Wired Broadband and Related Industry Glossary of Terms with Acronyms As of 13 June 2011 Compiled By: Conrad L. Young, Director, Broadband Technical Strategy



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IPDR

Internet Protocol Data Record


IPDR


Internet Protocol Design Record

IPDR
Internal Preliminary Design Review

IPG
Interactive Program Guide

IPI

Intelligent Peripheral Interface as defined by ANSI X3T9.3 document. [Fib111]
IPPV
Impulse-Pay-Per-View

IPR
Intellectual Property Rights

IPsec
Internet Protocol Security

IPv6

Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6) is a version of the Internet Protocol (IP) that is designed to succeed Internet Protocol version 4 (IPv4). The Internet operates by transferring data in small packets that are independently routed across networks as specified by an international communications protocol known as the Internet Protocol. Each data packet contains two numeric addresses that are the packet's origin and destination devices. Since 1981, IPv4 has been the publicly used Internet Protocol, and it is currently the foundation for most Internet communications. The Internet's growth has created a need for more addresses than IPv4 has. IPv6 allows for vastly more numerical addresses, but switching from IPv4 to IPv6 may be a difficult process. IPv6 was developed by the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) to deal with the long-anticipated IPv4 address exhaustion, and is described in Internet standard document RFC 2460, published in December 1998.[1] Like IPv4, IPv6 is an Internet Layer protocol for packet-switched internetworking and provides end-to-end datagram transmission across multiple IP networks. While IPv4 allows 32 bits for an Internet Protocol address, and can therefore support 232 (4,294,967,296) addresses, IPv6 uses 128-bit addresses, so the new address space supports 2128 (approximately 340 undecillion or 3.4×1038) addresses. This expansion allows for many more devices and users on the internet as well as extra flexibility in allocating addresses and efficiency for routing traffic. It also eliminates the primary need for network address translation (NAT), which gained widespread deployment as an effort to alleviate IPv4 address exhaustion. IPv6 implements additional features not present in IPv4. It simplifies aspects of address assignment (stateless address autoconfiguration) and network renumbering (prefix and router announcements) when changing Internet connectivity providers. The IPv6 subnet size has been standardized by fixing the size of the host identifier portion of an address to 64 bits to facilitate an automatic mechanism for forming the host identifier from link layer media addressing information (MAC address). Network security is also integrated into the design of the IPv6 architecture, and the IPv6 specification mandates support for IPsec as a fundamental interoperability requirement. The last top level (/8) block of free IPv4 addresses was assigned in February 2011, although many free addresses still remain in most assigned blocks and will continue to be allocated for some time.[2] While IPv6 has been implemented on all major operating systems in use in commercial, business, and home consumer environments,[3] IPv6 does not implement interoperability features with IPv4, and creates essentially a parallel, independent network. Exchanging traffic between the two networks requires special translator gateways, but modern computer operating systems implement dual-protocol software for transparent access to both networks using 'tunneling'. In December 2010, despite marking its 12th anniversary as a Standards Track protocol, IPv6 was only in its infancy in terms of general worldwide deployment. A 2008 study [4] by Google Inc. indicated that penetration was still less than one percent of Internet-enabled hosts in any country at that time. Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/IPv6 18 February 2011 Reference links (from Wikipedia):

  1. ^ a b c d e f RFC 2460, Internet Protocol, Version 6 (IPv6) Specification, S. Deering, R. Hinden (December 1998)

  2. ^ [1]

  3. ^ Google: more MACs mean higher IPv6 usage in US

  4. ^ Global IPv6 Statistics - Measuring the current state of IPv6 for ordinary users, S. H. Gunderson (Google), RIPE 57 (Dubai, Oct 2008)

Links to related information: http://ipv6.com/ and SCTE sponsored primer: http://www.scte.org/mmpres/Primer/IPv6/index.html

The following is a link to a presentation by Geoff Huston, APNIC Chief Scientist, on IPv4 exhaustion and IPv6 transition. It is ten (10) minutes long, but Geoff is an animated speaker and it's a good overview of the situation:

IPv4 Exhaustion and IPv6 Transition Video





IR

Infrared
IRC
Incremental Related Carriers. A cable plant frequency plan in which all channels except 5 and 6 correspond with the standard channel plan. This technique is used to reduce composite triple beat distortions. [Arr11]

IRD



An integrated receiver and decoder for reception of a transmission of voice, video and data. [Sat07]


IRE Unit



An arbitrary unit created by the Institute of Radio Engineers (IRE) to describe the amplitude characteristic of a video signal, where pure white is defined as 100 IRE with a corresponding voltage of 0.714 Volts and the blanking level is 0 IRE with a corresponding voltage of 0.286 Volts.

IRE Unit Scale courtesy of Fiber Optics Info, http://www.fiber-optics.info/fiber_optic_glossary/i



Irradiance

Power per unit area. [Fib111]
ISA
Industry Standard Architecture

ISA

Instrumentation, Systems, and Automation Society; an international, non-profit, technical organization. The society fosters advancement of the use of sensors, instruments, computers, and systems for measurement and control in variety of applications. [Fib111] http://www.isa.org

ISDN
Integrated Systems Digital Network. Technology that offers digital transmission rates up to 128 kbps over an existing twisted pair copper telephone line.

ISDN Adapter
A piece of telephone equipment that connects directly to an ISDN line or the S/T Interface of an NT-1.


ISDN Digital Subscriber Line (IDSL)
IDSL is a 128Kbps standard proposed by the Ascend Corporation for providing low-cost, dedicated 128Kbps data service using telephone lines and central office switch facility space leased from the telephone company. It uses standard Point-to- Point ISDN signaling techniques to link the customer to the central office headend. See also xDSL.


ISDN Network Terminator, Type 1 (NT-1)
The NT-1 is the dividing line and bridge between the telephone company's ISDN connection ends and the customer's ISDN connection begins. On the telephone company's side of the connection is the two-wire U Interface, on the customer's side of the connection is the eight wire S/T Interface, which connects to the customer's ISDN adapter(s). Most consumer market ISDN adapters sold in North America come with a built-in NT-1, but in Europe and Japan the NT-1 is provided by the phone company, and the ISDN customer has to have equipment that will plug into an S/T bus connection. An external NT-1 can have its advantages. The ISDN S/T interface can support multiple ISDN adapters, as long as each adapter has an S/T Interface and its own SPID.

ISDN User Part (ISUP)


A protocol within the SS7 suite of protocols that is used for call signaling within an SS7 network

ISI

Inter-Symbol Interference
ISM Band

Industrial, Scientific and Medical (ISM) band; part of the radio spectrum that can be used by anybody without a license in most countries. In the U.S., the 902-928 MHz, 2.4 GHz and 5.7-5.8 GHz bands were initially used for machines that emitted radio frequencies, such as RF welders, industrial heaters and microwave ovens, but not for radio communications. In 1985, the FCC Rules (Part 15.247) opened up the ISM bands for wireless LANs and mobile communications. In 1997, it added additional bands in the 5 GHz range under Part 15.407, known as the Unlicensed National Information Infrastructure (U-NII). Europe's HIPERLAN wireless LANs use the same 5 GHz bands, which are entitled the "Broadband Radio Access Network." Numerous applications use the ISM/U-NII bands, including cordless phones, wireless garage door openers, wireless microphones, vehicle tracking and amateur radio. [PCm11]

ISM Band Power Limits

ISM Band Frequencies

Application

Power Limit

902 – 928 MHz

Cordless Phones

1 Watt (W)




Microwave Ovens

750 W




Industrial Heaters

100k W




Military Radar

1000k W

2.4 – 2.4835 GHz

Bluetooth

100 milliwatt




Wi-Fi 802.11b/g

1 W




Microwave Ovens

1200 W




Cordless Phones

1 W

5 GHz

U-NII 5 GHz Bands




5.15 – 5.25 GHz

Wi-Fi 802.11a/n

200 milliwatt

5.25 – 5.35 GHz

Wi-Fi 802.11a/n

1 W

5.47 – 5.725 GHz

Wi-Fi 802.11a/n

1 W

5.725 – 5.825 GHz

Wi-Fi 802.11a/n

4 W

60 GHz







57 - 64 GHz


WirelessHD







WiGig





ISO
International Organization for Standardization; established in 1947, ISO is a worldwide federation of national standards committees from 140 countries. The organization promotes the development of standardization throughout the world with a focus on facilitating the international exchange of goods and services, and developing the cooperation of intellectual, scientific, technological, and economical activities. [Fib111] http://www.iso.ch/iso/en/ISOOnline.frontpage

Isolation

The ability of a circuit or component to reject interference, usually expressed in dB. [Arr11]
Isolation Loss

The amount of signal attenuation of a passive device from output port to tap outlet port. [Arr11]
Isolator

A device that allows signals to pass unobstructed in one direction but which attenuates their strength in the reverse direction. [Arr11]



Isotropic Antenna

A hypothetical omnidirectional point-source antenna that serves as an engineering reference for the measurement of antenna gain. [Sat07]
ISP
Internet Service Provider; a company or organization that provides Internet connections to individuals or companies via dial-up, ISDN, T1, or some other connection. [Fib111]

ISTP
Internet Signaling Transport Protocol

ISUP
Integrated Services Digital Network User Part

ISUP
ISDN User Part

ITFS

Instructional Television Fixed Services, a block of frequencies allocated for broadcast of wireless signals by educational institutions in the United States. [Arr11]



ITS

Institute for Telecommunication Sciences, ITS, is the research and engineering branch of the National Telecommunications and Information Administration (NTIA), a part of the U.S. Department of Commerce (DOC). The Institute is located at 325 Broadway, Boulder, CO 80305–3328. [ITS96]
ITU
International Telecommunications Union

ITV
Interactive Television

IVR
Interactive Voice Response System

IXC (Interexchange Carrier)

An IXC is a telecommunications carrier that provides service between LECs (local exchange carriers). LECs may be the incumbent carriers that were formed by the breakup of AT&T (previously called the RBOCs or "regional Bell operating companies"), or they may be CLECs (competitive local exchange carriers), which operate as competitive carriers in the same area as the incumbent LECs. LECs operate within one or more local areas called the LATA (local access and transport area). The IXCs (interexchange carriers) provide inter-LATA service (basically, long-distance service). They are allowed to co-locate equipment at LEC facilities and tap into the LEC's switching equipment so that LEC customers can make long-distance calls across the IXC's network. All LECs must provide interexchange carriers with an access point, called the PoP (point of presence). Common IXCs are AT&T, MCI Worldcom, and Sprint. This topic is covered in more detail under "Service Providers and Carriers" and "Telecommunications Regulation." [Tom11]

J:

J2EE
Java Two Enterprise Edition

Jacket



Pertaining to wire and cable, the outer sheath which protects against the environment and may also provide additional insulation. [Arr11]

Jacket Diagram courtesy of Fiber Optics Info, http://www.fiber-optics.info/fiber_optic_glossary/j


Jammer

An active electronic counter-measures (ECM) device designed to deny intelligence to unfriendly detectors or to disrupt communications. [Sat07]
Java API
Java Application Program Interface; a standard interface for use by platform-independent application software. It is expressed in the Java language.

Java Development Kit (JDK)


A set of resources, including software and documents, provided by Sun Microsystems to enable developers to program in the Java language.

Java Media Framework (JMF)


A Java package providing functionality primarily for data streaming.

Java Secure Socket Extension (JSSE)


A Java package providing functionality for secure network communications.

JDK
Java Development Kit

JEDEC



Joint Electronic Devices Engineering Council; an international body of semiconductor manufacturers that set integrated circuit (IC) standards. JEDEC was originally created in 1960 to cover the standardization of discrete semiconductor devices and later expanded in 1970 to include integrated circuits. JEDEC does its work through its 50 committees/subcommittees that are overseen by the JEDEC Board of Directors. Member companies in JEDEC include both manufacturers and users of semiconductor components as well as others who are allied to the field. [JED11]


JFET



Junction Field Effect Transistor; a type of field-effect transistor in which the semiconductor gate region or regions form one or more p-n junctions with the conduction channel. [Fre11]
Jitter
The variance in latency, or variability in the delay of a stream of incoming packets making up a flow such as a voice communication.

JMF
Java Media Framework

Joule



An international unit of work or energy. The work required to maintain a current of one ampere through one ohm for one second. A watt-second. [Arr11]
JPEG

Joint Photographic Experts Group; the name of the committee that developed the format. JPEG is a compressed image file format. JPEG images are not limited to a certain amount of color, like GIF images are. Therefore, the JPEG format is best for compressing photographic images. So if you see a large, colorful image on the Web, it is most likely a JPEG file. While JPEG images can contain colorful, high-resolution image data, it is a lossy format, which means some quality is lost when the image is compressed. If the image is compressed too much, the graphics become noticeably "blocky" and some of the detail is lost. Like GIFs, JPEGs are crossplatform, meaning the same file will look the same on both a Mac and PC. File extensions: .JPG, .JPEG. [Tec11]
JPEG File Interchange Format (JFIF)
A platform-agnostic JPEG file format.

JSSE
Java Secure Socket Extension

JTS
Joint Test Suite

Jumper



A short piece of transmission line used to interface components in a broadcast system. [Cha07]
Jumper Cable
Short length of flexible coaxial cable used in older cable television systems to connect system coaxial cable to amplifiers or other cable television components.

 

K:



Ka-band
33 to 36 GHz (gigahertz) frequency band used by satellites. Orbital location of two- way satellite data services provided by DBS companies.

kBaud



One thousand symbols of data per second. Equivalent to 1 kb/s for binary signaling. [Fib111]
Kbps
KiloBits Per Second

KDC
Key Distribution Center

KEK
Key Encryption Key

Kelvin (K)

The temperature above absolute zero at which all molecular motion stops, used with reference to the color temperature of a light source. Zero K is equal to -273.15°C. Also, the unit of measure used to rate low noise amplifiers (LNAs) and low noise block converters (LNBs). [Arr11]
Kerberos
A secret-key network authentication protocol that uses a choice of cryptographic algorithms for encryption and a centralized key database for authentication.


Kevlar

A very strong, very light, synthetic compound developed by DuPont which is used to strengthen optical cables. [Fib111]
Key Distribution Center (KDC)
A network service that supplies tickets and temporary session keys.

Key Exchange
The swapping of public keys between entities to be used to encrypt communication between the entities.


Key Handling Epoch
The time interval within the application processing that starts with the delivery of a user interface (UI) event to the application and ends with the notification to the platform that the application has completed all actions that may either cause the platform to forward that same key to another application, or influence how the platform will handle the subsequent key. In the case of the execution engine, this notification consists of returning from a key handling callback.


Key Management
The process of distributing shared symmetric keys needed to run a security protocol.


Key Pair
An associated public and private key where the correspondence between the two are mathematically related, but it is computationally infeasible to derive the private key from the public key.


Keying

Generating signals by the interruption or modulation of a steady signal or carrier. [Fib111]
Keying Material
A set of cryptographic keys and their associated parameters normally associated with a particular run of a security protocol.

Keys
Keys are numeric assignments for the various calling features an ISDN adapter supports, like call drop, transfer and hold. Also called buttons, keys get their names from the various feature buttons on an advanced multi-line voice phone. Or a mathematical value input into the selected cryptographic algorithm.


Keyspace
The range of all possible values of the key for a particular cryptographic algorithm.


kg

Kilogram; approximately 2.2 pounds. [Fib111]
kHz

Kilohertz; one thousand cycles per second. [Arr11]
Kilo (K)
Meaning one thousand. Communications and computer terminology, however, uses the term K or Kilo differently. In communications terminology, one K is equal to 1000, but when measuring computer memory or disk space, one K is equal to 1024.


Kilobit

One thousand bits. [Arr11]
Kilohertz (kHz)

  1. One thousand hertz. 2. One thousand cycles per second. [Arr11]

KiloBits Per Second (Kbps)

One Kbps is equal to 1000 bits transmitted in one second.
Kinescope

The Kinescope was inventor Vladimir Zworykin’s version of a cathode ray tube. Armed with a kinescope and his patented iconoscope camera tube, Zworykin and RCA spawned the birth of the television industry. [Glo07]
Kinescope Recording
A film recording made by a motion picture camera designed to photograph a television program directly from the front of a television tube. Often called a “kine.”

Klystron



The Klystron is an electron tube that makes use of velocity modulation in order to amplify or create ultra high frequency waves. As well as being instrumental in the advent of Doppler radar (which was, in fact, the invention that helped defeat the Axis powers in World War Two) the Klystron was instrumental in the development of high frequency broadcasting, which made large-scale broadcast television possible. [Glo07]
km

Kilometer; 1 km = 3,280 feet or 0.62 miles. [Fib111]
KS Adapter

Adapts a housing (pin) connector to another type of connector. [Arr11]
KS Port Terminator

Designed to terminate unused ports on distribution equipment. Terminates 60 cycle VAC and RF signals. [Arr11]

Ku-band
The group of microwave frequencies from 12 to 18 GHz; the band of satellite downlink frequencies from 11.7 to 12.2 GHz.

Ku-Band Feedhorn



Equipment located at the center of a satellite antenna, used to collect Ku-band satellite downlink (11.7 to 12.2 GHz) signals and direct them into a low noise amplifier (LNA) or low noise block converter (LNB). [Arr11]

L:



Lambertian Emitter

An emitter that radiates according to Lambert’s cosine law, which states that the radiance of certain idealized surfaces depends on the viewing angle of the surface. The radiant intensity of such a surface is maximum normal to the surface and decreases in proportion to the cosine of the angle from the normal. Given by:

N = N0cosA

Where:
N = radiant intensity
N
0 = radiance normal to an emitting surface.
A = angle between the viewing direction and the normal to the surface.

LAN
Local Area Network; a series of cable-connected work stations and computers that are linked in a limited geographical area. Usually high-bandwidth networks which connect many nodes. Distance between nodes is limited to a few kilometers. [Arr11]

Large Core Fiber

Usually, a fiber with a core of 200 µm or more. [Fib111]
Large Effective Area Fiber (LEAF)

An optical fiber, developed by Corning, designed to have a large area in the core, which carries the light. [Fib111]


Laser
Acronym for "
light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation”. A device that generates coherent electromagnetic radiation in, or near, the visible part of the spectrum. [Arr11]

Laser Diode



A semiconductor that emits coherent light when forward biased. [Fib111]

Laser Diode Diagram courtesy of Fiber Optics Info, http://www.fiber-optics.info/fiber_optic_glossary/l


Laser Speckle
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