Biology 218 – Human Anatomy Lecture Outline Adapted from



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Biology 218 – Human Anatomy



Lecture Outline

Adapted from Martini Human Anatomy 7th ed.

Session:

Section:


Days / Time: Instructor:

FALL

52999


MW 5:00 PM – 9:20 PM

RIDDELL





Chapter 10

The Muscular System

Axial Musculature

Introduction

The skeletal muscle of the body can be
subdivided into:

Axial musculature

Muscles that position the head and vertebral column

Muscles that move the rib cage

Appendicular musculature

Muscles that stabilize or move the appendicular skeleton

The Axial Musculature

The axial muscles can be placed into four


groups based on location or function

Muscles of the head and neck

Muscles of the vertebral column

Oblique and rectus muscles

Muscles of the pelvic floor

The Axial Musculature

Muscles of the Head and Neck

Can be subdivided into several different groups

Muscles of facial expression

Extraocular muscles

Muscles of mastication

Muscles of the tongue

Muscles of the pharynx

Muscles of the anterior neck

The Axial Musculature

Muscles of Facial Expression (Mouth)

Orbicularis oris

Zygomaticus major and minor

Risorius

Mentalis


Depressor labii inferioris

Depressor anguli oris

Levator anguli oris

Buccinator

Depressor labii superioris

The Axial Musculature

Muscles of Facial Expression (Eye)

Corrugator supercilii

Levator palpebrae superioris

Orbicularis oculi

The Axial Musculature

Muscles of Facial Expression (Nose)

Procerus

Nasalis


The Axial Musculature

Muscles of Facial Expression (Scalp)

Occipitofrontalis

Frontal belly (frontalis)

Occipital belly (occipitalis)

Temporoparietalis

The Axial Musculature

Muscles of Facial Expression (Neck)

Platysma

The Axial Musculature

Extra-ocular Muscles

Extrinsic eye muscles (muscles that control eye movement)

Medial and lateral rectus muscles

Superior and inferior rectus muscles

Superior and inferior oblique muscles

The Axial Musculature

Extra-ocular Muscles

Eye movements

Lateral rectus: rotates the eye laterally

Medial rectus: rotates the eye medially

Superior rectus: rotates the eye upward

Inferior rectus: rotates the eye downward

Superior oblique: rotates the eye downward and
laterally

Inferior oblique: rotates the eye upward and laterally

The Axial Musculature

Muscles of Mastication

Masseter

Temporalis

Pterygoids

The Axial Musculature

Muscles of the Tongue

Genioglossus

Hyoglossus

Palatoglossus

Styloglossus

The Axial Musculature

Muscles of the Pharynx

Pharyngeal constrictors

Superior constrictor

Middle constrictor

Inferior constrictor

The Axial Musculature

Muscles of the Pharynx (continued)

Laryngeal elevators

Palatopharyngeus

Stylopharyngeus

The Axial Musculature

Muscles of the Pharynx (continued)

Palatal muscles

Levator veli palatini

Tensor veli palatini

The Axial Musculature

Anterior Muscles of the Neck

Digastric

Mylohyoid (deep to the digastric)

Geniohyoid (deep to the mylohyoid)

Stylohyoid

The Axial Musculature

Anterior Muscles of the Neck (continued)

Omohyoid


Sternohyoid (deep to the omohyoid)

Sternothyroid (deep to the sternohyoid)

Thyrohyoid (attached to the sternothyroid and hyoid bone)

Sternocleidomastoid

The Axial Musculature

Muscles of the Vertebral Column

Back muscles form three distinct layers

Superficial layer (extrinsic back muscles): move the neck

Intermediate layer (extrinsic back muscles): move the vertebral column

Deep layer (intrinsic back muscles): interconnect the vertebrae

The Axial Musculature

Examples of the extrinsic back muscles

Superficial layer of extrinsic muscles

Trapezius

Latissimus dorsi

Levator scapulae

Rhomboid muscle

The Axial Musculature

Example of the extrinsic back muscles

Intermediate layer of extrinsic muscles

Serratus posterior

The Axial Musculature

The Deep Layer (or intrinsic back muscles)

Can be further subdivided into:

Superficial intrinsic

Intermediate intrinsic

Deep intrinsic

The Axial Musculature

Example of Superficial Intrinsic Back Muscles

Splenius muscles

The Axial Musculature

Examples of Intermediate Intrinsic Back Muscles

Erector spinae (group of three muscles)

Spinalis thoracis (most medial of the three)

Longissimus thoracis

Iliocostalis lumborum (most lateral of the three)

The Axial Musculature

Examples of Deep Intrinsic Back Muscles

Semispinalis

Multifidus

Rotatores

Interspinales

Intertransversarii

The Axial Musculature

Spinal Flexors

Longus capitis

Longus colli

The above two muscles rotate or flex the neck

Quadratus lumborum

Flexes the vertebral column laterally

The Axial Musculature

Oblique and Rectus Muscles

These muscles can be grouped in this manner:

Cervical muscles

Thoracic muscles

Abdominal muscles

The Axial Musculature

Oblique and Rectus Muscles

Cervical oblique muscles

Scalene muscles (anterior, middle, and posterior scalenes)

Elevate the ribs and also flex the neck

The Axial Musculature

Oblique and Rectus Muscles

Thoracic oblique muscles

External intercostals: elevate the ribs

Internal intercostals: depress the ribs

Transversus thoracis: depresses the ribs

Serratus posterior

Superior serratus posterior: elevates ribs and enlarges thoracic cavity

Inferior serratus posterior: depresses ribs and opposes diaphragm contraction thus decreasing thoracic size

The Axial Musculature

Oblique and Rectus Muscles

Abdominal oblique muscles

External oblique: rotates the vertebral column

Internal oblique: rotates the vertebral column

Transversus abdominis: compresses the abdomen

The Axial Musculature

Cervical Rectus Muscles

Geniohyoid

Omohyoid


Sternohyoid

Thyrohyoid

The Axial Musculature

Thoracic Rectus Muscles

Diaphragm muscle

Expands the thoracic cavity for inhalation

The Axial Musculature

Abdominal Rectus Muscles

Rectus abdominis

Flexes the vertebral column

Divided longitudinally by the linea alba

Divided transversally by the tendinous inscriptions

The Axial Musculature

Muscles of the Perineum and Pelvic


Diaphragm

Main functions

Support the organs of the pelvic cavity

Flex the joints of the sacrum and coccyx

Control the movement of material through the urethra and anus

The Axial Musculature

The Perineum (pelvic floor)

Divided into two triangles

Urogenital triangle

Anal triangle

The two triangles are separated by:

Superficial transverse perineal muscle

The Axial Musculature

Muscles of the Pelvic Floor

Superficial urogenital triangle area

Superficial transverse perineal

Ischiocavernosus

Bulbospongiosus

Superficial anal triangle area

Superficial transverse perineal

Gluteus maximus

External anal sphincter

The Axial Musculature

Muscles of the Pelvic Floor

Deep urogenital triangle area

Deep transverse perineal

Deep anal triangle area

Coccygeus

Iliococcygeus

Pubococcygeus



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