Three-dimensional axes Micro-Electrical Mechanical Systems (MEMS) [IEC06]
3D MEMS Optical Switch
Three-dimensional -Electrical Mechanical Systems (MEMS) optical switch; more flexible and scalable than the 2D systems, 3D MEMS allow for more light paths through the switch. However, 3D MEMS are more complex and costly than the generally smaller and easier-to-manufacture 2D design . These devices are usually referred to as A x A in size, where A is the number of input and output ports. Thus, a 32 x 32 switch can direct any of 32 input signals to any of 32 output signals. Due to their complexity, 3D MEMS devices typically support much larger switch core sizes. [IEC06]
1 T. Freeman, "MEMS Devices Put Their Stamp on Optical Networking," Fibre Systems Europe, September 2004.
3D MEMS Optical Switch Diagram courtesy of International Engineering Consortium, http://www.iec.org/newsletter/jan06_2/broadband_1.html
Three-dimensional television, also referred to as “3D Standard Definition TV”; the next step in the evolution of television receivers and associated content creation beyond two-dimensional HDTV and two-dimensional “Super TV”. The following lists the evolution of the TV in terms of display capabilities and connected network bandwidth requirements per viewed screen:
Television (TV) evolution:
2D Standard Definition In general use today worldwide
Requires approximately 2Mbps bandwidth (BW) per TV
2D HDTV In general use today worldwide
Requires approximately 10Mbps BW per TV using MPEG4 -- today’s most advanced commercially available compression standard
2D Super Defined by ITU J.601, published 01 July 2007*
Requires 50 Mbps BW per TV
3D Standard Definition Not defined by ITU J.601
Demonstrated by several TV OEMs
Requires 126 Mbps BW per TV
2D Ultra Defined by ITU J.601, published 01 July 2007*
Requires 200 Mbps BW per TV
3D HDTV Not defined by ITU J.601
On display at 2008 CES
Requires 280 Mbps BW per TV
3D Super Not defined by ITU J.601
Requires 796 Mbps BW per TV
3D Ultra Not defined by ITU J.601
Requires 2.571 Gbps BW per TV
*ITU-T J.601 AMD 1 Document Information:
Transport of Large Screen Digital Imagery (LSDI) applications for its expanded hierarchy Amendment 1: Modification of required picture and scanning characteristics
International Telecommunication Union/ITU Telecommunication Sector
Jul 1, 2007
Source: “Advantages of Optical Access, Fiber to the Home”, 3rd edition, Spring 2009, published by the FTTH Council, http://www.FTTHCouncil.org.
Source: “Fiber-Based Telecommunications Infrastructure for Residential Multi-Dwelling Units”, by Guy Swindell, Applications Engineering Manager, OFS Optics, firstname.lastname@example.org, Spring 2009.
Three-dimensional high definition television; Not defined by ITU J.601; On display at 2008 Consumer Electronics Show (CES); Requires 280 Mbps BW per TV.
A form of modulation with 1024 symbols per quadrant, each symbol representing a pair of encoded bits, one for in-phase (I) and one for quadrature (Q) encoded information. Sometimes referred to as “4k-QAM”. The DVB-C2 standard includes 4096-QAM as an optional telecommunications network modulation format. Preliminary European network experimental results show that 4096 QAM can be deployed in the networks studied. Refer to the Glossary subject “M-ary QAM” for more details.
Excerpt from “Network Capacity Estimates - Sneek Preview”, presentation made during 8th Broadband Technology Conference, 02 Sep 09