Final Exam: Comparative Anatomy, Spring 2006



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Final Exam: Comparative Anatomy, Spring 2006


  1. In general, the gut retention times of arboreal folivores are

    1. Less than those of carnivores.

    2. Equivalent to those of terrestrial carnivores.

    3. Roughly equal to those of all other mammals.

    4. Greater than those of carnivores.




  1. Which of the following are probably adaptations to an herbivorous diet? (circle all that apply)

    1. Long gut retention times.

    2. A short gastrointestinal tract.

    3. Presence of a reticulated colon.

    4. Presence of a ceacum.

    5. Presence of polyphyodont dentition.

    6. A segmented stomach.

    7. Extremely rapid peristalsis.




  1. What is the primary difficulty of herbivory?

    1. Plant material lacks some key vitamins and minerals.

    2. Plant material containing cellulose is impossible for vertebrates to digest.

    3. Plant material is abrasive, and erodes the teeth.

    4. Herbivory requires large size, and large animals are subject to high predation levels.




  1. T / F Reptiles, amphibians, and fishes have lips and cheeks.




  1. T / F In reptiles, teeth are restricted to the premaxilla, maxilla and dentary.




  1. What is the significance of the secondary palate?

    1. It enables an animal to breathe and eat at the same time, and thus maintain a high metabolic rate.

    2. It provides a surface for the insertion of palatal teeth.

    3. It enables animals to prevent food items from entering the respiratory system.

    4. It permits refinement of the olfactory senses, since they are no longer inundated with material from the oral cavity.




  1. The intestine of the shark contains a spiral valve. The function of this valve is to

    1. Prevent gastric reflux.

    2. Increase gut retention times.

    3. Increase absorption rates of heavy metals

    4. Reduce absorption rates of heavy metals

    5. Provide surface area for fermentation by bacteria.




  1. T / F Microvilli in the walls of the intestine are designed to increase surface area for absorption.




  1. Pandas (members of the order Carnivora, and truly bears) are able to persist on a diet of bamboo leaves. To do this, they (circle all that apply)

    1. Increase gut retention times.

    2. Have evolved a large ceacum.

    3. Have evolved grinding and crushing teeth.

    4. Have evolved an extension of the radial sesamoid bone to act as a ‘thumb’.

    5. Spend most of their time eating.




  1. One of the seminar speakers that applied for a teaching position at the satellite campuses gave a lecture on the heart. This person noted that the atria of the mammalian heart were smaller and less muscular than the ventricles because they used gravity to deliver blood to the ventricles. Why is this statement wrong?

    1. Gravity feeds blood to the atria, but not to the ventricles.

    2. Blood flows first to the ventricles, and then to the atria.

    3. In tetrapods (which means almost all terrestrial vertebrates), the heart is oriented horizontally, and thus gravity would play no role in delivering blood to the ventricles.

    4. In tetrapods, the heart is oriented vertically, and thus gravity would play no role in delivering blood to the atria.




  1. The fact that mammals have a double circulatory system is a consequence of

    1. Evolutionary design constraints.

    2. Historical artifact.

    3. Perfection of design.

    4. The capricious nature of evolution.

    5. A consequence of life in low oxygen environments.




  1. T / F Turtles have a rigid thorax. That is, they are unable to expand or contract their chest cavity. One consequence of this is that they can use pneumatic pressure to shunt blood from the pleural circulation to the systemic circulation via the ventricle.




  1. Consider the 4 diagrams of circulatory systems below. They are clockwise, from upper left: A, B, C, and D. Which system is most efficient?

    1. A

    2. B

    3. C

    4. D





  1. For the 4 diagrams listed above, which system represents the early amphibian system?

    1. A

    2. B

    3. C

    4. D




  1. In sharks, the kidney

    1. Is located at the anterior portion of the peritoneal cavity.

    2. Is located at the posterior portion of the peritoneal cavity

    3. Runs the entire length of the peritoneal cavity.




  1. In sharks, the testes

    1. are located at the anterior portion of the peritoneal cavity.

    2. are located at the posterior portion of the peritoneal cavity

    3. Run the entire length of the peritoneal cavity.




  1. T / F Presumably, the ancestral vertebrate had a pair of nephrons draining the coelomic cavity in each metamere.




  1. T / F In the evolution of the nephron, its first function was simply to drain the coelomic cavity.




  1. T / F Constriction and ultimate closure of the peritoneal funnel coincided with the evolution of the renal portal vein.




  1. T / F Kangaroo rats have exceptionally long loops of Henle, and the concentration gradient at the bottom of the loop reaches about 4500 mOsm. This enables kangaroo rats to drastically reduce the volume of filtrate, to the point that they produce virtually no urine.




  1. T / F Sharks are osmo-conoformers. They do this by storing urea in their muscle tissue.




  1. T / F One consequence of being an osmoconformer is that the shark is capable of moving from salt water to brackish water without too much difficulty.




  1. If a fish has an osmotic concentration of .897, and fresh water has an osmotic concentration of .5, will the fish drink?

    1. Yes

    2. No

    3. Only if it is thirsty.




  1. For the fish above, will the animal produce a lot of urine?

    1. Yes

    2. No

    3. Only if it drinks.




  1. T / F The posterior portion of the holonephric kidney is pirated by the reproductive system.




  1. Consider the diagram of a nephron below. The concentration of the filtrate in the proximal convoluted tubule is 300 mOsm. What is the approximate concentration in the distal convoluted tubule?

    1. 150

    2. 300

    3. 600

    4. 1200



  1. What is the primary advantage of running the filtrate through the loop of Henle?

    1. Reduction in osmotic concentration.

    2. Increase in osmotic concentration.

    3. Reduction in filtrate volume.

    4. Increase in filtrate volume.




  1. T / F The permeability of the collecting duct depends on the presence of diuretics, like caffeine. Sodas containing caffeine are a reasonable drink if you are hot and thirsty.




  1. Which of the following are homologs. Circle all that apply.

    1. Penis and clitoris.

    2. Scrotum and labia majora

    3. Male nipples and females nipples

    4. Testes and ovaries

    5. Prostate gland and cervix.




  1. Use the figure above to help jog your memory. Circle all the true statements below.

    1. The holonephric duct runs the entire length of the peritoneal cavity.

    2. Primitively, each metamere had a pair of Bowman’s capsules

    3. Primitively, the glomerulus was used to regulate osmotic pressure within the coelomic cavity



  1. Consider the diagram above. The white portions are embryonic, and nonfunctional in the adult. Match each letter with the appropriate label.

    1. Holonephric _____

    2. Metanephric _____

    3. Opisthonephric _____

    4. Pronephric _____



  1. List the 2 things you learned this semester in Comparative Anatomy that you found most interesting.



    1. ____________________________________________________________________



    1. ____________________________________________________________________






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