Participants: Sixty-eight naïve volunteers from the student body, staff and faculty of the college. Interventions: Provocative vertebral challenge: standardized 4-5 kg force applied with a pressure algometer to the lateral aspects of the T3-T12 spinous processes. Intervention: manual high velocity low amplitude adjustment or switched-off activator sham. MainOutcome Measures: Piriformis muscle response was defined in two ways: reactivity (a decrease in muscle resistance, yes or no, following a vertebral challenge); responsiveness (the cessation of reactivity following spinal manipulation). Relative response attributable to the maneuver (RRAM): the percent of an outcome attributable to the challenge or adjustment itself. Results: Average RRAM = 16% reactivity to vertebral challenge; average RRAM = 0% responsiveness to spinal manipulation. Six to 10% of muscle tests were positive regardless of examiner, previous finding or intervention. Conclusions: For the population under investigation, muscle response appeared to be a random phenomenon unrelated to manipulable subluxation. In and of itself, muscle testing appears to be of questionable use for spinal screening and post-adjustive evaluation. Further research is indicated in more symptomatic populations, different regions of the spine, and using different indicator muscles.
Comment: As described by the I.C.A.K., vertebrae without subluxation, fixation, or other mechanical problems should be negative to challenge. Only 40% of the 68 subjects tested had pain, and only 50% of them had stiffness in the thoracic region. It should be obvious that challenging a normally functioning vertebra should cause a negative result, thereby making positive tests of the thoracic spinal column from T3 to T12 statistically insignificant. General lateral to medial spinous process pressure applied to a vertebra that may be subluxated does not always produce a muscle response. The specific vector of challenge must match the specific subluxation of the vertebra if the rebound phenomenon described in AK diagnosis of vertebral subluxations is to be evaluated. A more specific research design would be to diagnose vertebral subluxations by another method (palpation, radiography, thermography), and then to employ the AK method of vertebral challenge to these specific vertebrae to evaluate the intra- and inter-examiner reliability of this method.
Relationship between two measures of upper extremity strength: manual muscle test compared to hand-held myometry, Schwartz S, Cohen ME, Herbison GJ, Shah A.
Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 1992 Nov;73(11):1063-8.
Abstract: One hundred and twenty-two individuals with spinal cord injuries at levels C4-6, Frankel classifications A through D, were evaluated to determine the relationship between the manual muscle test (MMT) and hand-held myometry as accurate methods for measuring muscular strength. More specifically, this study attempted to define a range of myometry scores that could be correlated with discrete MMT grades. It also investigated which of the two modalities (MMT or hand-held myometry) is the best reflection of improvement in muscle strength over time. Sequential motor strength examinations using both modalities were performed at 72 hours, one week, and two weeks post SCI and then one, two, three, four, six, 12, 18, and 24 months post injury. The data analyses included calculations of Spearman ranked correlations, analyses of variance, and linear regressions. Results showed that 22 of 24 correlations between MMT and myometry were significant at p values less than .001. The range of myometry measurements for a particular MMT grade appears to be most specific for MMT scores less than 4 (i.e., poor-plus to good), and less specific for MMT scores greater than or equal to 4. The results of this study also indicate that myometry measurements detect increases in strength over time, which are not reflected by changes in MMT scores.
Objective Measurement of Proprioceptive Technique Consequences on Muscular Maximal Voluntary Contraction During Manual Muscle Testing, Perot, C., Meldener, R., Gouble, F.
-- Departement de genie biologique, URA CNRS 858, Universite de technologie, Compiegne.
Agressologie. 1991; 32(10):471-474.
This study measured the electrical activity in muscles. It established that there was a significant difference in electrical activity in the muscle, and that this corresponded with the difference found between “strong” versus “weak” muscle testing outcomes by AK practitioners. It further established that these outcomes were not attributable to increased or decreased testing force from the doctor during the tests. In addition, the study showed that manual treatment methods used by AK practitioners to reduce the level of tone of spindle cells in the muscle are in fact capable of creating a reduction in tone of the muscle, as had been observed clinically.
Response of Tibialis anterior muscle to a "proprioceptive technique" used in applied kinesiology was investigated during manual muscle testing using a graphical registration of both mechanical and electromyographic parameters. Experiments were conducted blind on ten subjects. Each subject was tested ten times, five as reference, five after proprioceptive technique application reputed to be inhibitory. Results indicated that when examiner-subject coordination was good an inhibition was easily registered. Therefore reliability of the proposed procedure is mostly dependent upon satisfactory subject-examiner coordination that is also necessary in standard clinical manual muscle testing.
Failure of the musculo-skeletal system may produce major weight shifts in forward and backward bending, Goodheart, G.
Proc Inter Conf Spinal Manip, Washington, DC;May 1990:399-402
Forty patients were evaluated for pre- and post-treatment weight balance. Of the 40 patients, only one had minimal changes in weight upon two scales beneath the feet when both flexing and extending the spine. The treatment protocol employed (applied kinesiology methods) proved to balance the aberrant patterns of weight distribution during flexion and extension of the spine.
Reliability of Manual Muscle Testing with a Computerized Dynamometer, Hsieh, C.Y., Phillips, R.B.
Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics. 1990; 13:72-82.
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to investigate the reliability of manual dynamometry. Three testers participated and performed the doctor-and-patient-initiated testing methods as described in the applied kinesiology literature. Three muscles from each subject were tested. Fifteen normal volunteer adults had their muscles tested by the doctor-initiated method and another and another 15 had their muscles tested by the patient-initiated method. Each tester took two observations per muscle. The testing procedures were repeated 7 days later. The results showed that the intratester reliability coefficients were 0.55, 0.75 and 0.76 for testers 1, 2 and 3, respectively, when the doctor-initiated method was used; 0.96, 0.99 and 0.97 when the patient-initiated method was used. The intertester reliability coefficients were 0.77 and 0.59 on day 1 and day 2, respectively, for the doctor-initiated method; 0.95 and 0.96 for the patient-initiated method. It is concluded that manual dynamometry is an acceptable procedure for the patient-initiated method and is not acceptable for the doctor-initiated method.
Comment: Numerous hand-held dynamometers have been developed to quantify the manual muscle test. These are units that are interposed between the examiner’s hand and the subject’s limb being tested. There is a constant effort to upgrade the hand-held units. These units can measure many aspects of the manual muscle test, but none of them has all of the measuring capacities that are in each of them separately. To date none of these units have been capable of measuring the manual muscle test as used in applied kinesiology with consistent reliability. This study does show a correlation, but it does not validate the complete system of manual muscle testing as used in AK. It appears that the major difference between testing against fixed transducers – whether isometric or concentric – is that the muscle is required to simply produce power; in manual muscle testing, the muscle is required to adapt to the changing pressure of the examiner’s force. This requires effective functioning in the gamma system adjusting the neuromuscular spindle cell, and proper interpretation of its afferent supply and response by the nervous system.
A Review of the Research Papers Published by the International College of Applied Kinesiology from 1981 to 1987, Klinkoski, B., LeBoeuf, C.
J Manipulative Physiol Ther, 1990;13:190-194
Abstract: Applied Kinesiology (AK) is a diagnostic and therapeutic approach used by a large number of chiropractors. AK seminars are conducted worldwide; during these seminars mention is frequently made of the presence of supportive research. A review was undertaken of the type and scientific quality of 50 papers which had been published between 1981 and 1987 by the International College of Applied Kinesiology, 20 of which were classified as research papers. These were subjected to further scrutiny relating to criteria considered crucial in research methodology, namely, a clear identification of sample size, inclusion criteria, blind and naïve subjects and statistical analysis. Although some papers satisfied several of these criteria, none satisfied all seven of them. As none of the papers included adequate statistical analyses, no valid conclusions could be drawn concerning their report of findings.
Comment: It may be that the “controlled clinical trial” cannot be realized in practice; a “dream of reason” leading its ghostly existence on the pages of research journals and largely disregarded in practice. The positive patient outcomes as a result of applied kinesiology chiropractic that are described in the papers reviewed in this article may have greater weight than data from designed research protocols involving human subjects. In “controlled clinical trials” it is not possible to control all of the variables in individual patients in the study, and therefore it may only be naively assumed that every detail of an idealized research methodology have been met. However, in the evolving health care system, self-assessed, or subjective measures of a patient’s response to treatment are gaining credibility. The unreliability of physical, mechanistic measurements in defining outcomes has led to a shift toward using patient-reported perceptions as outcome measures. For example, patient-reported symptoms of disability have been found to be more predictive of outcomes such as returning to work than diagnostic tests or signs such as x-rays or orthopedic examinations of physical abnormalities. Applied kinesiology’s emphasis on health rather than disease, and treatment of the whole person rather than the symptoms, makes it difficult to fully describe or detect the effects of AK therapies in patients’ function through currently existing physiologic measures or “controlled clinical trials.”
Somatosensory Evoked Potential Changes During Muscle Testing, Leisman, G., Shambaugh, P., Ferentz, A.
International Journal of Neuroscience. 1989; 45:143-151.
This study measured the way the central nervous system is functioning when muscles test strong versus when they test weak. Clear, consistent and predictable differences were identified in the central nervous system between weak and strong muscle test outcomes. This supports the idea that manual muscle testing outcome changes reflect changes in the central nervous system.
Cybernetic Model of Psychophysiologic Pathways: II. Consciousness of Effort and Kinesthesia, Leisman, G.
Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics. 1989; 12(3):174-191.
Abstract: This paper describes a series of experiments directed toward the following questions: a) do signals from musculotendinous receptors reach consciousness?, and b) does feed-forward information of muscular force and expected extent of voluntary movement exist? To answer these questions, data from voluntary compression of springs and strain-gauge have been analyzed in healthy young subjects. By successive elimination of information from other sources, it was possible to verify that receptors in muscles and tendons do signal movement magnitude and muscular tension to the cerebral cortex, and that this information does reach consciousness. There also exists a feed-forward mechanism signaling parameters of voluntary contraction. However, it is unclear whether peripheral, subcortical or intracortical loops are directly involved.
Cybernetic Model of Psychophysiologic Pathways: III. Impairment of Consciousness of Effort and Kinesthesia, Leisman, G.
Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics. 1989; 12(4):257-265.
Abstract: It is unclear whether peripheral, subcortical or intracortical loops are directly involved between receptors in muscles and tendons and the cerebral cortex in signaling movement magnitude and muscular tension information. Previous experiments have indicated that this information does reach consciousness. Data from voluntary compression of springs and strain-gauge were analyzed in patients with unilateral lesions of the cerebral hemispheres. It was found that the perception of signals of muscular tension is abolished by lesions of the contralateral cortex near the central sulcus. It was concluded that the possibility exists of separate cortical projection areas for kinesthetic signals from muscles and from joints.
Intrarater reliability of manual muscle testing and hand-held dynametric muscle testing,
Wadsworth CT, Krishnan R, Sear M, Harrold J, Nielsen DH.
Phys Ther, 1987 Sep;67(9):1342-7.
Abstract: Physical therapists require an accurate, reliable method for measuring muscle strength. They often use manual muscle testing or hand-held dynametric muscle testing (DMT), but few studies document the reliability of MMT or compare the reliability of the two types of testing. We designed this study to determine the intrarater reliability of MMT and DMT. A physical therapist performed manual and dynametric strength tests of the same five muscle groups on 11 patients and then repeated the tests two days later. The correlation coefficients were high and significantly different from zero for four muscle groups tested dynametrically and for two muscle groups tested manually. The test-retest reliability coefficients for two muscle groups tested manually could not be calculated because the values between subjects were identical. We concluded that both MMT and DMT are reliable testing methods, given the conditions described in this study. Both testing methods have specific applications and limitations, which we discuss.
Clinical Reliability of Manual Muscle Testing, Frese, E., Brown, M., Norton, B.J. .
Phys Ther. 1987; 67:1072-1076
Abstract: The purposes of this study were to develop a protocol to examine the reliability of manual muscle testing in a clinical setting and to use that protocol to assess the interrater reliability of manually testing the strength of the middle trapezius and gluteus medius muscles. One hundred ten patients with various diagnoses participated as subjects, and 11 physical therapists participated as examiners in this study. The results showed that interrater reliability for right and left middle trapezius and gluteus medius muscles were low. The percentage of therapists obtaining a rating of the same grade or within one third of a grade ranged from 50% to 60% for the four muscles. This study indicates that using manual muscle testing to make accurate clinical assessments of patient status is of questionable value.
Comment: This study demonstrates that manual muscle testing as a diagnostic tool is only as good as the operator conducting the test. The study notes that the 11 physical therapists who were the examiners were recent graduates of a physical therapy program, with only an average of 2.3 years of clinical experience. Two different types of manual muscle testing procedures were also employed during this study, thereby increasing the variability of outcomes. The methods of manual muscle testing used in this study were not those taught by the I.C.A.K., and the numerous variables in a manual muscle test (patient positioning, accuracy of timing during the test, and consistency of the type of testing done on the patients by the examiners) were not accounted for, any one of which may influence the perception of strength or weakness on testing.
Diagnosis of thyroid dysfunction: applied kinesiology compared to clinical observations and laboratory tests, Jacobs, G, Franks, T, Gilman, G.
J Manipulative Physiol Ther, 1984;7(2):99-104
Abstract: Sixty-five patients presenting to three clinics were independently evaluated for thyroid dysfunction by applied kinesiology (AK), a clinical protocol, and laboratory testing. Each was rated on a scale of 1 (unquestionably hypothyroid) to 7 (unquestionably hyperthyroid). AK ratings correlated with laboratory ratings (rs = .32, p < .002) and with laboratory ratings (rs = .32, p < .005). Correlation between clinical and laboratory diagnosis was .47, p < .000. Three AK therapy localizations had a significant correlation with the laboratory diagnosis (p < .05). Two of these (right neurovascular-left brain and left neurolymphatic-right brain) were points associated with thyroid function. The third, ventral hand on the glabella with the other on the external occipital protuberance, is associated with pituitary function. AK enhanced but did not replace clinical/laboratory diagnosis of thyroid dysfunction. Preliminary evidence indicates that there may be a significant correlation between certain AK tests and an elevated LDH in the serum.
The Efficacy of Manual Assessment of Muscle Strength Using a New Device, Marino, M., Nicholas, J.A., Gleim, G., Rosenthal, P., Nicholas, S.J.
-- Institute of Sports Medicine and Athletic Trauma of Lenon Hill Hospital, New York
American Journal of Sports Medicine. 1982; 10:360-364.
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to compare the manual assessment of muscle strength with a small, hand-held (by the examiner) force-measuring device developed by the Institute of Sports Medicine and Athletic Trauma (ISMAT). One hundred twenty-eight patients presented with a known lower extremity orthopedic pathology. All patients were clinically evaluated for hip abductor and hip flexor weakness in standard positions using the “break test” technique. All 128 patients were then evaluated with the ISMAT Manual Muscle Tester, a small-hand held device with recorded the peak force (kg) required to break a muscle contraction. Three bilateral measures of hip abduction and hip flexion were recorded, averaged, and compared to the subjective clinical evaluation using a Chi-square analysis. Bilateral values which were within 5% of each other were not considered significant and therefore not included in the calculations. The average hip abduction and hip flexion scores measured by the ISMAT tester were consistent with the examiner’s perception of muscle weakness (P less than 0.001). The results demonstrate consistent detection of muscle weakness by the ISMAT Manual Muscle Tester over a broad range of testing conditions.
Muscle Strength Testing as a Diagnostic Screen for Supplemental Nutrition Therapy: A Blind Study, Triano, J.
Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics. 1982; 5:179.
Abstract: A controlled study of the reliability of clinical muscle testing as an index of nutritional assessment is presented. Both participating clinicians and patients were unaware of the nature of the substances being tested for their effect on the latissimus dorsi muscle. Previously identified “weak” muscles were used to observe for a “strengthening” effect as a result of topical and sublingual exposure to specific nutritional supplements.
Comment: This study reports that there is no one-to-one association between certain muscle weaknesses and a specific nutrient that always strengthens the muscle. This assertion has never been made by the I.C.A.K. The most serious problem with this study is that its negative conclusions are much broader than its data supports, because they lack the statistical power to justify such a broadly negative (or positive) conclusion. Furthermore, research on AK nutritional testing requires a much more complex design. There are many factors that can cause a muscle to test weak that need to be taken into consideration.
Applied kinesiology: an experimental evaluation by double blind methodology, Jacobs, G.
J Manipulative Physiol Ther, 1981;4:141-145
Abstract: The object was to develop a double blind experiment for testing the premise of a muscle testing procedure referred to as Applied Kinesiology (A.K.). In a non-blind test there was a significant difference (P<.05) in muscle response to lump sugar versus the same amount in a 10 ml solution of distilled H20. It was not possible to demonstrate significant differences in response to sweet and non-sweet sugar solutions of various concentrations, to fresh sesame oil and heated, or to fresh corn oil and aged corn oil when stimuli were applied in a double blind experiment. It was concluded on the basis of the parameters of this study that the AK response generally expected did not occur.
Comment: This study demonstrated a random muscle weakening on gustatory stimulation with refined sugar. The “AK response generally expected” was that muscles would weaken upon gustatory stimulation with refined sugar. This is an example of experimental bias against sugar. In some patients sugar will cause improved muscle function depending on the patient’s physiological status at the time. None of the literature from the I.C.A.K. suggests that all individuals weaken on oral stimulation with refined sugars. This double-blind study did demonstrate, however, an 81.9% agreement between two testers, indicating good inter-examiner reliability.
Effects of an Applied Kinesiology Technique on Quadriceps Femoris Muscle Isometric Strength, Grossi, J.A.
Physical Therapy. 1981; 61:1011-1016.
Abstract: The effect of either the muscle spindle cell receptor technique of applied kinesiology or a placebo technique on isometric strength of the right quadriceps femoris muscle group was studied among 20 normal human subjects. Peak, perpendicular maximal values of isometric quadriceps femoris muscle force was measured by a force transducer. Three training sessions consisting of three trials of peak maximal contractions of the isometric quadriceps femoris muscle were performed by all subjects. After the three training sessions, matched pairs of subjects were formed from a rank order list of each subject’s mean values of isometric quadriceps femoris muscle strength on the third session. One subject of a matched pair was then randomly assigned to either an experimental (applied kinesiology) or control (placebo) group for the testing session. No significant differences in mean values of isometric quadriceps femoris muscle strength between the matched pairs for control and experimental subjects were noted. Within the context of a normal population, the applied kinesiology technique does not appear to augment isometric quadriceps femoris muscle strength.
Comment: This study investigates something that is not a part of applied kinesiology and concludes that the treatment protocol used is ineffective. This study was conducted on normally functioning subjects, and attempted to increase a muscle’s strength by neuromuscular spindle technique. Applied kinesiology manipulation of the neuromuscular spindle cell is designed to treat an abnormally functioning muscle that is hypertonic or tests weak on manual muscle testing due to the dysfunctioning muscle spindle cell. One must first identify that the muscle is dysfunctional and then that it is due to the neuromuscular spindle cell. Under those conditions treatment to the neuromuscular spindle cell is appropriate. It makes little sense to try to make a normal muscle more normal by this technique, as was attempted in this study.
The effect of oral administration of refined sugar on muscle strength, Rybeck, D., Swenson, R.
J Manipulative Physiol Ther, 1980;3:155-161
Abstract: The discipline of Applied Kinesiology has described a weakening of major muscle groups in certain experimental subjects upon refined sugar being placed in the mouth. Manual muscle testing, particularly of the latissimus dorsi muscle, has been associated clinically with sugar metabolism. The weakening phenomenon was investigated using an isometric, mechanically measured, test of the latissimus dorsi and a manual test of the same muscle in 73 subjects. Tests were conducted blind prior to and following sugar being placed in the mouths of the experimental group and nothing being given to the controls. The mechanical test showed no statistically significant change upon sugar administration while the manual test revealed a statistically significant difference (p = 0.0062) between the control and the experimental groups. Alternative explanations for the “weakening” phenomenon observed in the experimental group with manual muscle testing are discussed as are possible explanations for the apparent inability of the mechanical test to distinguish the control from the experimental group.
Comment: As noted previously, it is not expected that everyone will weaken when sugar is placed in the mouth. On a clinical basis it is observed that patients who have sugar handling stress more frequently weaken when sugar is placed in the mouth than does the random population. The failure of the manual muscle test to correlate with the mechanical transducer finding is supported by studies by Blaich and Mendenhall showing the difference between manual muscle testing and the Cybex II instrument testing.
New diagnostic and therapeutic approach to thyroid-associated orbitopathy based on applied kinesiology and homeopathic therapy, Moncayo, R., Moncayo, H., Ulmer, H., Kainz, H.
J Altern Complement Med, 2004 Aug;10(4):643-50.
Objectives: To investigate pathogenetic mechanisms related to the lacrimal and lymphatic glands in patients with thyroid-associated orbitopathy (TAO), and the potential of applied kinesiology diagnosis and homeopathic therapeutic measures. Design: Prospective.
Settings/location: Thyroid outpatient unit and a specialized center for complementary medicine (WOMED, Innsbruck; R.M. and H.M.). Subjects: Thirty-two (32) patients with TAO, 23 with a long-standing disease, and 9 showing discrete initial changes. All patients were euthyroid at the time of the investigation. Interventions: Clinical investigation was done, using applied kinesiology methods. Departing from normal reacting muscles, both target organs as well as therapeutic measures were tested. Affected organs will produce a therapy localization (TL) that turns a normal muscle tone weak. Using the same approach, specific counteracting therapies (i.e., tonsillitis nosode and lymph mobilizing agents) were tested. Outcome measures: Change of lid swelling, of ocular movement discomfort, ocular lock, tonsil reactivity and Traditional Chinese Medicine criteria including tenderness of San Yin Jiao (SP6) and tongue diagnosis were recorded in a graded fashion. Results: Positive TL reactions were found in the submandibular tonsillar structures, the tonsilla pharyngea, the San Yin Jiao point, the lacrimal gland, and with the functional ocular lock test. Both Lymphdiaral® (Pascoe, Giessen, Germany) and the homeopathic preparation chronic tonsillitis nosode at a C3 potency (Spagyra,® Grödig, Austria) counteracted these changes. Both agents were used therapeutically over 3–6 months, after which all relevant parameters showed improvement. Conclusions: Our study demonstrates the involvement of lymphatic structures and flow in the pathogenesis of TAO. The tenderness of the San Yin Jiao point correlates to the abovementioned changes and should be included in the clinical evaluation of these patients.
Applied Kinesiology (AK), Perle, S.
Chiro Technique, 7(3);Aug 1995:103-107
Abstract: Applied Kinesiology (AK) intends to be a comprehensive interdisciplinary approach to health care. It postulates that human disease can be seen as an alteration in the function in structural, chemical, and/or mental aspects of the body. Unique to AK is the use of manual muscle testing procedures to aid in the diagnosis of the structural, chemical and/or mental aspects of a disease process. After treatment, AK again uses manual muscle testing procedures to determine the effectiveness of the treatment. Therefore, manual muscle testing is used both to diagnose specific dysfunction and to assess outcomes.
Neuromuscular relaxation and CCMDP. Rolfing and applied kinesiology (article in Italian), Santoro, F., Maiorana, C., Geirola, R.
Dent Cadmos. 1989 Nov 15;57(17):76-80.
Applied Kinesiology: Muscle Response In Diagnosis, Therapy And Preventive Medicine, Meal G.
Eur J Chiro, Jun 1986;34(2):107
Quantification of the Inhibition of Muscular Strength Following the Application of a Chiropractic Maneuver, Perot, D., Goubel, F., Meldener, R.
Journale de Biophysique et de Biomecanique. 1986; 32(10):471-474.
Basal Facts, 9(2);1987:69-73
Abstract: This paper presents the applied kinesiology approach for treating structurally based disorders of the temporomandibular joint through an integrated approach to patient care. This approach may require close cooperation between dental orthopedic and chiropractic professionals in evaluating and treating patients. Dental occlusion is suggested to be part of a larger pattern of function that includes the spine, pelvis, cranium, and neuromuscular systems that span them. The jaws, cranium, spine and pelvis are considered as interdependent parts of the whole body system. The AK protocol for evaluation of these factors is presented, and specific techniques for the diagnosis and treatment the musculature of the stomatognathic system are offered.
Applied kinesiology and colon health, White, P.
Basal Facts, 1985;7(2):143-50.
Abstract: A review of the physiology of the gastro-intestinal tract is given, as well as the anatomical and bio-chemical factors that may disturb normal function in the colon. A protocol of AK evaluation is offered for the examination of the gastro-intestinal tract. The ileocecal valve’s importance for normal colon health is described, and dietary and nutritional advice is given for disturbances in the colon.
Uses of applied kinesiology for dentists, Walther, D.S.
Basal Facts, 1985;7(2):133-41.
Abstract: This paper also describes the applied kinesiology approach for treating structurally based disorders of the temporomandibular joint through an integrated approach to patient care. This approach may require close cooperation between dental orthopedic and chiropractic professionals in evaluating and treating patients. Dental occlusion is suggested to be part of a larger pattern of function that includes the spine, pelvis, cranium, and neuromuscular systems that span them. The jaws, cranium, spine and pelvis are considered as interdependent parts of the whole body system. The AK protocol for evaluation of these factors is presented, and specific techniques for the diagnosis and treatment of the musculature of the stomatognathic system are offered.
Neurophysiologic Inhibition of Strength Following Tactile Stimulation of the Skin, Nicholas, J.A., Melvin, M., Saraniti, A.J.
American Journal of Sports Medicine. 1980; 8:181-186.
Abstract: A modified shoulder abduction manual muscle test was incorporated in this study to demonstrate strength changes following tactile stimulation of the skin. Resistance was applied to the distal radioulnar joint and the stimulus (scratching) was applied inferior to the clavicle on the clavicular head of the pectoralis major muscle after maximum contraction. An electromechanical device quantified the isotonic (eccentric) measurements. A standard dynamometer system (Cybex II) was used to measure isometric strength. The nondominant side was used as the "control." Two populations, a normal (random) and a strong (athletic) group, were studied. Twenty-three persons (52% women, 48% men; mean age, 27 years; mean height, 67 inches (170 cm); and mean weight, 147 lb (66.7 kg)) were in the "normal" group and 17 persons (100% men; mean age, 25 years; mean height, 74 inches (188 cm); and mean weight, 215 lb (97.5kg)) were in the "strong" group. The random population showed a 19% decrease in strength following tactile stimulation as measured by the manual muscle testing unit; the athletic population showed a 17% decrease in strength. With the isometric measurements, the random population had an 8% decrease in mean strength following the scratch but the athletic population showed no significant decrease. The capability to quantify objectively manual muscle tests is discussed in relation to the importance of the proximal musculature.
Comment: This study demonstrates a small part of the potentiality of the AK technique called Therapy Localization or TL. In AK, TL is a simple, non-invasive technique to find out where a problem in the body exists. TL doesn’t show the physician what the problem is but shows that something under the hand that is contacting the patient’s body is disturbing the nervous system. “Neurophysiologic Inhibition of Strength Following Tactile Stimulation of the Skin” states this dynamic precisely. In AK, positive TL always calls for further investigation to the area concerned. The 17% and 8% decrease in strength following TL demonstrated in this study would create a MMT finding of 4 (or inhibited) as graded in the Guides to the Evaluation of Permanent Impairment, 4th Edition by the American Medical Association.
An Experimental Evaluation of Kinesiology in Allergy and Deficiency Disease Diagnosis, Scopp, A.
Journal of Orthomolecular Psychiatry. 1979; 7(2):137-8.
Factors Influencing Manual Muscle Tests in Physical Therapy, Nicholas, J. A., Sapega, A., Kraus, H., Webb, J.N.
Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. 1978; 60-A:186-190.
Abstract: To determine whether it is the amount or the duration of the force applied manually by the tester, or both, that determines the tester's perception of the strength of the hip flexor or abductor muscles, an electromechanical device was designed which was placed between the tester's hand and the subject's limb. With the device we measured the force applied to the limb, the time interval during which it was applied, and the angular position of the limb during the entire test. In 240 such tests, the testers' ratings of the differences in strength between the right and left sides were correlated with seven variables involving force and time. It was found statistically that the impulse--that is, the duration of the tester's effort multiplied by the average applied force during each test--was the factor that most influenced the tester in the ratings.
Applied Kinesiology: An opinion, Diamond, J. M.D.
J Int Acad Prevent Med, July 1977:97
Applied kinesiology using the acupuncture meridian concept: critical evaluation of its potential as the simplest non-invasive means of diagnosis, and compatibility test of food and drugs – Part I, Omura, Y.
Int J Acupuncture & Electro-Therapeut Res, 4:165-183
Abstract: By critically evaluating exceptions that may lead to false diagnoses, as well as by improving the currently-used applied kinesiology diagnostic method (="Dysfunction Localization Method"), the author was able to develop the "Thumb-Index Finger Bi-Digital O-Ring Diagnostic Method," using the Applied Kinesiology Dysfunction Localization Principle. By combining the author's "Bi-Digital O-Ring Dysfunction Localization Method" with clinically useful organ representation points in acupuncture medicine (where the presence of tenderness at the organ representation point is used for diagnosis as well as for the location of treatment), it has become possible to make early diagnoses of most of the internal organs, with an average diagnostic accuracy of over 85%, without knowing the patient's history or using any instruments. The method can detect dysfunctioning or diseased organs even before tenderness appears at the organ representation point, with an applied force of less than 1 gm/mm2 on the skin surface, while the detection of tenderness at the organ representation point often requires a minimum applied force of 80-100 gm/mm2. The method was applied to the "Drug and Food Compatibility Test" to determine the probable effects of a given food or drug on individual internal organs without going through time-consuming, expensive laboratory tests. It was also applied to auricular organ representation points and their evaluation, and has succeeded in increasing their diagnostic sensitivity. The method was also used for the evaluation of magnetic fields. Usually the North pole increased muscle strength and the South pole weakened it at most parts of the body. This simple, improved, economical diagnostic method may have invaluable implications in clinical diagnosis, treatment and drug research.
Applied kinesiology: its use in veterinary diagnosis, Tiekert, C.G.
Vet Med Small Anim Clin. 1981 Nov;76(11):1621-3.
Kinesiology and Dentistry, Goodheart, G.
J Amer Soc Psychosomatic Disease, 1976;6:16-18
PUBLISHED APPLIED KINESIOLOGY TEXTS
Applied Kinesiology Research Manuals Goodheart, G.J.
Privately published yearly (1964 to 1998)
You’ll Be Better – The Story of Applied Kinesiology, Goodheart, G.J.