Final assessment report

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17 March 2004






FSANZ’s role is to protect the health and safety of people in Australia and New Zealand through the maintenance of a safe food supply. FSANZ is a partnership between ten Governments: the Commonwealth; Australian States and Territories; and New Zealand. It is a statutory authority under Commonwealth law and is an independent, expert body.

FSANZ is responsible for developing, varying and reviewing standards and for developing codes of conduct with industry for food available in Australia and New Zealand covering labelling, composition and contaminants. In Australia, FSANZ also develops food standards for food safety, maximum residue limits, primary production and processing and a range of other functions including the coordination of national food surveillance and recall systems, conducting research and assessing policies about imported food.

The FSANZ Board approves new standards or variations to food standards in accordance with policy guidelines set by the Australia and New Zealand Food Regulation Ministerial Council (Ministerial Council) made up of Commonwealth, State and Territory and New Zealand Health Ministers as lead Ministers, with representation from other portfolios. Approved standards are then notified to the Ministerial Council. The Ministerial Council may then request that FSANZ review a proposed or existing standard. If the Ministerial Council does not request that FSANZ review the draft standard, or amends a draft standard, the standard is adopted by reference under the food laws of the Commonwealth, States, Territories and New Zealand. The Ministerial Council can, independently of a notification from FSANZ, request that FSANZ review a standard.

The process for amending the Australia New Zealand Food Standards Code is prescribed in the Food Standards Australia New Zealand Act 1991 (FSANZ Act). The diagram below represents the different stages in the process including when periods of public consultation occur. This process varies for matters that are urgent or minor in significance or complexity.

Final Assessment Stage
FSANZ has now completed two stages of the assessment process and held two rounds of public consultation as part of its assessment of this Proposal. This Final Assessment Report and its recommendations have been approved by the FSANZ Board and notified to the Ministerial Council.
If the Ministerial Council does not request FSANZ to review the draft amendments to the Code, an amendment to the Code is published in the Commonwealth Gazette and the New Zealand Gazette and adopted by reference and without amendment under Australian State and Territory food law.
In New Zealand, the New Zealand Minister of Health gazettes the food standard under the New Zealand Food Act. Following gazettal, the standard takes effect 28 days later.
Further Information
Further information on this Proposal and the assessment process should be addressed to the FSANZ Standards Management Officer at one of the following addresses:
Food Standards Australia New Zealand Food Standards Australia New Zealand

PO Box 7186 PO Box 10559

Canberra BC ACT 2610 The Terrace WELLINGTON 6036


Tel (02) 6271 2222 Tel (04) 473 9942
Assessment reports are available for viewing and downloading from the FSANZ website or alternatively paper copies of reports can be requested from FSANZ’s Information Officer at including other general enquiries and requests for information.

Executive Summary and Statement of Reasons 6

Statement of Reasons 7

1. Introduction 8

2. Regulatory Problem 8

2.1 Inclusion of bamboo shoots in the scope of Proposal P257 8

2.2 Current regulations 9

2.2.1 Standard 1.2.6 – Directions for Use and Storage 9

2.2.2 Standard 1.4.4 – Prohibited and Restricted Plants and Fungi 9

2.2.3 Standard 1.4.1 – Contaminants and Natural Toxicants 9

2.2.4 Standard 1.2.3 – Mandatory Warning and Advisory Statements and Declarations 9

2.2.5 Standard 1.1.2 – Supplementary Definitions for Foods 10

2.2.6 Standard 1.2.1 - Application of Labelling and Other Information Requirements 10

2.3 International regulations 10

3. Objectives 10

4. Background 11

4.1 Traditional use of cassava 11

4.2 Traditional use of bamboo shoots 11

5. Issues 12

5.1 Safety assessment 12

5.1.1 Characterisation of cyanogenic potential of cassava and bamboo shoots 12

5.1.2 Toxicological summary 12

5.2 Dietary exposure 14

5.2.1 National Nutrition Survey information 14

5.2.2 Availability of cassava in New Zealand 15

5.2.3 Availability of cassava in Australia 16

5.2.4 Availability of bamboo shoots in Australia 16

5.3 Nutritional assessment 16

5.3.1 Nutritional composition 16

5.3.2 Role of sulphur-containing amino acids in cyanide detoxification 16

5.3.3 Iodine deficiency diseases 18

5.4 Risk assessment 18

5.5 Risk management 19

5.5.1 Category of public safety risk 19

5.5.2 Level of public awareness of potential safety risk 21

5.5.3 Risk management approach 21

5.6 Issues raised in submissions 21

5.6.1 Submissions received in response to the Initial Assessment Report 21

5.6.2 Submissions received in response to the Draft Assessment Report 23

5.7 Practical application of proposed recommendations 26

6. Regulatory Options 26

6.1 Non-regulatory options 26

6.2 Regulatory options 26

7. Impact Analysis 27

7.1 Affected Parties 27

7.2 Data Collection 29

7.3 Impact Analysis 29

7.3.1Option 1 29

7.3.2Option 2 30

7.3.3Option 3 31

7.3.4Option 4 31

7.3.5 Summary 32

8. Consultation 33

8.1 Submissions in response to the Initial Assessment Report 33

8.2 Submissions in response to the Draft Assessment Report 33

8.3 World Trade Organization (WTO) 33

9. Conclusion and Recommendation 34

10. Implementation and review 34



Draft Variations to the Australia New Zealand Food Standards Code 35


Safety Assessment Report 38


Summary of submissions 59

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