Provide surface area for fermentation by bacteria.
T / F Microvilli in the walls of the intestine are designed to increase surface area for absorption.
Pandas (members of the order Carnivora, and truly bears) are able to persist on a diet of bamboo leaves. To do this, they (circle all that apply)
Increase gut retention times.
Have evolved a large ceacum.
Have evolved grinding and crushing teeth.
Have evolved an extension of the radial sesamoid bone to act as a ‘thumb’.
Spend most of their time eating.
One of the seminar speakers that applied for a teaching position at the satellite campuses gave a lecture on the heart. This person noted that the atria of the mammalian heart were smaller and less muscular than the ventricles because they used gravity to deliver blood to the ventricles. Why is this statement wrong?
Gravity feeds blood to the atria, but not to the ventricles.
T / F Turtles have a rigid thorax. That is, they are unable to expand or contract their chest cavity. One consequence of this is that they can use pneumatic pressure to shunt blood from the pleural circulation to the systemic circulation via the ventricle.
Consider the 4 diagrams of circulatory systems below. They are clockwise, from upper left: A, B, C, and D. Which system is most efficient?
For the 4 diagrams listed above, which system represents the early amphibian system?
In sharks, the kidney
Is located at the anterior portion of the peritoneal cavity.
T / F Constriction and ultimate closure of the peritoneal funnel coincided with the evolution of the renal portal vein.
T / F Kangaroo rats have exceptionally long loops of Henle, and the concentration gradient at the bottom of the loop reaches about 4500 mOsm. This enables kangaroo rats to drastically reduce the volume of filtrate, to the point that they produce virtually no urine.
T / F Sharks are osmo-conoformers. They do this by storing urea in their muscle tissue.
T / F One consequence of being an osmoconformer is that the shark is capable of moving from salt water to brackish water without too much difficulty.
If a fish has an osmotic concentration of .897, and fresh water has an osmotic concentration of .5, will the fish drink?
Only if it is thirsty.
For the fish above, will the animal produce a lot of urine?
Only if it drinks.
T / F The posterior portion of the holonephric kidney is pirated by the reproductive system.
Consider the diagram of a nephron below. The concentration of the filtrate in the proximal convoluted tubule is 300 mOsm. What is the approximate concentration in the distal convoluted tubule?
What is the primary advantage of running the filtrate through the loop of Henle?
Reduction in osmotic concentration.
Increase in osmotic concentration.
Reduction in filtrate volume.
Increase in filtrate volume.
T / F The permeability of the collecting duct depends on the presence of diuretics, like caffeine. Sodas containing caffeine are a reasonable drink if you are hot and thirsty.
Which of the following are homologs. Circle all that apply.
Penis and clitoris.
Scrotum and labia majora
Male nipples and females nipples
Testes and ovaries
Prostate gland and cervix.
Use the figure above to help jog your memory. Circle all the true statements below.
The holonephric duct runs the entire length of the peritoneal cavity.
Primitively, each metamere had a pair of Bowman’s capsules
Primitively, the glomerulus was used to regulate osmotic pressure within the coelomic cavity
Consider the diagram above. The white portions are embryonic, and nonfunctional in the adult. Match each letter with the appropriate label.
List the 2 things you learned this semester in Comparative Anatomy that you found most interesting.