on the Charente 299

Battle of Jarnac (March 13, 1569) 301

Murder of Louis, Prince of Conde 302

The Prince of Navarre remonstrates against the Perfidy shown 305

Exaggerated Bulletins 307

The Pope's Sanguinary Injunctions 308

Sanguinary Action of the Parliament of Bordeaux 310

Queen Elizabeth colder 310

The Queen of Navarre's Spirit 311

The Huguenots recover Strength 312

Death of D'Andelot 312

New Responsibility resting on Coligny 314

The Duke of Deux Ponts comes with German Auxiliaries 315

They overcome all Obstacles and join Coligny 317

Death of Deux Ponts 318

Huguenot Success at La Roche Abeille 319

Furlough of Anjou's Troops 320

Huguenot Petition to the King 320

Coligny's Plans overruled 324

Disastrous Siege of Poitiers 324

Page
Cruelties to Huguenots in the Prisons of Orleans 326

Montargis a Safe Refuge 327

Flight of the Refugees to Sancerre 328

The "Croix de Gastines" 329

Ferocity of Parliament against Coligny and Others 330

A Price set on Coligny's Head 330

The Huguenots weaker 332

Battle of Moncontour (Oct. 3, 1569) 333

Coligny wounded 334

Heavy Losses of the Huguenots 335

The Roman Catholics exultant 336

Mouy murdered by Maurevel 337

The Assassin rewarded with the Collar of the Order 338

Fatal Error committed by the Court 338

Siege of St. Jean d'Angely 340

Huguenot Successes at Vezelay and Nismes 344

Coligny encouraged 347

Withdrawal of the Troops of Dauphiny and Provence 348

The Admiral's Bold Plan 348

He Sweeps through Guyenne 349

"Vengeance de Rapin" 351

Coligny pushes on to the Rhone 351

His Singular Success and its Causes 351

He turns toward Paris 353

His Illness interrupts Negotiations 353

Engagement of Arnay-le-Duc 354

Coligny approaches Paris 356

Progress of Negotiations 356

The English Rebellion affects the Terms offered 358

Better Conditions proposed 360

Charles and his Mother for Peace 360

The War fruitless for its Authors 361

Anxiety of Cardinal Chatillon 363

The Royal Edict of St. Germain (Aug. 8, 1570) 363

Dissatisfaction of the Clergy 365

"The Limping and Unsettled Peace" 366

CHAPTER XVII.

1570-1572.

THE PEACE OF ST. GERMAIN 367

Sincerity of the Peace 367

The Designs of Catharine de' Medici 369

Charles the Ninth in Earnest 370

Tears out the Parliament Record against Cardinal Chatillon 371

His Assurances to Walsingham 371

Gracious Answer to German Electors 372

Page
Infringement on Edict at Orange 373

Protestants of Rouen attacked 374

The "Croix de Gastines" pulled down 375

Projected Marriage of Anjou to Queen Elizabeth of England 377

Machinations to dissuade Anjou 379

Charles indignant at Interference 379

Alencon to be substituted as Suitor 380

Anjou's new Ardor 380

Elizabeth interposes Obstacles 381

Papal and Spanish Efforts 382

Vexation of Catharine at Anjou's fresh Scruples 383

Louis of Nassau confers with the King 384

Admiral Coligny consulted 386

Invited to Court 387

His Honorable Reception 389

Disgust of the Guises and Alva 390

Charles gratified 391

Proposed Marriage of Henry of Navarre to the King's Sister 392

The Anjou Match falls through 396

The Praise of Alencon 398

Pius the Fifth Alarmed 400

Cardinal of Alessandria sent to Paris 400

The King's Assurances 400

Jeanne d'Albret becomes more favorable to her Son's Marriage 403

Her Solicitude 403

She is treated with Tantalizing Insincerity 404

She is shocked at the Morals of the Court 405

Her Sudden Death 407

Coligny and the Boy-King 408

The Dispensation delayed 410

The King's Earnestness 411

Mons and Valenciennes captured 412

Catharine's Indecision 413

Queen Elizabeth inspires no Confidence 414

Rout of Genlis 415

Determines Catharine to take the Spanish Side 416

Loss of the Golden Opportunity 416

The Admiral does not lose Courage 417

Charles and Catharine at Montpipeau 418

Rumors of Elizabeth's Desertion of her Allies 419

Charles thoroughly cast down 420

Coligny partially succeeds in reassuring him 421

Elizabeth toys with Dishonorable Proposals from the Netherlands 422

Fatal Results 423

The Memoires inedits de Michel de la Huguerye 423

Page
His View of a long Premeditation 423

Studied Misrepresentation of Jeanne d'Albret 424
CHAPTER XVIII.

1572.


THE MASSACRE OF ST. BARTHOLOMEW'S DAY 426

The Huguenot Nobles reach Paris 426

The Betrothal of Henry of Navarre to Margaret of Valois 427

Entertainment in the Louvre 429

Coligny's Letter to his Wife 430

Festivities and Mock Combats 431

Huguenot Grievances to be redressed 432

Catharine and Anjou jealous of Coligny's Influence over the King 433

The Duchess of Nemours and Guise 434

Was the Massacre long premeditated? 435

Salviati's Testimony 435

Charles' Cordiality to Coligny 436

Coligny wounded 437

Agitation of the King 439

Coligny courageous 440

Visited by the King and his Mother 441

Catharine attempts to break up the Conference 443

Charles writes Letters expressing his Displeasure 444

The Vidame de Chartres advises the Huguenots to leave Paris 445

Catharine and Anjou come to a Final Decision 446

They ply Charles with Arguments 447

The King consents reluctantly 449

Few Victims first selected 450

Religious Hatred 452

Precautionary Measures 452

Orders issued to the Prevot des Marchands 454

The First Shot and the Bell of St. Germain l'Auxerrois 455

Murder of Admiral Coligny 456

His Character and Work 460

Murder of Huguenot Nobles in the Louvre 465

Navarre and Conde spared 468

The Massacre becomes general 470

La Rochefoucauld and Teligny fall 470

Self-defence of a few Nobles 471

Victims of Personal Hatred 472

Adventures of young La Force 472

Pitiless Butchery 474

Shamelessness of the Court Ladies 476

Page
Anjou, Montpensier, and others encourage the Assassins 476

Wonderful Escapes 477

Death of the Philosopher Ramus 478

President Pierre de la Place 479

Regnier and Vezins 480

Escape of Chartres and Montgomery 481

Charles himself fires on them 482

The Massacre continues 484

Pillage of the Rich 485

Orders issued to lay down Arms 487

Little heeded 487

Miracle of the "Cimetiere des Innocents" 488

The King's First Letter to Mandelot 490

Guise throws the Responsibility on the King 491

Charles accepts it on Tuesday morning 492

The "Lit de Justice" 492

Servile Reply of Parliament 493

Christopher De Thou 493

Ineffectual Effort to inculpate Coligny 495

His Memory declared Infamous 496

Petty Indignities 496

A Jubilee Procession 498

Charles declares he will maintain his Edict of Pacification 498

Forced Conversion of Navarre and Conde 499


CHAPTER XIX.

1572.
THE MASSACRE IN THE PROVINCES, AND THE RECEPTION OF THE TIDINGS

ABROAD 501

The Massacre in the Provinces 501

The Verbal Orders 502

Instructions to Montsoreau at Saumur 503

Two Kinds of Letters 504

Massacre at Meaux 505

At Troyes 507

The Great Bloodshed at Orleans 508

At Bourges 511

At Angers 512

Butchery at Lyons 513

Responsibility of Mandelot 517

Rouen 519

Toulouse 521

Bordeaux 522

Why the Massacre was not Universal 524

Page

Policy of the Guises 525



Spurious Accounts of Clemency 525

Bishop Le Hennuyer, of Lisieux 525

Kind Offices of Matignon at Caen and Alencon 526

Of Longueville and Gordes 526

Of Tende in Provence 527

Viscount D'Orthez at Bayonne 528

The Municipality of Nantes 529

Uncertain Number of Victims 530

News of the Massacre received at Rome 530

Public Thanksgivings 532

Vasari's Paintings in the Vatican 533

French Boasts count for Nothing 535

Catharine writes to Philip, her son-in-law 536

The Delight of Philip of Spain 537

Charles instigates the Murder of French Prisoners 539

Alva jubilant, but wary 540

England's Horror 541

Perplexity of La Mothe Fenelon 541

His Cold Reception by Queen Elizabeth 543

The Ambassador disheartened 546

Sir Thomas Smith's Letter 546

Catharine's Unsuccessful Representations 547

Briquemault and Cavaignes hung for alleged Conspiracy 548

The News in Scotland 550

In Germany 550

In Poland 552

Sympathy of the Genevese 554

Their Generosity and Danger 557

The Impression at Baden 558

Medals and Vindications 559

Disastrous Personal Effect on King Charles 560

How far was the Roman Church Responsible? 562

Gregory probably not aware of the intended Massacre 564

Paul the Fifth instigates the French Court 564

He counsels exterminating the Huguenots 565

A New Account of the Massacre at Orleans 569


CHAPTER XX.

1572-1574.

THE SEQUEL OF THE MASSACRE, TO THE DEATH OF CHARLES THE
NINTH 572

Widespread Terror 572

La Rochelle and other Cities in Huguenot Hands 573

Nismes and Montauban 573

Page

La Rochelle the Centre of Interest 576



A Spurious Letter of Catharine 577

Designs on the City 577

Mission of La Noue 579

He is badly received 580

The Royal Proposals rejected 581

Marshal Biron appears before La Rochelle 582

Beginning of the Fourth Religious War 582

Description of La Rochelle 582

Resoluteness of the Defenders 583

Their Military Strength 584

Henry, Duke of Anjou, appointed to conduct the Siege 585

The Besieged pray and fight 585

Bravery of the Women 586

La Noue retires--Failure of Diplomacy 587

English Aid miscarries 588

Huguenot Successes in the South 589

Sommieres and Villeneuve 589

Beginning of the Siege of Sancerre 589

The Incipient Famine 590

Losses of the Army before La Rochelle 591

Roman Catholic Processions 592

Election of Henry of Anjou to the Crown of Poland 593

Edict of Pacification (Boulogne, July, 1573) 593

Meagre Results of the War 594

The Siege and Famine of Sancerre continue 595

The City capitulates 597

Reception of the Polish Ambassadors 598

Discontent of the South with the Terms of Peace 599

Assembly of Milhau and Montauban 600

Military Organization of the Huguenots 600

Petition to the King 601

"Les Fronts d'Airain" 603

Catharine's Bitter Reply 604

The Huguenots firm 604

Decline of Charles's Health 605

Project of an English Match renewed 606

Intrigues with the German Princes 608

Death of Louis of Nassau 610

Anjou's Reception at Heidelberg 610

Frankness of the Elector Palatine 611

Last Days of Chancellor L'Hospital 613

The Party of the "Politiques" 615


Hotman's "Franco-Gallia" 615

Page


Treacherous Attempt on La Rochelle 616

Huguenots reassemble at Milhau 617

They complete their Organization 618

The Duke of Alencon 619

Glandage Plunders the City of Orange 620

Montbrun's Exploits in Dauphiny 621

La Rochelle resumes Arms (Beginning of the Fifth Religious War) 622

Diplomacy tried in Vain 623

The "Politiques" make an Unsuccessful Rising 625

Flight of the Court from St. Germain 626

Alencon and Navarre examined 627

Execution of La Mole and Coconnas 628

Conde retires to Germany 629

Reasons for the Success of the Huguenots 630

Montgomery lands in Normandy 631

He is forced to Surrender 632

Delight of Catharine 632

Execution of Montgomery 633

Last Days of Charles the Ninth 635

Distress of his Young Queen 636

Death and Funeral Rites of Charles 638

Had Persecution, War and Treachery Succeeded? 639

BOOK SECOND.

FROM THE EDICT OF JANUARY (1562)

TO THE DEATH OF CHARLES

THE NINTH (1574).





CHAPTER XIII.

THE FIRST CIVIL WAR.





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