Which of the following is true regarding a relative frame of reference



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Bergen 14

Which of the following is true regarding a relative frame of reference:

a. It changes as objects in the scene move relative to each other

b. It could be described as putting yourself in the objects’ point of view

c. It does not vary as objects move

d. It is talked about in terms that reference world directions (North, South, East, West)

e. It changes as the observer moves

The decline in infants’ ability to attend to the objects’ relationship to one another in terms that are not emphasized in their native language, as they age, is a pattern most similar to which of the following phenomenon?



a. VOT and phoneme differentiation

b. Embodied cognitive abilities

c. Statistical language analysis

d. Language lateralization

e. Conduction aphasia

Native speakers of Spanish and German, languages with grammatical gender, are asked to describe a bridge. Bridges are grammatically “male” in Spanish and grammatically “female” in German. Which of the following set of results is the most likely?



a. The Spanish speaker will use mostly “male” adjectives, while the German speaker will use mostly “female” adjectives.

b. The Spanish speaker will use mostly “female” adjectives, while the German speaker will use mostly “male” adjectives.

c. Both speakers will use mostly “male” adjectives.

d. Both speakers will use mostly “female” adjectives.

e. None of the above.

The cup is west of the plate. The cup is next to the plate. The cup is behind the plate. The cup is to the right of the plate. None of the above The cat is to the downhill of the dog. The red car is to the east of the building. The cow is right next to the barn. The rat is on the lion’s left. The dragon is to the right of the knight.True or False: As a foreign-language speaker, the earlier you learn English as a second language, the more you will behave like an English speaker in spatial and temporal cognition tasks.

a. True

b. False


True/False: The direction of writing in one’s native language affects the sequential allocation of visual attention in a non-linguistic task.

a. True

b. False


True or false: English speakers tend to perform quicker on spatial and temporal cognition tasks when they have been exposed to vertical priming while Chinese speakers perform quicker after horizontal priming.

a. True


b. False

English speakers remembered more pictures from the top right, while Chinese speakers remembered more pictures from the bottom right. English speakers remembered more pictures from the top left, while Taiwanese speakers remembered more pictures from the top right. English speakers remembered more pictures from the bottom left, while Taiwanese speakers remembered more pictures from the top left. English speakers and Taiwanese speakers had no spatial bias in remembering pictures, but Chinese speakers remembered more pictures from the top left. English, Chinese, and Taiwanese speakers had no spatial bias.Linguistic relativity refers to

a. How related our language is to our heritage and how it is demonstrated in our native cultures.

b. The way in which our native languages shape the way we think.

c. The way in which our language influences how we conceptualize our world.

d. b and c

e. None of the above

The Sapir-Whorf Hypthesis claims:

a. The language you immerse yourself in helps to carve up and shape your conception of the world.

b. The brain works in a domain-specific manner, with languages working in an isolated fashion.

c. Language can affect how we perceive and interact with the world.

d. Our cognition is not affected by language per se, but by the environment we grow up in

e. a and c

Korean infants and Korean adults would discern between tight and loose fitting pictures, while English speakers would not. English infants and adults wouldn’t discern between tight and loose fitting pictures. English and Korean infants could discern between tight and loose, but would end up loosing the discernment in adulthood. English and Korean infants could discern between tight and loose; however, English adults would lose the discernment while Korean adults would still be able to discern. English and Korean infants could discern between tight and loose; however, Korean adults would lose the discernment while English adults would still be able to discern.

Referring to an object's location as being ""due north"" of your own location is an example of a(n):

a. Relative frame of reference

b. Centric frame of reference

c. Absolute frame of reference

d. Intrinsic frame of reference

e. None of the above

is facing



Head Direction Cells

d. Hippocampal Cells

e. None of the above

Which brain area is involved for path centered representations, according to Dr. Nitz?



a. Parietal cortex

b. Temporal lobe

c. Frontal lobe

d. None of the above

Which of the following is NOT a cue used to for depth perception?

a. Motion parallax

b. Stereopsis

c. Texture Gradient

d. Occlusion

e. Retinal convergence

What does area VIP do?

a. Provides an allocentric representation of space.

b. Responsible for both visual and tactile information processing.

c. Contains a map of the egocentric space that extends beyond the body.

d. Maps out head direction in the world centered frame of reference.



e. Both b and c

BT4. Which of the following is true about head direction cells?

a. Their neural response map out hexagonal patterns.

b. They are solely located in the entorhinal cortex of the brain.



c. The faster the animal is movinging in a certain direction, the stronger the activity would be.

d. The firing pattern is primarily tuned to the exact location in a certain environment.

e. None of the above.

A position along a path can be defined in which of the following ways?

a. As a point in a space relative to the boundaries of the surroundings.

b. As a point along a path relative to other features of the path (turns, start/end point).

c. As a point at a certain distance along a path relative to its whole length (roughly X% along the path).

d. All of the above.

e. None of the above.

What is the neuron doctrine?

a. The neuron is the basic structural and functional unit of the brain.

b. The thalamus is the basic structural and functional unit of the brain.

c. The neocortex is the basic structural and functional unit of the brain.

d. The layers of neo-cortex are the basic structural and functional unit of the brain.

e. None of the above.

Hemi-neglect is most often associated with damage to the ____ parietal cortex and is associated with neglect of the _____ visual field. Hemi-neglect ______ also apply to object space.

a. left; left; does

b. right; right; does not

c. left; right; does not

d. right; left; does

e. none of the above

While head direction cells, place cells, and grid cells all help orient the self in an environment, which of these cells is sensitive to rotation of the environment?

a. Head direction cells

b. Place cells

c. Grid cells

d. None of them are sensitive to rotation of the environment.

e. All of them are sensitive to the rotation of the environment.

: The place cells are arranged according to the nodes of a set of ‘tesselated’ triangles. A tessellation is a pattern of plane figures that fills the plane with no overlaps and no gaps. The head direction cells are arranged according to the nodes of a set of ‘tesselated’ triangles. a and b All of the aboveBT2. Which of the following does NOT contribute to an egocentric frame of reference?

Somatosensory(skin)

Retinal


Proprioception

Exteroception

Musculature

True or False. The sensory homunculus is an example of an allocentric map.

a. True


b. False

What is the egocentric frame of reference?



a. Space as it pertains to the viewpoint of the observer.

b. Space as it pertains to such that every object has its own space.

c. Space as it pertains to routes that are traveled frequently.

d. It is an absolute or a world-centered frame of reference.

What structure keeps tracks of the output from head direction cells?

a. Cingulate Cortex

b. Hippocampus

c. Area VIP



d. Entorhinal Cortex

e. None of the above

Silva 14

The geometric structure of a network of neurons affects its____________

a. Life cycle

b. Function

c. Blood flow

d. Genetic expression

e. None of the above

Spatial summation is

a. The summation of both pre and post synaptic neurons

b. A way to measure a neuron’s firing rate

c. The summation of inputs from multiple presynaptic units along the dendritic tree.

d. The summation of multiple inputs from one presynaptic neuron

e. None of the above

Which part of a neuron decides whether sufficient inputs have been received to initiate an action potential?

a. Cell Body

b. Axon


c. Nucleus

d. Initial Segment

e. Synapse

A neuron sums inputs __ in order to decide whether to initiate an action potential.

a. Hierarchically

b. Temporally

c. Spatially



d. Both b and c

e. None of the above

What are white matter and gray matter, respectively?

a. neuron cell bodies; myelinated axons

b. neuron cell bodies; myelinated dendrites

c. myelinated axons; neuron cell bodies

d. myelinated dendrites; neuron cell bodies

e. None of the above is correct.

Bundles of axons in the central nervous system are called ________

a. Tracts

b. Gray matter

c. Ganglia

d. Nerves

e. None of the above

Bundles of axons in the peripheral nervous system are _______



a. Nerves

b. White matter

c. Gray matter

d. Tracts

e. None of the above

Cross-correlation maps can provide information about



a. Statistical association between brain regions

b. Causal relationships of neural activity among cells

c. Directionality of fiber tracts

d. Anatomical structures of neurons

e. The density of dendritic spines

The Human Connectome Project ____.

a. is a graphical interface that uses compiled data about the structure of the brain

b. is the first large-scale attempt to collect and share data about the structure and function of the brain

c. uses advanced neuroimaging methods to collect data from healthy individuals

d. is designed to obtain and share material for educational purposes



e. All of the above are correct statements.

The highly specific nature of each neuroimaging method, making integrating knowledge across different spatial scales challenging. The inability to reliably predict molecular-level cellular events, requiring a top-down approach to research. The scientific bias introduced by the use of nonhuman model organisms. The lack of options for imaging whole-brain networks of neurons, forcing researchers to examine smaller scales for insight. The interference caused by the brain’s inherent electrical activity, necessitating further technological development.Which of the following is true?

a. Effective connectivity refers to a reverse relationship between different brain regions and functional connectivity refers to a causal relationship



b. Effective connectivity refers to a causal relationship between different brain regions and functional connectivity refers to a correlational relationship.

c. Effective connectivity refers to a causal relationship between different brain regions and functional connectivity refers to a reverse relationship.

d. Effective connectivity refers to a reverse relationship between different brain regions and functional connectivity refers to a causal relationship.

e. Effective connectivity refers to a correlational relationship between different brain regions and functional connectivity refers to a causal relationship.

True or False. In schizophrenic patients, there are fewer dendritic spines than healthy individuals

a. True

b. False


True or False. Electron tomography (ET) is an imaging technique that uses beams of light to obtain detailed 3D structures of subcellular macromolecular objects.

a. True


b. False

Always a direct result of cutting the corpus callosum Always characterized by disorganized thought such as symptoms found in schizophrenia Always resulting from inability of the membrane potential of the initial segment to reach threshold Always resulting from disorders of signaling speed Always disorders of the structure or function of neural networks

Vul

Which of the following is not an example of probabilistic inference?



a. Discounting and marginalization

b. Models selection and induction

c. Explaining away

d. Hierarchical inference and abstraction



e. Deductive reasoning

Dr. Vul showed an animation of some shapes moving around on a screen (two triangles and a circle), and many students laughed. What was the point he was trying to illustrate?



a. Our brain excels at making inferences based on very impoverished data

b. Language is lateralized to the left hemisphere of the brain

c. We have an amazing ability to recognize faces

d. All of the above

e. None of the above

True or false? Bayes’ theorem relates hypotheses and data via conditional probabilities, and is therefore useful for inferring underlying causes for observed data.



a. True

b. False


Which of the following is not considered a part of Cox’s axioms of probability?

a. Degrees of belief are represented by real numbers

b. Self-consistency

c. Marginalization and discounting

d. Qualitative correspondence with common sense

e. b and c

What level of description is most naturally described in terms of probabilistic inference?

a. Behavioral

b. Computational

c. Environmental

d. Implementational

e. Algorithmic

Which of the following is an example of probabilistic inference?

a. Tradeoff between prior and evidence.

b. Integrating multiple cues

c. Explaining away

d. Discounting and marginalization

e. All of the above

Among Marr’s levels of analysis, which is involved in how the system (e.g., neuronal networks) is physically realized in the brain?

a. Behavioral

b. Computational

c. Environmental

d. Implementational

e. Algorithmic

Which of the following sentences is an example of incorrect deductive reasoning?

a. All of my jackets are brown. I am wearing one of my jackets. Therefore, the jacket I am wearing is brown.



b. Peter owns a black dog. I see a black dog in my yard. Therefore, the dog in my yard is Peter’s.

c. Children only cry when they are distressed. Martha’s son is crying. Therefore, Martha’s son is distressed.

d. All of my friends like ice cream. Tom is one of my friends. Therefore, Tom likes ice cream.

e. None of the above.

True or False. Probabilistic models help to explain cognitive robustness in the face of noisy sensory information and internal uncertainty.

a. True

b. False


If observed data is highly probable when a hypothesis is true, Bayesian probability states that the ____________ is high.

a. Posterior probability

b. Computational probability

c. Likelihood

d. Prior probability

e. Consistency

Tradeoff between prior and evidence Hierarchical inference and abstraction Deductive planning and action Integrating multiple cues Growing structured representationsIf you’re on drugs and see an elephant in a shopping mall, you’re likely to think that the elephant is a hallucination. If you’re on drugs and see an elephant near a zoo, you’re more likely to think that the elephant is real. What is a natural Bayesian inference formulation for this scenario?



a. The prior probability of seeing an elephant is higher near a zoo than near a mall, so the hypothesis that you’re seeing correctly is given a higher probability near a zoo.

b. The prior probability of seeing an elephant is higher near a mall than a zoo, so the hypothesis that you’re seeing correctly is given a higher probability near a mall.

c. The posterior probability of seeing an elephant is higher near a mall than near a zoo, so the hypothesis that you’re seeing correctly is given a higher probability near a zoo.

d. a and be

e. None of the above

Which of the following is not a term in Bayes’ Theorem?

a. Prior probability

b. Posterior probability



c. Marginal probability

d. Likelihood

e. Evidence

True / False: According to David Marr, there is a single best level of description to understand how the brain works.

a. True

b. False

Jernigan 14

Which of the following is true?

a. Cerebral gray matter volume stays constant until old age, at which time it increases



b. Cerebral gray matter volume decreases throughout one's life time

c. Cerebral gray matter volume increases in early child hood, stays level through adulthood, and then starts to decline in old age

d. Cerebral gray matter volume stays constant throughout one's life time

e. None of the above

Which of the following decreases noticeably during early childhood?

a. Cortical area

b. Cortical volume

c. Cortical thickness

d. All of the above

e. None of the above

Diffusion tensor imaging is a technique for:

a. Imaging brain response to different sensory stimuli

b. Imaging the diffusion of molecules, for example water

c. Imaging the size and direction of myelinated white matter tracts

d. b and c

e. All of the above

True or False. Apparent cortical thinning may be due to the continual myelination of axononal processes instead of the true loss of neuronal cell bodies in the brain.

a. True

b. False


In the ____ task, fractional anisotropy is greater in children who are better at the task.

a. Flanker task

b. Stop-signal task

c. Spatial working memory task

d. None of the above

e. All of the above

Brain imaging studies indicate that individual differences in brain development are associated with differences in ___ among children

a. Cognitive capacity

b. Emotional profile

c. Physical attractiveness

d. a and b

e. a, b, and c

What does FA measure?

a. The degree of diffusion anisotropy

b. The direction of fiber projection

c. The volume of gray matter

d. The accuracy of word identification

e. The thickness of cortex

High childhood anxiety Low childhood anxiety Poor spatial working memory High spatial working memory None of the above. It can help “profile” ability at certain tasks based on fiber tract development. It can help formulate patterns of future cortical thinning in infants. It can help indicate neurogenesis in many distinct regions of the adolescent brain. It can help provide a clear understanding of functional connectivity between cortical neurons in the brain. All of the aboveBrain morphometry is a way to:

a. Parameterize brain anatomy, enabling the tracking of structural changes over time.

b. Image brain function and metabolism with great temporal resolution.

c. Image brain function and metabolism with great spatial resolution.

d. Measure cortical oscillations from the scalp as they change.

e. None of the above.

Twin studies have shown that the brains of both patients were identically the same based on associative genetic heredity. True FalseIn the juggler experiment, a group of people were taught how to juggle through an intensive juggling course. The results of this experiment showed:

a. The baseline readings of the brain remained constant and unchanging throughout the course of the experiment.

b. The group that learned to juggle showed permanent change in FA signals in certain parts of the brain.

The group that learned to juggle showed an increase in brain thickness and area after repeated amounts of practice.c. The group that learned to juggle showed temporary increase of FA, only to diminish after several months of not practicing.

d. The group that learned to juggle demonstrated neuroplasticity through increase of cortical thickness in the majority of the brain.

e. None of the above

Which of the following factors affect brain morphometry?

a. Experience

b. Genetics

c. Biological development

d. Environment



e. All of the above

Which of the following describes an intrinsic frame of reference?

a. Using salient environmental cues to describe space dedicated to a given location

b. Describing locations entirely based on the viewer’s point of view.



c. Using directions to describe location based on the object’s point of view.

d. Using directions such as North, East, South and West to describe location of objects.

e. a and d

Which of the following is not evidence in support of the Whorfian hypothesis?

a. Mandarin speakers can confirm the order of months faster when primed by spatial reasoning about vertical objects than horizontal objects.

b. Korean prelinguistic infants look longer at a scene with “in” than with “on” spatial relations.

c. German and Spanish use different grammatical genders for some nouns, and this grammatical difference makes them describe objects differently.

d. Because there is no grammatical boundary between objects and substance in Yucatec d. Mayan, speakers of Mayan attend more to the materials and substance that comprise the objects.

e. All of the above are statements that support the Whorfian hypothesis.

Which of the following is a spatial description using a relative frame of reference?

a. The key is to the north of the book.

b. The key is uphill to the book.

c. The key is to the book’s left.



d. The key is to the right of the book.

e. None of the above is correct.

Select the answer that best supports statement below:

Thought and action are not entirely determined by language.

a. Prelinguistic infants attend to the spatial distinction between tight and loose fitting containment in the same way that Korean adults do.



b. After learning to talk about time using vertical spatial terms, English speakers confirm the temporal order of months faster following spatial reasoning about vertical objects than horizontal objects.

c. Tzeltal speakers rely primary on an absolute spatial reference frame when solving nonlinguistic orientation tasks.

d. German speakers are more likely to use words like 'hard and heavy' to describe a key since the German word for 'key' is masculine.

e. All of the above

Which of these is an example of motion parallax?

a. The more details you can see in a scene, the better you see motion.

b. When part of an object is occluded, the object moves slower.

c. Distant objects move slower while closer objects move faster.

d. The larger number of degrees you have to move your eyes to an object, the farther it is.

e. All of the above.

Ramon y Cajal’s law of dynamic polarization states that:

a. An object in motion tends to remain in motion.

b. Ions will tend to move from areas of high concentration to areas of low concentration.



c. Neural/electrical transmission proceeds in one direction, from the dendrites to the axon.

d. An action potential will only occur when membrane potential of a neuron depolarizes to its threshold potential.

e. Transmission of ions between the cellular membranes can only occur if there is an electrochemical gradient set up.

Firing patterns from the grid cells map out?



a. Tessellated triangles representing the neural firing patterns in response to exploration of an environment.

b. Grid fields representing the spatial layout of the environment.

c. Head-direction fields representing the tuning curve of preferred firing.

d. Place fields representing the tuning curve of preferred firing.

e. All of the above.

Which of the following brain areas is known to integrate somatosensory and visual information in representing peripersonal space?

a. Hippocampus.

b. Area V7 in parietal cortex.

c. Superior temporal sulcus.

d. Area VIP in parietal cortex.

e. Area V1 in occipital cortex.

Oligodendrocytes are:

a. Cells that help myelinate axon tracts to form white matter in the brain

b. Cells that insulate and propagate electrical signals among neuronal populations

c. Cells that appear only after a few months of life.

d. Cells that aid in the decreasing of gray matter in the brain.

e. None of the above

True or False. The more extra-axonal space there is in the brain, the less amount of diffusivity there is of water molecules.

a. True

b. False

___________________ increases in early childhood, and begins to contract later in childhood. In contrast, _______________ decreases throughout the life span.



a. Cortical surface area; cortical thickness.

b. Cortical Thickness; cortical surface area.

c. White Matter; cortical surface area.

d. Cortical surface area; subcortical surface area.

e. Cortical thickness; subcortical surface area.

According to Baye’s Theory and the concept of a good scientific argument, the posterior probability will be high if:

a. The hypothesis is plausible

b. The hypothesis strongly predicts the observed data.

c. The data is predictable and not surprising.

d. A and B

e. All of the above

True or False: Modularity describes how linguistic cognition can be closely and intimately related to other cognitive capacities such as perception and recall.

a. True

b. False

DO NOT USE

(too specific)

If your native culture was Tzeltal Mayan and you were asked to say where a cup was relative to a plate, how might you respond?

a. The cup is west of the plate.

b. The cup is next to the plate.

c. The cup is behind the plate.

d. The cup is to the right of the plate.

e. None of the above

(confusing)

Which of the following is an example of an intrinsic frame of reference?

a. The cat is to the downhill of the dog.

b. The red car is to the east of the building.

c. The cow is right next to the barn.



d. The rat is on the lion’s left.

e. The dragon is to the right of the knight.

(Ask conceptual questions, not methodological ones; it shouldn’t depend on how the speaker presented it, or who presented it)

In the study presented by Dr. Bergen where a bunch of pictures were displayed on a screen in different spatial locations, which of the following was true for the different language speakers?

a. English speakers remembered more pictures from the top right, while Chinese speakers remembered more pictures from the bottom right.

b. English speakers remembered more pictures from the top left, while Taiwanese speakers remembered more pictures from the top right.

c. English speakers remembered more pictures from the bottom left, while Taiwanese speakers remembered more pictures from the top left.

d. English speakers and Taiwanese speakers had no spatial bias in remembering pictures, but Chinese speakers remembered more pictures from the top left.

e. English, Chinese, and Taiwanese speakers had no spatial bias.

(badly phrased)

In the “Kkita” experiment with Korean/English speaking children and adults, it was shown:

a. Korean infants and Korean adults would discern between tight and loose fitting pictures, while English speakers would not.

b. English infants and adults wouldn’t discern between tight and loose fitting pictures.

c. English and Korean infants could discern between tight and loose, but would end up loosing the discernment in adulthood.

d. English and Korean infants could discern between tight and loose; however, English adults would lose the discernment while Korean adults would still be able to discern.

e. English and Korean infants could discern between tight and loose; however, Korean adults would lose the discernment while English adults would still be able to discern.

(more important to test for major concepts than minor facts)

True or False: Tzetal Mayans prefer to use absolute frame of references to describe spatial locations; on the other hand, Dutch speakers like to use absolute frame of references only for long distances while using an intrinsic frame of reference for everything else.

True

False

(too tangential)

Tesselated triangles:

a. The place cells are arranged according to the nodes of a set of ‘tesselated’ triangles.



b. A tessellation is a pattern of plane figures that fills the plane with no overlaps and no gaps.

c. The head direction cells are arranged according to the nodes of a set of ‘tesselated’ triangles.

d. a and b

e. All of the above

(avoid questions specific to the speaker’s utterance; i.e. if someone else said it in another setting, would it still be true?)

Which of the following is a recurrent issue in the field of neuroscience (specifically brain) research discussed by Dr. Silva?



a. The highly specific nature of each neuroimaging method, making integrating knowledge across different spatial scales challenging.

b. The inability to reliably predict molecular-level cellular events, requiring a top-down approach to research.

c. The scientific bias introduced by the use of nonhuman model organisms.

d. The lack of options for imaging whole-brain networks of neurons, forcing researchers to examine smaller scales for insight.

e. The interference caused by the brain’s inherent electrical activity, necessitating further technological development.

(the statement is too speculative to include here)

Dysconnection syndromes are:

a. Always a direct result of cutting the corpus callosum

b. Always characterized by disorganized thought such as symptoms found in schizophrenia

c. Always resulting from inability of the membrane potential of the initial segment to reach threshold

d. Always resulting from disorders of signaling speed

e. Always disorders of the structure or function of neural networks

(redundant)

Which of the following is NOT an example of probabilistic inference?

a. Tradeoff between prior and evidence

b. Hierarchical inference and abstraction

c. Deductive planning and action

d. Integrating multiple cues

e. Growing structured representations

(too specific)

Reduced surface area of the Ventral Medial Pre Frontal Cortex (VMPFC) has been found to be associated with

a. High childhood anxiety

b. Low childhood anxiety

c. Poor spatial working memory

d. High spatial working memory

e. None of the above.

(more than one right answer; confusing)

Which of the following statements is true about fractional anisotropy?

a. It can help “profile” ability at certain tasks based on fiber tract development.

b. It can help predict patterns of future cortical thinning in infants.

c. It can help indicate neurogenesis in many distinct regions of the adolescent brain.

d. It can help provide a clear understanding of functional connectivity between cortical neurons in the brain.

e. All of the above

(more than one right answer; confusing; too hard)

Which of the following is NOT true?

The area of the brain takes on a U-shape path, in which area first increases, and then decreases.

Volume of the brain decreases throughout childhood.

Gray matter was once thought of to stay stable throughout life; instead, it decreases throughout childhood and latter years of development.



High diffusivity occurs when there’s more myelination of neuronal axons.

White matter increases in the brain and axonal width increases with age.

(badly phrased; I don’t even know what the statement means)

True or False. Twin studies have shown that the brains of both individuals were identically the same based on associative genetic heredity.



a. True

b. False


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