What is communication Def the process of exchanging information and ideas

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What is communication
Def. - the process of exchanging information and ideas
All living things communicate.
Acquiring Human Communication
Humans communicate in many ways
What is a communication disorder?
Van Riper
1. Calls attention to itself

2. Interferes with communication

3. Causes its possessor to be poorly


1. Cannot say what they want to say

2. Cannot say all they want to say

3. Cannot say it as promptly as they

want to say it

Aspects of Communication (and examples of what can go wrong)

  1. speech sound disorders/differences

  2. voice disorders

  3. fluency disorders

  4. language disorders

  5. hearing disorders

  6. another area – dysphagia

There is a profession to help people with Communication Disorders

speech-language pathology and audiology
What we do!

  1. Clinical Practice

  1. screening

  2. evaluation/diagnosis

  3. therapy

  4. counseling

  5. consulting

  6. prevention

  1. Research

  2. Education

  3. Administration

Where we work

  1. clinical service centers

  2. hospitals

  3. health departments/community centers

  4. colleges and universities

  5. industry

  6. research centers

  7. private practice

  8. schools

  9. other

Speech sound (articulation or phonological) disorders and differences
For speech articulation to develop normally you need

  1. Adequate structure and function

  2. Adequate environment

  3. Time for maturation and learning

The articulatory mechanism

1 The articulatory mechanism - structure and function




Hard palate


Alveolar ridge


Soft palate/velum



Lingua frenum

Diadochokinetic rate (DDK)


Faucial pillars


Velopharyngeal port

Gag reflex

2. The vibrator mechanism - phonation


Vocal folds - thyroarytenoid muscle
3. Coordinating mechanism - CNS

Brain and neurons

When and how do sounds develop?

  • starts with “babbling”

When do sounds develop?

Speech sound disorders
Older view




Newer view

Phonlogical Disorders

Final consonant deletion

unstressed syllable deletion

initial consonant deletion

cluster reduction

velar assimilation



Phonetic disorders

Oro-facial abnormalities

Dental abnormalities

Tongue abnormalities
Cleft lip/cleft palate

Cleft - opening in structure that is normally closed

Cleft lip - opening in the upper lip

Cleft palate - broad term, opening in the soft and/or hard palate

Orofacial anomalies - abnormalities of the face and/or mouth

Craniofacial anomalies - abnormalities of the skull and face (cleft or not)

Incidence – Varies by race. Caucasians - 1 in 750 live births
Why does a cleft happen?

Superstition (never)

Acquired (rarely)

Congenital - something a person is born with (usually)


including certain "syndromes"



Pierre Robin


Treacher Collins

Environmental theories

Multifactor or interactionist
Brief review of terms and embryology (how the palate develops)

Primary palate

Secondary palate
How does a cleft palate happen?
"Cleft palate occurs when the lateral nasal structures, medial nasal processes and maxillary structures do not grow to sufficient size at the right time to meet each other, or if fusion between paired processes and associated structures is impaired."
Types of clefts
1. Cleft of lip only

2. Cleft of soft palate only

bifid uvula

3. Cleft of hard and soft palate

4. Unilateral complete cleft

5. Bilateral complete cleft

6. Submucous cleft
Team approach necessary
A. Medical doctors


Oro-facial surgeon

Categories of cleft palate surgery

Repair cleft lip

Close hard palate

Close soft palate

B. Speech-language pathologist

Feeding issues

Speech problems

Language delay

Articulation problems

Glottal stops

Pharyngeal fricatives

Pharyngeal affricates

Nasal emission/nasal snort

Facial grimaces

Hypernasal voice quality

Ways to improve VPI

Speech therapy

Prosthodontist - non-surgical

- palatal lift

- palatal obturator


- pharyngeal flap

- implant

C. Audiologist and Ear Nose and Throat doctor – hearing problems

D. Teacher - academics

E. Counselor/social worker - deal with

Social/emotional difficulties

F. Dentist/orthodontist

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