Vietnamese modern poetry dinh minh hang



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Appendix

Bibliography and translations with brief commentary on Vietnamese poets discussed in the thesis.



Bích Khê (1916-1946) was born in Quảng Ngãi. He was an expert on traditional Chinese poetry and modern Vietnamese poetry. His poetry collections, Tinh huyết (Pure Blood, 1939) and Mấy dòng thơ cũ (The Old Verses, 1931-1936) were considered as products of Surrealism and Magicism. In his poems, there was a combination of colour, music and the demands of the flesh that become a realm of magic.

Tì bà
Nàng ơi! Tay đêm đang giăng mềm

Trăng đan qua cành muôn tay êm

Mây nhung pha màu thu trên trời

Sương lam phơi màu thu muôn nơi


Vàng sao nằm im trên hoa gầy

Tương tư người xưa thôi qua đây

Ôi! Nàng năm xưa quên lời thề

Hoa vừa đưa hương gây đê mê


Cây đàn yêu đương làm bằng thơ

Cây đàn yêu đương run trong mơ

Hồn về trên môi kêu: em ơi

Thuyền hồn không đi lên chơi vơi


Tôi qua tim nàng vay du dương

Tôi mang lên lầu lên cung Thương

Tôi không bao giờ thôi yêu nàng

Tình tang tôi nghe như tình lang


Yêu nàng bao nhiêu trong lòng tôi

Yêu nàng bao nhiêu trên đôi môi

Đâu tìm Đào Nguyên cho xa xôi

Đào Nguyên trong lòng nàng đây thôi


Thu ôm muôn hồn chơi phiêu diêu

Sao tôi không màng kêu: em yêu

Trăng nay không nàng như trăng thiu

Đêm nay không nàng như đêm hiu


Buồn lưu cây đào tìm hơi xuân

Buồn sang cây tùng thăm đông quân

Ô! Hay buồn vương cây ngô đồng

Vàng rơi! Vàng rơi: Thu mênh mông.518


Spleen music
Beauty! Night-hands softly threading

Moon softly interleaving hand-branches

Velvet clouds mixing autumn colour in the sky

Blue fog parching autumn colour everywhere


Starry yellow lying silently on fragile flowers

Missing old lovers had not come through

Oh! Beauty forgot your old swear

Flowers has just brought smell fascinatedly


The love music made by poems

The love music trembling in dreams

Soul comes on lips sound: Honey!

The boat of soul did not come up unpredictably


I found her through melody

I brought upstairs to music realm

I never stop loving her

'Rhythm' I heard like Lovers


How much I love her in my heart

How much I love on the lips

Needn't looking for distant Dao Nguyen

Dao Nguyen was in her heart


Autumn hugs psychedelic souls

Why I do not mind calling: darling

Moon without you tonight blue moon

Night without you gloomy night


Sadness dwelled peach tree finding spring smell

Sadness transferred to Cedrus tree visiting spring queen

Oh sadness lingered Jatropha podagrica

Yellow falls yellow falls enormous autumn)


Nhạc
Ô! nắng vàng thơm... rung rinh điệu ngọc,

Những cánh hồng đơm, - những cánh hồng đơm

Nhẹ nhàng, nhịp nhàng thở đều trong sương;

Màu trăng không gian như gờn gợn sóng.

Từ ở phương mô nhạn mang thơ về,

Đàn thơ cơ hồ lên cung âm điệu.

Đây giây trinh bạch khóc mướt trong mơ;

Đây hồn ngọc thạch xanh sao như tờ.

Ô cõi lầu mây ánh gì kim cương,

Áo nàng thơ ngây nao nao nghê thường.

Thơ bay! Thơ bay vô bàn tay ngà,

Thơ ngà ngà say! Thơ ngà ngà say!

Nàng ơi! Đừng động... có nhạc trong giây,

Nhạc gây hoa mộng, nhạc ngát trong mây;

Nhạc lên cung hường, nhạc vô đào động,

Ô nàng tiên nương! - Hớp nhạc đầy hương. 519



Music
Oh! Perfume yellow sunshine … trembling crystal rhythm

Blooming roses – blooming roses

Gently, silently breathing in vapour;

The realm of moon-colour rippling rippling

From what place terns brings poetry?

Poetic music seems to bring rhythm realm

Here virgin string crying soggily in rain

Here the soul of Jade is haggard silently

Oh the cloudy stage diamond sparkling

Her innocent dress reminds fairy in the moon

Poetry flies! Poetry flies to the ivory hands

Poetry nearly nearly drunk! Poetry nearly nearly drunk

Beauty, don’t touch… there’s music in strings

Music makes flowery dream, spreads cloud sky;

Music reaches pink realm, music comes to peach cave

Oh, fairy! – Drinking music full of perfume



Chế Lan Viên (1920-1989) was born in Quảng Trị. He was both a poet and a poetry critic. His poetry career spread across most periods of Vietnamese ‘modern poetry’. As Hàn Mặc Tử, he started his career by being a participant of Trường Thơ Loạn (Crazy Poetic Group). His first poetry collection, Điêu tàn (Moulder) was influenced by Baudelaire. This collection was a recall of the Chăm Kingdom in Vietnam, which disappeared with the disintegration of the Chăm Dynasty. After 1945, Chế Lan Viên had an incredible change in his poetic soul by approaching the Communist revolution. From then on he found the light in his life, which was getting close to the working class and gathering people in this nation. After 1975, Chế Lan Viên raised a very important issue about the ego of the citizen and the war. He also questioned himself in relation to various facets of life. He created a new ideological path for modern Vietnamese poets to follow: the critic’s voice of contemporary life instead of the previous passionate voice of victory.


Đêm tàn
Ta cùng Nàng nhìn nhau không tiếng nói

Sợ lời than lay đổ cả đêm sâu

Đôi hơi thở tìm nhau trong bóng tối

Đôi linh hồn chìm đắm bể U Sầu


"- Chiêm nương ơi, cười lên đi, em hỡi!

Cho lòng anh quên một phút buồn lo!

Nhìn chi em chân trời xa vòi vọi

Nhớ chi em sầu hận nước Chàm ta?


Này, em trông một vì sao đang rụng

Hãy nghiêng mình mà tránh đi, nghe em!

Chắc có lẽ linh hồn ta lay động

Khi vội vàng trở lại nước non Chiêm"


Lời chưa dứt, bóng đêm đà vụt biến!

Tình chưa nồng, đã sắp phải phôi pha!

Trên trần gian vầng ô kia đã đến

Gỡ hồn Nàng ra khỏi mảnh hồn ta!520




Late night
You and I look at each other silently

Being afraid of lament collapsing deep darkness

Two breaths looking for each other in the dark

Two souls sinking in the sad pool


The girl from Chiem’s kingdom, please smile up!

To make my soul forget worry

What are you looking at the distant horizon?

What are you missing the sorrow of our Cham’s nation?


Honey, looking at a falling star

Please please lean to avoid, honey

Possibly our souls are vibrating

In a hurry coming back to Chiem


Voice still not end, darkness disappears

Love still not warm, separating soon

On earth, the dark realm has come

Detached your soul out of my piece soul




Dương Tường (1932) was born in Nam Định, the same province as Trần Dần. Dương Tường was first known as a translator in Vietnam. He translated many famous Western novels from French and English. He had two individual published poetry collections, Đàn (Musical Instrument) and Thơ Dương Tường (Dương Tường Poetry), as well as a dualpoetry collection with Lê Đạt: 36 Bài Tình (36 Love Poems). Dương Tường was also a soldier. Some of his poems were written about the sorrow of war and the hurt of a soldier after war. Dương Tường had the intention of renewing Vietnamese ‘modern poetry’ by using defamiliarisation. He also explored a kind of poetry that had never been published in Vietnam before: a painting poetry collection without words (Đàn).
Chợt thu 1

Một thoáng rợn tên là heo may

Một hương cây tên là kỷ niệm

Một góc phố tên là hò hẹn

Một nỗi nhớ tên là không tên.521
Sudden autumn 1

A sudden glimpse named breeze

A perfume tree named memory

A street corner named dating

A missing named no name
Chợt thu 2

Chiều se sẽ hương

Vườn se sẽ sương

Đường se sẽ quạnh

Trời se sẽ lạnh

Người se sẽ buồn.522


Sudden autumn 2
Afternoon silently perfume

Gardern silently vapour

Street silently empty

Sky silently cold

Human silently gloomy
Serenade 3

Chờ em đường dương cầm xanh

dạy thì nõn dương cầm phố

Chờ em đường dương cầm sương

chúm chím nụ dương cầm biếc

Chờ em đường dương cầm xiêm

vằng vặc ngực dương cầm trinh

Chờ em đường dương cầm khuya

ôi cái im đêm thơm mọng

Chờ em đường dương cầm trăng

ứa nhụy lạch dương cầm xuân

Chờ em đường dương cầm mưa

giọt giọt lá buồn dạ khúc

xào xạc lòng tay khuya

anh về lối dương cầm lạnh523

Serenade 3
Waiting for you green piano road

Puberty pure piano street

Waiting for you foggy piano road

Being shy blue piano bud

Waiting for you Siem piano road

Being shinny virgin piano breast

Waiting for you late piano road

Oh the succulent perfume silent night

Waiting for you moon piano road

Blooming stamen piano spring

Waiting for you raining piano road

Dropping dropping sad leaves in serenade

Rustling heart of hand at night

I came back cold piano way



Serenade 1
những ngón tay mưa

dương cầm trên mái

những ngón tay mưa

kéo dài tai quái

một nỗi nhớ siêu hình

nhạc nhòe đường xanh

đêm lập thể

những ngón tay mưa

truồi theo phố lạnh

màu nâu cảm tính

đường parabole tư duy

điệp khúc u hoài

những chuyến tàu di

những ngón tay mưa

trời sao bạc

tím mộng Scheherazade

đêm ngàn-lẻ-hai

ngã tư

cột đèn

ô kính


những ngón tay mưa

xập xoè kỉ niệm

em

mười chín



mưa

bụi sao


ngả nghiêng trời nào

một chớp mi

thăm thẳm

*

đừng hát nữa em



những ngón tay mưa

những ngón tay mưa...524



Serenade 1
Rainy fingers

Piano on roof

Rainy fingers

prolonged mischievousness

A metaphysical miss

Blurring the green line

Cubist night

Rainy fingers

Spreading cold street

Sensational brown

Parabol thinking

Chorus sorrow

Despatching trains

Rainy fingers

Silver starry sky

Purple Scheherazade dreams

The thousand and second night

Crossroad

lamp

glass window



Rainy fingers

ambiguous memories

You are

Nineteen


Rain

Dusty star

Falling the sky into

A deep blink

*

Please stop singing



Rainy fingers

Rainy fingers525



Hàn Mặc Tử (1912-1940) was born in Quảng Bình. He was the creator of Trường Thơ Loạn (Crazy Poetic Group) and the leader of the Bình Định poetry group. His poetry was close to Symbolism and Surrealism. His most famous poetry collection, Thơ Điên (Crazy Poetry) was published in 1936. Hàn Mặc Tử’s poetry was a mixture of a pure, romantic soul with an injured and hurt body. He had leprosy and was being treated from a very young age until his death in Quy Hoa hospital. His life was a tragedy of poetic desire and pure hopeless love. Due to his complex living conditions and poetic ideology, critics still try to analyse his poetry from social and bibliographic perspectives.
Đây thôn Vĩ Dạ
Sao anh không về chơi thôn Vĩ?

Nhìn nắng hàng cau nắng mới lên.

Vườn ai mướt quá xanh như ngọc

Lá trúc che ngang mặt chữ điền.


Gió theo lối gió, mây đường mây,

Dòng nước buồn thiu, hoa bắp lay...

Thuyền ai đậu bến sông Trăng đó,

Có chở trăng về kịp tối nay?


Mơ khách đường xa, khách đường xa

Áo em trắng quá nhìn không ra...

Ở đây sương khói mờ nhân ảnh

Ai biết tình ai có đậm đà?526


Here is Vi Da village
Why don’t you come back Vi village

Looking light at areca, new rising sunshine

Whose garden silky green like gem

Bamboo leaf crossing over the square face


Wind on the wind’s way, Cloud on the cloud’s way

Sad water breezing cornflower

Whose boat mooring on that moon river pier

Can it deliver moon on time tonight?


Dream faraway guest, faraway guest

Your shirt is too white, I can see

Here the fog blurs human image

Who knows whose love insightful?



Lê Đạt (1929-2008) was the creator of Thơ dòng chữ (word-line-poetry). With Trần Dần and Dương Tường, he participated in ‘Nhân văn giai phẩm’, a movement that required freedom for poets in writing. His poetry collection, Bóng chữ (The Shadow of Words) could be seen as his statement in writing poetry, in which he regarded words as the material as well as the content and subject of poetry. Words in his poetry no longer contained their original meanings but made new words and new understanding in conjunction with others. He wrote ‘Chữ giấu nghĩa’ (words hid the meanings), and his process was a journey of finding meanings under the shadow of familiar but strange words.

Đệm
Bước đệm

đưa tình


xanh khúc phố

Nốt chân xuân

đàn cò lạ

phím lùa


Chập chững dương cầm

bè lạc


ngã tương tư527
Padding
Accompanied padding steps

Bring love

Greens streets

Spring foot notes

Strange stork flock

Sliding key

Toddling piano

Lost vocal

Lovesick corner
Em đi 


Từ bước em xa

xuân vắng nhà

Nửa phố gió mùa

mình hoa khép một

Nửa gối trăng soi

nửa buồng mưa dột

Nửa chiếu buồn

nghiêng nhớ nửa giường

Ngõ thõng lạnh ống sơ mi đường cụt 
Cột đèn chột

chống một chân 528


Your going
Since you go away

The spring absent at home

Half street monsoon

Flower trunk closed

Half pillow moon shines

Half room rain leaks

Half mat sad

Lies on one side missing half bed

Empty cold alley sleeve shirt dead end blind lamp

Stands on one leg



Lưu Trọng Lư (1911-1991) was born in Quảng Bình. He was one of the first poets in the Vietnamese ‘New Poetry Movement’. He wrote poetry, plays and stories. His poetry was the sound of an individual soul that was sensitive in the face of the steps of time and seasons.
Tiếng thu
Em không nghe mùa thu

Dưới trăng mờ thổn thức?

Em không nghe rạo rực

Hình ảnh kẻ chinh phu

Trong lòng người cô phụ?
Em không nghe rừng thu

Lá thu kêu xào xạc

Con nai vàng ngơ ngác

Đạp trên lá vàng khô?529


The sound of autumn
Don’t you hear autumn

Under sobbing faint moon?

Don’t you hear desire

of soldier husband image

In the soul of sole wife?
Don’t you hear autumn forest

Rustling autumn leaves

The bewildered deer

Stepping on dry yellow leaves?


Nguyễn Du (1766-1820) was born in Hanoi. His family held a high position in the Vietnamese Kingdom. He was regarded as the greatest poet in Vietnam. His long poem, Truyện Kiều (Kiều’s Stories) and other writings such as Văn tế thập loại chúng sinh (Oration for Ten Kinds of Human) contained the human spirit. Among the complex history of the Vietnamese medieval period, Nguyễn Du did not write to support any side of feudatory power. What he wrote were tears for human fate within chaotic medieval life.
Như Huy (1971) is a Vietnamese contemporary visual artist. He belongs to a new generation of Vietnamese poets. He was the co-founder of Zerostation, which is a private group that displayed visual art in Vietnam. The poems of Như Huy tend to break the norms of form and lyrics. He prefers to place verses with the priority intention of creating art and thought about them. Those below poems were translated from his first collection, Những câu phức 530(The Complex Sentences), published in 2008.

A poem
He knows that a poem is always its language, always its shadow, always its rhythm, always its writer, always its remain, always its outline, always its mirror, always its plagiarist, always its erased part, always its beginning, always its incline, always its escape, always its long junction, always its memory, always its abstracting manipulation, always its bottom, always its oasis, always its confusion, always its obsession, always its dominant right, always its dark corner, always its document, always its recall, always its grammar, always its maze, always its solution, always its nostalgia. 531
A poem passing the door
A poem passing the door is scraped words, sound, water-blurred light, the condensation of sightseeing right at the flashing out of light from the far window. Everything, everything touched his being. Right at that moment, he suddenly remembered the permanent alienation of human in front of the abstraction of time and space – the unprovoked entities before being screened by human’s experiences.
A poem passing the door is his thought, his imaginings and even his physical existence. Everything seems to brush slightly the external world and make endless vibrations in his mind. At that moment, he suddenly falls into an irresistible romantic hurricane – no longer belonging to this present – mixing into his own memories and gentle love.
A poem – passing – the door. 532
The inability of language
One of the inabilities of language is that it is unable - like that deep blue sky, that pure mirror face, those disordered objects, that gentle hand, that concentrated dark, that hoarse voice, that tumultuous bird song, that crispy laugh, that murky rainy dawn, those raising lips...


  • to – keep silence – suddenly – without signals. 533


The face of sadness
The face of sadness is when you and I are opposite, as two pictures facing each other, as two mirrors facing each other, as two poluya-sheets of paper facing each other, as two closed doors facing each other, as two cameras facing each other...

Absolutely – silent. 534


Two complex sentences
1. With a strange grammar, you stole completely my source of words – from that, with the actions of tongue, mouth and fingers typing on the keyboard are just my uncompleted – eternal – efforts, to reconstruct the world and reality.

2. Between the deep narrow interstices of various layers of reality, between the different interpreting abilities of love, between the repetitive actions of thinking, between sadness and happiness condensing on the scenery,

We–are–able–to–see–eachother–clearly. 535
H
What have you been waiting for, H? The day has gone and the sound of door-locking was clattering, from nooks and crannies, behind the back, the heat of lips, your feet are moving slowly, your footprints are etching gradually, you are feeling clearing that breath... And the smile, the smile... a chain of smile tingled up you will never forget...
What have you been waiting for, H? Everything you have told will only be pure dew, even everything you have told now belonged to the others. In an era that words are hidden by images by which words are created, the truth is hidden by our desire about truth; your silence will be meaningless twice because its opposite is no longer pure as before. H, from that time what would you do? What could you still do?
What do you need, H.? What they would like to hear is not what you would like to say but what you have said is so quiet that even it is necessary for them, they will never listen, however, they echoed enough to eliminate any potential interpreting intentions from you. And all the above, what have you decided finally are not what you want, they are just what you and them pretend to believe. 536
Language is
Language is an electric cloud, the slice cutting the truth, the dilution distance between two intermittent waters, the young brown at the bottom of deep muscle, the hide and seek of two opposite teams linking each other by an intestinal pink strip, the incline of discourses, the thick malt block sticking on the tongue...

Language is the elasticity of confession and accusing, the endless bottom of half-hearted judgment, a pungent odour of young pine leaves, the garlic spice disappearing after flashing on the tongue, the jellyfish moving dilutely on thick water, the sudden whistle each morning, half of pineapple agar piece cut on cold water...

Language is a compact pail of paint pouring slowly on the flat silk, the tumult of fresh wet leave-beam high above, the eyes sink on the eyes, the strange conversation of tension hands, the deep bite on a big meat roll, the meaning building, the lacking- piece-puzzle, the movement of pickaxe on basaltic soil, the sore throat voice...

Language is the soft dancing cotton, the double-process to infinite, the missing step, the polished rotation, the pale warm tofu, the sound of cuckoo and a piece of innocent pencil, the three-pronged fork-phonetic structure, the breaking switch saving one life, the indefinition of a signal...

Language is the fragility and dangerousness of the middle existence, the sinking swamp holding each step, the indirect approaching to the theme, the confusion hiding on the reluctant conversation, a transition manipulation overcoming all prediction, is a clear glass surface putting over a glass surface... 537
And he knows

...


The escape begins, and he knows...

The shyness begins, and he knows...

The conversations always belong to the past, and he knows...

Each scepticism begins, and he knows...

The humiliation begins, and he knows...

The forgotten blurring on present, thin and light as a tissue, and he knows...

Silence decides the length of each segment, and he knows... The hurt is coming slowly, and he knows...

The broken mirror pieces sparkling under the sun, and he knows...

... 538
Memory
He knows that actually the bell is only the bell – that bell makes memory, and memory makes memory, makes memory, makes memory...

He knows that an era is only an era – that era makes memory, and memory makes memory, makes memory, makes memory...

He knows that every action is only one action – that action makes memory, and memory makes memory, makes memory, makes memory...

*


He knows that every poem or play can begin with meaningless words, such as: ‘Have you seen the scissor?’, or: ‘grey’ , or: ‘hey, we (father and son) change the title, don’t we...’

However, he also knows that, from then on, all the following sentences are only memories of memories of memories... only

Sol Lewitt said: The idea becomes the machine that makes the art, and the echoed memory of this statement is present is a producing-memory-machine, and the following sentence is memory is a machine producing memory, producing memory, producing memory, producing memory, producing memory, producing memory... 539

There is something disintegrating
There is something disintegrating, does it reach a destination?... The fingers type and type and type, or is it the far drum beat, the glass of water?...
Four surfaces are dark. How strange that voice is!...
And the black. She predicted that everything could not end at the beginning.
The step sound and a bunch of copper keys, and the present... The face is only the falling shadow of time wearing glasses, and hair, too...
The sound of truck’s horns. Linguistics and the book you have been looking for many days...
The gentle dropping hands there. Fiction is a part of decision, that’s why he...
Cannot come back. And the new slope is the real reason of speed. That’s it...
That’s it, that’s it, the slight touch on that face...
The careless walks on the pavement, and the dark, and the beat, and the far ethnic trumpet, and the tintinnabulum, and the brown- soil-bird that Neruda loves... 540
Phan Huyền Thư was born in 1972. She was both a poet and a director. Her collection Nằm nghiêng (Lie on the Side) was a voice of an independent woman who tended to express the growing of love and a life-force on her own. She also used strange subjects of love in a free form of poetry.
Nằm nghiêng
Nằm nghiêng ở trần thương kiếp nàng Bân

ngón tay rỉ máu. Nằm nghiêng

khe cửa ùa ra một dòng ấm

cô đơn. Nằm nghiêng

cùng sương triền đê đôi bờ

ỡm ờ nước lũ.


Nằm nghiêng lạnh

hơi lạnh cũ. Ngoài đường khô tiếng ngáy.

Nằm nghiêng. Mùa đông

nằm nghiêng trên thảm gió mùa. Nằm nghiêng

nứt nẻ khóe môi

đã lâu không vồ vập răng lưỡi.


Nằm nghiêng

xứ sở bốn mùa nhiệt đới, tự dưng nhói đau

sau lần áo lót có đệm mút dầy

nằm nghiêng

về đây.541

Lying on one side
Lying on one side, naked, feeling sorrow for Ban’s tragedy

Bleeding finger. Lying on one side

Warm line pouring from interstitial door

Lonely. Lying on one side

With vapour on the both sides of dike

Hesistant flood


Lying on one side, cold,

the old cold smell. Dry the snore out of street

Lying on one side. Winter

Lying on one side on the windy carpet. Lying on one side

Cracking lips

Long time no mouth tooth desire


Lying on one side

The nation of tropical four seasons, suddenly hurts

Under the bra with thick liner

Lying on one side

Coming here.

Thế Lữ (1907 - 1989) was a poet-critic-playwright. He was one of the first participants in ‘New Poetry Movement’ (1930 – 1945). His poems contributed ‘New Vietnamese poetry’ and Vietnamese Latin language. His short stories introduced the first time horrific detective stories to Vietnamese readers.
Trần Dần (1926-1997) was a poet and novelist in Vietnam. Trần Dần was born in Nam Dinh, a province in North Vietnam. He was the leader of Dạ Đài, the first and only Symbolist poetic group in Vietnam in the 1940s. He wrote the declaration of Dạ Đài in 1946. From 1948, Trần Dần participated in resistance to the French and continued to write poetry. At this time, he also drew Cubist paintings and experimented with different kinds of poetry. From 1955, Trần Dần participated in the Nhân Văn Giai Phẩm Movement, and published the Nhân Văn magazine and Giai Phẩm magazine with a demand for freedom in writing and publishing. Also in 1955, he criticised a collection of Tố Hữu named Việt Bắc, which was considered as the leading standard for poetry in the Vietnamese Communist Revolution. All Trần Dần’s activities requiring freedom for writing were banned and Trần Dần was sent to prison in 1956. After being released, Trần Dần still wrote poetry; however, his first poetry collection (Thơ Trần Dần - Trần Dần Poetry) was only published in 2008 and awarded the life-career prize of the Hanoi Literary Group. Trần Dần inclined towards experimental poems. His epic, Đi! Đây Việt Bắc, was similar to the poetic form of Vladimir Maiakovsky. Some of his other poems were combinations of words, music and painting. Trần Dần was one of the very rare Vietnamese poets who had their own manifesto of poetic theory and followed it intentionally. Trần Dần spent his whole life creating new poetry in Vietnam and opposing authority with regard to writing.
Thơ mini – Mini poems 542
Tác phẩm là bản gốc? đời là bản sao?

Ối ôi, luôn tam sao thất bản


Writing is the origin? Life is copy?

Oh dear, always, tales never loses in the telling


Tôi khóc những chân trời không có người bay

Lại khóc những người bay không có chân trời


I cry for the horizon without flying man,

And cry for flying man without horizon.


tôi khóc những chân trời - bụi đỏ

Ở đó: vắng người

không có người biết khóc – các chân mây
I cry the horizons – red dust

There: lack of human

No man knows how to cry – the cloudy horizons
vô tư như thuở ngày xưa

Nhìn một vì sao

buồn bên ngưỡng cửa
Careless as the old days

Looking at a star

Being sad on the door edge.
Ngã tư xưa
Anh muốn rao lên cho làng nước biết

hôm nay em bạc đãi một người.

Nhưng em ơi! anh chỉ đến ngã tư xưa

anh đứng dưới môt ngôi đèn bỏ.543


Old crossroad
I want to shout for everyone knows

Today you treated badly a person

But, dear! I only come to the old crossroad

Standing under an uninhibited lamp


Đừng yêu
Gạch ngói ruổi rong

những mơ mộng nhớ thương

Các vì sao, ai bắt vít trên trời?

những đinh vít long lanh bằng bạc

Em nhé! Đừng yêu!

đừng yêu những đại lộ gió!

Phố này. Hàng cây này. Cột điện.

Căn nhà thi sĩ đổ. Mùa mưa.544



Don’t love
Bricks wanders

Dreams of missing

The stars, who screwed on the sky?

The sparkling silver screws

Darling! Don’t love

Don’t love windy avenues!

This street. This treeline. The lamp.

The poet’s home collapsed. Rainy season


Yêu
Em đã quên ư?

lòng ngã tư mưa lằng nhằng cột điện

Tình yêu của anh như câu cổ tích

kể trong một tối mưa dầm. 545


Love
Have you forgotten?

The heart of rainy crossroad promiscuous electric poles

My love is like a fairytale

Telling in a heavy wet night


Không đề số 4
Mưa rơi phay phay

Ngã tư năm ngoái

Biết tôi khờ dại

Em đi không sao chống cự nổi

Đại lộ tai hại

Em dài man dại

Em dài quên che đậy

Em dài tê tái

Em dài quên cân đối

Em dài bối rối

Em dài vô tội

Em dài – khổ tâm…546


Untitled 4
Rain drops continuously

Last-year-crossroad

Knows I am foolish

You have gone, defenceless

Arduous crossroad

You’re long crazily

You’re long forgotten covering

You’re long numbly

You’re long forgotten symmetry

You’re long confusing

You’re long innocent

You’re long mental suffering…



Vi Thuỳ Linh was born in 1980 in Hanoi. She was one of the leading poets of the young generation of modern Vietnamese poetry in the 2000s. Her collections were translated into English and French. She combined written poetry with performance poetry and organised two poetry performances in Hanoi. Her first collection, Khát (Thirsty, 2012), was a shock to Vietnamese readers who were familiar with smooth and gentle images about women in poetry and in Vietnamese tradition. Her latest love poetry collection, Phim đôi tình tự chậm (2011), was a filmed poetry collection in words and images. The subject in her poems was love from the inside perspective of a woman who was feeling love-thirsty.
Vũ Hoàng Chương (1916-1976) was born in Nam Định. He was educated in both the Confucius system and the French system. He wrote poems and plays. His works brought the sense of the East. He was a typical poet in the Vietnamese ‘New Poetry Movement’ and became famous with Thơ say (Drunk, 1940), which contained a new way of writing poetry which tended towards music and helped to explore the fate of the intellectual in the complex period between traditional-modern and Eastern-Western contexts in the 1930s and 1940s in Vietnamese society.

Xuân Diệu (1916-1985) was regarded as the ‘king of love poems’ in Vietnam. Xuân Diệu was born in Bình Định province. First, he graduated from High School and worked as an officer in Tiền Giang. After that, he went to Hanoi and began his career as a poet. Xuân Diệu was both a famous poet and a critic in Vietnam. He participated in Tự Lực Văn Đoàn, a private literary group established in 1938 in Vietnam. Tự lực Văn Đoàn had private prizes which helped to encourage Vietnamese writers and widen their credo of freedom in Vietnamese literature. Xuân Diệu could be considered as a spiritual leader of the Vietnamese ‘New Poetry Movement’ (1930-1945) with his romantic and Symbolist poetry. Two of his famous collections were Thơ thơ (Poetry Poetry) and Gửi hương cho gió (Send Perfume to the Wind). His poetry contributed the ego of a person who desired love, youth and spring. He wanted to capture all the moments of life and keep them, in the same way people desired to keep love, youth and spring forever. After 1945, Xuân Diệu participated in the Communist party and wrote poetry during the war about the citizen’s position in a new Vietnamese context of freedom and productivity. At this period, he also questioned the relationship between individuals and the public. The critical writings of Xuân Diệu were also romantic and valuable in examining other Vietnamese modern poets.
Đây mùa thu tới
Rặng liễu đìu hiu đứng chịu tang,

Tóc buồn buông xuống lệ ngàn hàng;

Đây mùa thu tới - mùa thu tới

Với áo mơ phai dệt lá vàng.


Hơn một loài hoa đã rụng cành

Trong vườn sắc đỏ rũa màu xanh;

Những luồng run rẩy rung rinh lá...

Đôi nhánh khô gầy xương mỏng manh.


Thỉnh thoảng nàng trăng tự ngẩn ngơ...

Non xa khởi sự nhạt sương mờ...

Đã nghe rét mướt luồn trong gió...

Đã vắng người sang những chuyến đò...


Mây vẩn từng không, chim bay đi,

Khí trời u uất hận chia ly.

Ít nhiều thiếu nữ buồn không nói

Tựa cửa nhìn xa, nghĩ ngợi gì.547


Here comes autumn
The willow standing solitarily for funeral

Sad hair falling down thousands of tear drops

Here comes autumn, autumn comes

With fainted apricot dress weaving yellow leaves


More than a kind of flowers felt down

Inside garden, red overcomes green

The trembling shaky blast on leaves…

Some thin dry branches fragile bone


Sometimes the moon self-bewildered

Faraway mountain starts blurring vapour

Having heard coldness crawling inside the wind

Having been lack of people crossing the boat….


Spreading clouds on the sky, birds fly away,

Regretted separated atmosphere

More or less girls sadly nonverbal

Leaning on the window, looking outside, thinking of?



Ý Nhi (1944) was one of the leaders in women’s modern poetry in Vietnam. She was born in a traditional Confucian family and knew much about traditional Vietnamese plays. Her poetry was about normal daily life and the domestic life of women. They were read in a familiar way, similar to traditional poetry. She also wrote poetry in free verses.


  • There is a list of other Vietnamese poets that I have mentioned but have not analysed typically in the thesis:

  • Before the twentieth century: Hồ Xuân Hương, Đặng Trần Côn.

  • At the beginning of twentieth century: Tản Đà, Trần Tuấn Khải, Hồ Biểu Chánh.

  • From 1930 onwards: Xuân Quỳnh, Từ Huy.




  • The poems in the appendix and most of Vietnamese poems analysed in this thesis are translated by myself. As a Vietnamese researcher, I would like to introduce Vietnamese contemporary poets, who on the one hand, represented for some modern poetic trends in Vietnam; on the other, showed their desires for Vietnamese poetry innovations towards Western ideologies.




1 Lại Nguyên Ân, ‘Một Số Vấn Đề Xung Quanh Phạm Trù Chủ Nghĩa Hiện Đại’, Hợp Lưu tập san văn học nghệ thuật biên khảo, 9 (2008).

2 Jean-François Lyotard, The postmodern condition: a report on knowledge (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1984). Jean-François Lyotard (trans. by Bùi Văn Nam Sơn), Hoàn cảnh hậu hiện đại (Hanoi: Nhà xuất bản Tri thức, 2007).


3 Virginia Woolf, A room of one's own (St Albans: Triad, 1977). Virginia Woolf (trans by Trịnh Y Thư), Căn phòng riêng (Hanoi: Nhà xuất bản Tri thức, 2009).


4 Trang Ngoc Doan Cao, ‘Bodily Impacts: Locating Vietnamese Moderinsm in the Contact Zones’, PhD thesis (California: University of California), 2014.

5 Nguyen Do, and Paul Hoover, ed., Black Dog, Black Night: Contemporary Vietnamese Poetry (Minnesota: Milkweed Editions, 2008), p. XI.

6 See unquoted bibliography for more information.

7 See Hoài Thanh, Hoài Chân, ‘Một thời đại trong thi ca’, Thi nhân Việt Nam (Hà Nội: Nhà xuất bản Văn học, 2016).

8 The sources for this is no longer available due to the changes of social policy in Vietnam after 1975

9 Bùi Giáng, Mười hai con mắt (Twelve eyes) (Hanoi: Nhà xuất bản văn học, 2001).

10 Thomas Ernest Hulme, Speculations: Essays on Humanism and the Philosophy of Art, 2nd edn (London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1936), p. 111.

11 James Barry Harmer, Victory in Limbo: Imagism, 1908-1917 (London: Secker and Warburg, 1975).

12 Hugh Kenner, The Pound Era (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1971).

13 Doreen King, Short Essays on Experimental Poetry: Experimental Poetry in the 20th Century and beyond (Shrewsbury: Feather, 2003), p. 5.

14 Hulme, p. 111.

15 ‘T.E. Hulme had written a few poems to illustrate his theories, and no doubt they were read out and discussed at the meetings of the Club. None of the later Imagists was a member of this group, but the poem ‘Autumn’ and ‘A City Sunset’ by Hulme, which the Poet’s Club printed in January 1909 in a booklet called For Christmas MDCCCCVIII, may reasonably be termed the first ‘imagist’ poems, although the word itself was not yet in use’ in Peter Jones, Imagist poetry (Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1972), p. 15

16 Hulme, p. 113.

17 ‘That where you get this quality exhibited in the realm of the emotions you get imagination, and that where you get this quality exhibited in the contemplation of finite things you get fancy’, Hulme, p.139

18 Hulme, p. 134.

19 Frank Stuart Flint, ‘Imagisme’, Poetry 1, 6 (1913), 198-200, p.199.

20 Jones, p. 19.

21 Flemming Olsen, Between Positivism and T.S. Eliot: Imagism and T.E. Hulme (Odense; Lancaster: University Press of Southern Denmark, 2008), p. 15.

22 Jones, p. 21.

23 ‘In condensation several things might be compressed into one symbol, just as a metaphor like “the ship ploughed the waves” condenses into a single item two different images, the ship cutting through the sea and the plough cutting through the soil’, Roman Jakobson, in Peter Barry, Beginning theory: an introduction to literary and cultural theory, 3rd edn (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2008), pp. 78-79.

24 Michael Roberts, T.E. Hulme (New York: Haskell House Publishers), p. 225.

25 Arthur Rimbaud, ‘The Drunken Boat’ from Complete Works, Selected Letters, trans. by Wallace Fowlie (Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 2005), p. 140.

26 Rimbaud, p. 128.

27 Jones, p. 97.

28 Shyamal Baghee, T.S. Eliot: a voice descanting: centenary essays (London: The Macmillan Press Ltd., 1990), p. 29.

29 Phan Trọng Luận, Ngữ Văn Lớp 11 (11th Grade Literature) Volume 2 (Hanoi: Nhà xuất bản Giáo dục, 2007), p. 58.

30 See more about ‘ca dao’ in Vietnamese Feminist Poems: From Antiquity to the Present (Hanoi: Women’s Publishing House, 2008), p. 29.

31 Xuan Quynh, ‘The boat and the sea’, Vietnamese Feminist Poems: From Antiquity to the Present (Hanoi: Women’s Publishing House, 2008), p. 193.

32 Hans Richter, Dada: Art and Anti-art (London: Thames & Hudson, 1997), p. 31.

33 Richter, p.32.

34 John Elderfield, ed., Flight Out of Time: A Dada Diary by Hugo Ball (London: University of California Press, 1996), p. 63.

35Sigmund Freud, Creative Writers and Day-dreaming (London: Yale University Press, 1995), p. 2.

36 Freud, p. 2.

37 Angus Stevenson, Oxford Dictionary of English, 2rd ed. (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2005), p. 1349.

38 Michael Oakeshott, Rationalism in Politics and other essays (London: Methuen & Co, 1962), p. 11.

39 André Breton, Manifestoes of Surrealism, trans. by Richard Seaver and Helen R. Lane (Michigan: University of Michigan Press, 1969), p. 14.

40 Richter, p. 48

41 Richter, ibid.

42 Umbro Apollonio, Futurist manifestos (London: Thames and Hudson, 1973), p. 21.

43 Apollonio, p. 30.

44 Richter, p. 47.

45 Richter, p. 47.

46 C.W.E. Bigsby, Dada and Surrealism (London: Methuen, 1972), p. 10.

47 Marc Dachy, Dada and the Revolt of Art (London: Thames and Hudson, 2006), p. 14.

48 Hugo Ball, ‘Gadji beri bimba’ in Dachy, Dada and the Revolt of Art, p. 110.

49 Wouter Davidts, ‘Sculpture and the Museum’ in Christopher R. Marshall, Sculpture and the Museum (Farnham: Ashgate Publishing, 2011), p. 197.

50 Julie H. Reiss, From Margin to Center: The Spaces of Installation Art (Massachusetts: The MIT press, 2001), p. xv.

51 Willard Bohn, The rise of Surrealism: Cubism, Dada, and the Pursuit of the Marvelous (Albany: State University of New York Press, 2002), p. 141.

52 André Breton, Manifestoes of Surrealism, ibid.

53 Breton, p. 21.

54 Jones, p. 18.

55 Breton, p. 20.

56 ‘Modern Fiction’, Virginia Woolf, The Common Reader (London: The Hogarth Press, 1968), 184-195 (pp. 190-191).

57 Breton, p. 24.

58 Dachy, Anthology of Dada poetry, p. 117.

59 Dachy, Ibid, p. 111.

60 Dachy, Anthology of Dada Poetry, p. 113.

61 Dachy, Ibid, p. 117.

62 Bigsby, p. 5.

63 Dachy, Dada and the revolt of art, p. 117.

64 Trần Dần, Thơ Trần Dần (Tran Dan’s poetry) (Da Nang: Nhà xuất bản Đà Nẵng, 2008), p.53.

65 Bảo Ninh, The Sorrow of War: A Novel of North Vietnam, ed. By Frank Palmos, trans. by Phan Thanh Hao (New York: Riverhead Books, 1996).

66 Bảo Ninh, p. 27.

67 Bigsby, p. 60.

68 Charles M. Oliver, Ernest Hemingway in Death in the Afternoon (New York: Checkmark, 1999), p. 322.

69 Dương Tường, ‘Noel 1’, Mea Culpa (Hai Phong: Hai Phong publisher, 2005), p. 31.

70 Hulme, p.111.

71 From my understanding of the image-word in Chinese and Japanese language, the word 禅 (Zen) in Japanese was collaged by two pictograms, one meaning ‘indicate’ and the other meaning ‘stage for worship’. Thus, the meaning of the word ‘zen’ itself was used to express piety.

72 ‘Scholars guess that he (Basho) went to Kyoto to study poetry and Zen’ in Robert Hass, The essential Haiku Versions of Basho, Buson and Issa (Northumberland: Bloodaxe Books Ltd, 2013), p.22.

73 Hass, p. 45.

74 William J. Higginson, The Haiku Seasons: Poetry of the Natural World, (Tokyo: Kodansha International, 1997), p. 25.

75 Hass, ‘From Journal of my father’s last day’, p. 190.

76 ‘In a Station of the Metro’, Ezra Pound, Selected Poems, edited and with an introduction by T. S. Eliot (London: Faber & Gwyer, 1928, Laughlin, 1957), p. 113.

77 Cor van den Heuvel, The Haiku Anthology: Haiku and Senryu in English, 3rd edn., (London: W.W. Norton, 1999), p. xv.

78 See Cosima Bruno, Between the Lines: Yang Lian's Poetry Through Translation (Leiden: Brill, 2012), pp. 86-87

79 Pound, ‘Alba’, Selected Poems, p. 113.

80 Pound, ‘Ts’ ai Chin’h’, Selected Poems, p. 113.

81 Pound, ‘Liu Ch’e’, Selected Poems, p. 112.

82 Takafumi Saito, Wiliam R. Nelson, 1020 Haiku in translation: the heart of Basho, Buson and Issa (North Charleston, South Carolina: BookSurge, 2006), p. 144.

83 Saito, Nelson, p. 19.

84 Pound, ‘Fan-Piece for Her Imperial Lord’, Selected Poems, p. 113.

85 Matsuo Basho, Basho's Haiku Selected poems of Matsuo Basho, trans. David Landis Barnhill (New York: Tate University of New York Press, 2004), p. 309.


86 Saito, Nelson, p. 17.

87 Ezra Pound, Cathay (London: Chiswick Press, 1915), p. 4.

88 Pound, Cathay, p. 32.

89 John Minford and Joseph S. M. Lau, eds., An anthology of translation Classical Chinese Literature, volume 1 (New York: Columbia University Press, 2002), p. 717.

90 Jones, p. 130.

91 Ezra Pound, Literary essays of Ezra Pound (London: Faber and Faber, 1960), p. 9.

92 Cor van den Heuvel, p. xi.

93Jonathan Bishop, ‘Wordsworth and the "Spots of Time”’ (The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1959), Vol. 26, No. 1, p. 45.

94 Ezra Pound, Collected shorter poems, 2nd edn. (London: Faber & Faber, 1968), p. 180.

95 Pound, ibid, p. 120.

96 Pound, ibid, p. 129.

97 Pound, ibid, p. 105.

98 Saito, Nelson, p. 9.

99 Heuvel, p. lvi.

100 Jones, p. 135.

101 Jones, p. 121.

102 Pound, Collected shorter poems, p. 122.

103 Pound, ibid, p. 124.

104 Pound, ibid, p. 104.

105 Pound, ‘Papyrus’, ibid, p. 116

106 Nhật Chiêu, Basho và Thơ Haiku (Basho and Haiku poetry) (Hanoi: Nhà xuất bản văn học, 1994).

107 Rainer Emig, Modernism in poetry: motivations, structures and limits (London: Longman, 1995), p. 5.

108 Pound, Cathay, ibid.

109 Emig, p. 104.

110 Jones, p. 129.

111 Jones, p. 142.

112 Julia Kristeva, ed. by Leon S. Roudiez, Revolution in Poetic Language (Guildford: Columbia Univ. Press, 1984).

113 Emig, p. 94.

114 Jones, p. 138.

115 Jones, p. 130.

116 Emig, p. 109.

117 Lê Đạt, Bóng chữ (The Shadow of Words), (Hanoi: Nhà xuất bản hội nhà văn, 1994), p. 96.

118 Robert Sheppard, The poetry of Saying: British poetry and its discontents, 1950-2000 (Liverpool: Liverpool University Press, 2005), p. 40.

119 Sheppard, p. 38.

120 Derrida wrote in The Law of Genre: ‘As soon as the world ‘genre’ is sounded, as soon as it is heard, as soon as one attempts to conceive it, a limit is drawn. And when a limit is established, norms and interdictions are not far behind: ‘Do,’ ‘Do not’ says ‘genre’, the world ‘genre’, the figure, the voice, or the law of genre’. In Margueritte S. Murphy, A Tradition of Subversion: the Prose Poem in English from Wilde to Ashbery, (Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 1992), p. 61.


121 Roland Barthes, The Rustle of Language, trans. by Richard Howard (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1989), p. 49.

122 Doreen, p. 5.

123 Suman Chakroborty, ‘Meaning, Unmeaning & the Poetics of L=A=N=G=U=A=G=E’, IRWLE, Vol. 4 No. I January (2008), p. 18.

124 George Puttenham, The Arte of English Poesie (London: Cornell University Press, 2007), p. 49.

125 James Walter McFarlane, Bradbury Malcolm, Modernism 1890-1930 (London: Penguin Books, 1991), p. 350.

126 Chakroborty, p. 18.

127 Doreen, p. 4.

128 Eugen Gomringer, ‘From Line to Constellation’, trans. by Mike Weaver in Marjorie Perloff, Unoriginal Genius Poetry by Other Means in the New Century (Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 2010), p. 64.

129 Jean-François Lyotard, The Postmodern Condition: a Report on Knowledge (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1984).

130 Puttenham, Chapter XII.

131 Puttenham, p. 49.

132 Gomringer, From Line to Constellation, p. 67.

133 Lyotard, ibid.

134 Gomringer, Concrete Poetry, p. 68.

135 Bob Cobbing, Sockless in Sandals: Collected Poems Volume Six (Cardiff: Second Edn., 1985), p. 8.

136 Alan Riddell, Eclipse (London: Calder and Boyar, 1972), p. 22.

137 Gomringer, Concrete Poetry, p. 68.

138 Cobbing, p. 33.

139 Cobbing, p. 24.

140 Cobbing, p. 32.

141 Cobbing, p. 39.

142 Riddell, p. 11.

143 Cobbing, p. 20.

144 Dương Tường translated L'Etranger by Albert Camus, La Route des Flandres by Claude Simon, and À la Recherche du Temps Perdu by Marcel Proust.

145 Dương Tường translated Lev Tolstoi’s novels (e.g. Anna Karenina).

146 Lê Đạt and Dương Tường, Ba mươi sáu bài tình (Thirty-six Love Poems) (Hanoi: Youth publication house, 1989).

147 Ostranenie in Russian, which means ‘making strange’. ‘Defamiliarisation is a term that was popularized by the Russian Formalist, Victor Shklovsky, in the early part of the last century’, James L. Resseguie, The Strange Gospel: Narrative Design and Point of View in John (Leiden: Brill, 2001), p. 27.

148 Gary Saul Morson, ‘The Russian debate on narrative’ in Patricia Waugh, Literary Theory and Criticism: An Oxford Guide (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2006), p. 216.

149 Dương Tường, p. 17.

150 Dương Tường, ‘Khoảnh khắc’ (Moment), p. 50.

151 Dương Tường, ‘Mea Culpa: 6’, p. 131.

152 Dương Tường, ‘Khoảnh khắc’ (Moment), p. 49.

153 Dương Tường, ‘Mea Culpa: 1’, p. 87.

154 Dương Tường, ‘Sinh nhật’ (Birthday), p. 15.

  • 155 Dương Tường, ‘America’, p. 64. This poem was written in English by Dương Tường.




156 Dương Tường, ‘Sinh nhật’ (Birthday), p. 14.

157 Dương Tường, ‘Sinh Nhật’ (Birthday), p. 15.

158 Dương Tường, ‘Bella’, p. 19.

159 Dương Tường, ‘Romance 2’, p. 41.

160 Dương Tường, ‘Mea Culpa: 2’, Mea Culpa, p. 94.

161 Dương Tường, ‘Sinh Nhật’ (Birthday), p. 15.

162 Dương Tường, ‘Serenade 1’, p. 11.

163 Dương Tường, ‘Mea Culpa: 2’, p. 97.

164 Dương Tường, ‘Mea Culpa: 4’, p. 113.

165 Dương Tường, ‘Mea Culpa: 6’, p. 137.

166 Dương Tường, ‘Serenade 3’, p. 36.

167 Dương Tường, ‘Romance 3’, p. 46.

168 Dương Tường, ‘Màu Nhớ 2’ (Colour of Missing 2), p55.

169 Dương Tường, ‘Mea Culpa: 3’, p. 101.

170 Dương Tường, ‘Tình Khúc 24’ (Love Song 24), p. 42.

171 Dương Tường, ‘Serenade 1’, p. 11.

172 Dương Tường, ‘Chợt Thu 2’ (Sudden Autumn 2), p. 39.

173 Dương Tường, ‘Serenade 1’, p. 11.

174 Dương Tường, ‘Serenade 1’, p. 12.

175 Dương Tường, ‘Serenade 1’, p. 13.

176 Dương Tường, p. 17 – In Vietnamese language, those verses did not contain specific meanings. They are just the sound of water when it spreads and mixes with the sound of the heart.

177 Jerome J McGann, Social Values and Poetic Acts: a Historical Judgment of Literary Work (Cambridge, Mass: Harvard University Press, 1988), p. xii.

178 Bruce Andrews, Bernstein Charles, The L=A=N=G=U=A=G=E (Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press, 1984), p. 135.

179 Cobbing, p. 13.

180 Clark Coolidge, Space (New York: Harper and Row, 1970), p. 119.

181 Trần Dần, Thơ Trần Dần (Tran Dan’s poetry) (Da Nang: Nhà xuất bản Đà Nẵng (Da Nang publishing house), 2008), p. 226.

182 Cobbing, p. 17.

183 Murphy, p. 3.

184 Peter Riley, The Dance at Mociu (Bristol: Shearsman Books, 2003).

185 Jones, p. 18.

186 Murphy, p. 11.

187 Nate Dorward, ‘Peter Riley in conversation with Keith Tuma’, The Poetry of Peter Riley (The Gig: issue 4/5, Toronto: November 1999/March 2000) [accessed 16 October 2014].

188 Riley, p. 18.

189 Riley, p. 19

190 Riley, p. 30.

191 Riley, p. 113.

192 Riley, p. 7.

193 Riley, p. 28.

194 Riley, p. 19.

195 Riley, p. 19.

196 Riley, p. 21.

197 Nate Dorward, ‘Peter Riley in conversation with Keith Tuma’, The Poetry of Peter Riley (The Gig: issue 4/5, Toronto: November 1999/March 2000) [accessed 16 October 2014].

198 Murphy, p. 198.

199 See Mark Philip Bradley, Imagining Vietnam and America: The Making of Postcolonial Vietnam, 1919-1950 (Chapel Hill: The University of North Carolina Press, 2000), p. 5.

200 Hoài Thanh, Hoài Chân, Thi nhân Việt Nam (Vietnamese Poets) (Hanoi: Nhà xuất bản văn học, 2016).

201 Natasha Grigorian, European Symbolism: In Search of Myth (1860-1910) (New York: Peter Lang Ltd, 2009), p. 117.

202 Cecil Maurice Bowra, The Heritage of Symbolism (London: MacMillan, 1943), p. 2.

203 Bowra, p. 7.

204 J. A. Cuddon, M. A. R. Habib, The Penguin Dictionary of Literary Terms and Literary Theory, 3rd edn., (London: Penguin, 1992), p. 941.

205 Thomas G. West, Symbolism: an Anthology (London: Methuen, 1980), p. 45.

206 Bowra, p. 3.

207 Roger Pearson, Stéphane Mallarmé (London: Reaktion Books Ltd, 2010), p. 49.

208 W. D. Halls, Maurice Maeterlinck: A Study of his Life and Thought (Oxford: Clarendon P, 1960), p. 38.

209 Philip Stephan, Paul Verlaine and the Decadence, 1882-90 (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1974), p. 105.

210 Charles Baudelaire, The Flowers of Evil (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1993).

211 Bowra, p. 6.

212 Bowra, p. 3.

213 McFarlane, Malcolm, p. 206.

214 Baudelaire, The Flowers of Evil, ibid.

215 McFarlane, Malcolm, p. 209.

216 Baudelaire, p. 19.

217 West, p. 20.

218 Bowra, p. 12.

219 Charles Baudelaire, Selected Writings on Art and Artists of Baudelaire, trans. by P.E. Charvet (Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1972), p. 17.

220 See Pearson, ibid.

221 McFarlane, Malcolm, p. 212.

222 West, p. 43.

223 Bowra, p. 5.

224 Baudelaire, The Flowers of Evil, ibid.

225 See Chế Lan Viên, ‘Đêm tàn’ (The End of the Night), Thi nhân Việt Nam, p. 216.

226 See Lưu Trọng Lư, ‘Tiếng thu’ (The Sound of Autumn), Thi nhân Việt Nam, p. 287.

227 Baudelaire, ‘Lament of an Icarus’, 1993, p. 345.

228 Dinh Gia Khanh, The Anthology of Vietnamese Literature, Volume 13 (Hanoi: Social Science Publishing House, 2000), p. 1245.

229 Charles Baudelaire, Artificial Paradises (New York: Kensington Publishing Corp., 1998).

230 Charles Baudelaire, Paris Spleen, 1869 (New York: New Directions, 1970), p. 5.

231 Hàn Mặc Tử, Thơ điên (Crazy Poetry) (Hanoi: Nhà xuất bản hội nhà văn, 1995).

232 Baudelaire, Charvet, p. 18.

233 Baudelaire, p. 19

234 Michael Clif Spencer, Art Criticism of Théophile Gautier (Genève: Librairie Droz, 1969), p. 11.

235 Hoai Thanh, Hoai Chan, p. 27

236 See the poem of Che Lan Vien about Nguyen Du – Vietnamese mediaval poet - in Joachim Küpper, Approaches to World Literature (Frankfurt: German National Library, 2013), p. 99.

237 Nguyen Ngoc Bich, A Thousand Years of Vietnamese Poetry (New York: Random House, 1975), p. 151.

238 Tran Tuan Khai, ‘Our land, our home’, Huynh, p.128.

239 See Hoài Thanh, Hoài Chân , Ibid,

240 Grigorian, p. 117.

241 David Coward, A History of French Literature: From Chanson de Geste to Cinema (New York: Wiley-Blackwell), p. 239.


242 Mark W. McLeod and Thi Dieu Nguyen, Culture and Customs of Vietnam (London: Greenwood Press, 2001), p. 76.

243 See Huynh Sanh Thong, An Anthology of Vietnamese Poems (New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 1996).

244 Nguyen Ngoc Bich, p. xvi and p. 159.

245 Ý Nhi, ‘Woman Knitting’, Nguyen Ba Chung and Kevin Bower, 6 Vietnamese Poets (Northwestern: Curbstone Books, 2001), p. 3.

246 Nguyen Du, ‘Calling All Souls’, Huynh Sanh Thong, p. 77.

247 Victor Hugo, Les Miserables (London: Penguin Classics, 1982).

248 See Leslie Barnes, Vietnam and the Colonial Condition of French Literature (London: University of Nebraska Press, 2014).

249 Tony Day and Maya H. T. Liem, Cultures at War: The Cold War and Cultural Expression in Southeast Asia (New York: Cornel Southeast Asia Program, 2010), p. 164.

250 See the transformation of Vietnamese poetic forms in The Princeton Encyclopedia of Poetry and Poetics, ed. by Roland Greene, 4th edition (Princeton and Oxford: Princeton University Press, 2012), p. 1519.

251 See Dorothy Blair Shimer, Voices of Modern Asia: Anthology of Twentieth-century Asian Literature (London: Signet Books, 1974), p. 361.

252 Dang Tran Con and Phan Huy Ich, ‘The song of a Soldier’s Wife’, Huynh, p. 405.

253 Vu Hoang Chuong, ‘The Beau Ideal’, Huynh, p. 312.

254 Roland Barthes, The Rustle of language, ibid.

255 David G. Marr, Vietnamese Tradition on Trial, 1920-1945 (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1981), p. 166.

256 Huynh Sanh Thong, An Anthology of Vietnamese poetry, p. 22.

257 ‘Picking the Soul’, Han Mac Tu, Hurt (Hanoi: Literature Publishing House, 1995), p. 63.

258 Hoai Thanh, Hoai Chan, p. 104.

259 ‘Benediction’, Baudelaire, The Flowers of Evil, p. 11.

260 Nicolae Babuts, ‘Baudelaire and the Identity of the Self’, Mosaic: a Journal for the Interdisciplinary Study of Literature, 47(3) 2014, 159-173, p. 159.

261 Xuân Diệu, Thơ Thơ (Poetry Poetry) (Hanoi: Đời nay, 1938).

262 Hoài Thanh, Hoài Chân, p. 119.

263 See Huynh Sanh Thong, An Anthology of Vietnamese poetry.

264 Helen Abbott, Between Baudelaire and Mallarmé: Voice, Conversation and Music (London and New York: Routledge, 2016), p. 9.

265 Hoài Thanh, Hoài Chân, p. 13.

266 Neil L. Jamieson, Understanding Vietnam (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1995), p. 277.

267 Huynh, p. 341.

268 Huynh, p. 336.

269 Bich Khe, ‘New comer’, Hoai Thanh, Hoai Chan, p. 224.

270 Hoài Thanh, Hoài Chân, p. 221.

271 Hoài Thanh, Hoài Chân, p. 221.

272 Bích Khê, ‘Tì bà’ (Spleen music), Vietnamese Literature Anthology, Vol. 7 (Hanoi: Social Science Publishing, 2004), p. 235.

273 Bích Khê, ‘Poetic’, Crystal Plasma (Ha Noi: Vietnamese Literature Association, 1939).

274 ‘Life and Art’, Huynh, p. 296.

275 Robert Goldwater, Symbolism (London: Penguin Books Ltd, 1st published 1979), p. 43.

276 Gertrude Stein, Tender Buttons (Whitefish, MT: Kessinger Pub., 2004).

277 In ‘The Autobiography of Alice B. Toklas’, Gertrude Stein, Van Vechten Carl, Selected Writings of Gertrude Stein (New York: Vintage Books, 1990), p. 189.

278 Ezra Pound, Gaudier-Brzeska: a Memoir ... Including the published writings of the sculptor, and a selection from his letters. With thirty-eight illustrations, etc. (London: John Lane, 1916), p. 103.

279 Gertrude Stein, ‘What are Master-pieces’ in Gertrude Stein: Writings and Lectures 1909-1945, ed. by Patricia Meyerowitz (Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1967), p. 313.

280 Murphy, p. 138.

281 Michael Schmidt, Lives of the Poets (London: Phoenix, 1999), p. 657.

282 Gertrude Stein, 'A Translatlantic Interview 1946' with Robert Bartlett Haas in A Primer for the Gradual Understanding of Gertrude Stein, ed. Robert Barlett Haas (California: Black Sparrow Press, 1971), p. 18.

283 Ulla E. Dydo, Rice William, Gertrude Stein: the Language that Rises, 1923-1934. (Evanston, Ill: North Western University Press, 2003), p. 13.

284 Murphy, p. 139.

285 Geoffrey Leech, A Linguistic Guide to English Poetry (Harlow: Longman, 1969), p. 79.

286 Johanna Winant, 'Gertrude Stein and the Contingency of Inductive Reasoning’, Journal of Modern Literature, Volume 39, Number 3 (Spring 2016), pp. 95-113 (p. 104).

287 Gertrude Stein, ‘Melanctha’, Three Lives (London, Penguin Books, 1987), p. 134, 153-54.

288 Stein, ‘A Table’, Tender Buttons, p. 14.

289 Stein, ‘Shoes’, Tender Buttons, p. 14.

290 Gertrude Stein, and Carl Van Vechten, Selected Writings of Gertrude Stein (New York: Vintage Books, 1990), p. 471.

291 Ibid.

292 Stein, ‘Nothing Elegant’, p. 4.

293 Stein, Vechten, p. 114.

294 Stein, ‘Nothing Elegant’, p. 4.

295 Stein, Vechten, ‘Red Hat’, p. 467

296 Stein, Vechten, p. 199.

297 Stein, ‘A Paper’, p. 10.

298 Stein, ‘A Fire’, p. 12.

299 Stein, ‘Red Roses’, p. 12.

300 Stein, ‘A Drawing’, p. 10.

301 Stein, ‘Salad Dressing and An Artichoke’, p. 37.

302 Stein, ‘A Piece of Coffee’, p. 3.

303 Stein, ‘Food’, p. 17.

304 Stein, ‘A piece of coffee’, p. 3

305 Stein, ‘A piece of coffee’, p. 3.

306 Stein, ‘New cup and saucer’, p. 9.

307 Gertrude Stein, ‘After the war 1919-1932’, The Autobiography of Alice B Toklas (Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1966). See Wright Morris, ‘One law for the lion’, Partisan Review, Vol. 28, 5-6 (1961), 541-51 (p.546).

308 Stein, ‘Roastbeef’, p. 17.

309 Stein, ‘A little bit of a tumble’, p. 11.

310 Stein, ‘Careless water’, p. 10.

311 Charlotte Perkins Gilman, Golden Catherine J., Charlotte Perkins Gilman's the Yellow Wall-paper: a sourcebook and critical edition (London: Routledge, 2004).

312 Virginia Woolf, A Room of One's Own (St Albans: Triad, 1977).

313 Stein, ‘Book’, p. 15.

314 Stein, ‘Custard’, p. 30.

315 Stein, Vechten, ‘A Time To Eat’, p. 472.

316 Stein, ‘A Mounted Umbrella’, p. 9.

317 Stein, ‘Lunch’, p. 28.

318 Stein, ‘Peeled Pencil, Choke’, p. 16.

319 Stein, ‘Breakfast,’ p. 23.

320 Stein, ‘Sugar’, p. 25.

321 Stein, ‘A Handkerchief’, p. 12.

322 Stein, ‘Nothing Elegant’, p. 4.

323 Stein, ‘A Drawing’, p. 10.

324 Stein, ‘A Plate’, p. 6.

325 Stein, ‘A Little Called Pauline’, p. 13.

326 Ernest Hemingway, ‘Une Génération Perdue’, Life, Vol. 56, No 15(1964), p. 65.

327 Stein, ‘A Little Called Pauline’, Tender Buttons, p. 13.

328 Stein and Vechten, p. 492.

329 Stein and Vechten, p. 494.

330 Stein, ‘Orange in’, p. 35.

331 Leech, p. 184.

332 Stein and Vechten, p. 490.

333 Ibid, p. 475.

334 Ibid, p. 494.

335 Ibid, p. 490.

336 Jenny Stringer, ed., The Oxford Companion to Twentieth-Century Literature in English (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1996), p. 642.

337 Nhu Huy said in a conversation with me that he was impressed by Stein and to some extent, followed her Tender Buttons approach as a way of rejecting the traditional poetry of Vietnam.

338 Stein and Vechten, p. 467.

339 Stein, p. 6.

340 Stein, p. 37

341 Nhu Huy (trans. by Dinh Minh Hang), ‘A poem’, Stand Magazine, Volume 13 (1) 205 (2015), 30-35 (p.30).

342 Nhu Huy (trans. by Dinh Minh Hang), ‘Two Complex Sentences’, Stand magazine, p. 31.

343 Stein, Vechten, p. 472.

344 Stein and Vechten, p. 496.

345 Stein, p. 17.

346 Stein, p. 3.

347 Nhu Huy (trans. by Dinh Minh Hang), ‘There is something disintegrating’, Stand magazine, p. 35.

348 Stein, p. 17.

349 Nhu Huy (trans. by Dinh Minh Hang), ‘Memory’, Stand magazine, p. 34.

350 Stein, Vechten, p. 489.

351 Stein, Vechten, p. 349-50.

352 Thạch Lam, Nắng trong vườn (Sunshine in the garden) (Hanoi: Đời nay, 1938).

353 Stein, Vechten, pp. 499-504.

354 See more about Vietnamese ‘Doi moi’ in Ari Kokko, Vietnam: 20 Years of Doi Moi (Hanoi: The Gioi Publisher, 2008).

355 Nguyễn Đình Đăng, ‘The introduction of Roman writing in Vietnam’, Bui, Nhu Huong, and Pham Trung, p. 7.

356 Ibid.

357 Carolyn Burke, Becoming Modern: The Life of Mina Loy (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1997, p. Viii.

358 Burke, p. V.

359 Maeera Shreiber, Keith Tuma, National Poetry Foundation, Mina Loy: Woman and Poe (London: National Poetry Foundation, 1998).

360 Carolyn Burke, Becoming Modern: The Life of Mina Loy.

361 Burke, p. V.

362 Marjorie Perloff, ‘English as a “second” Language: Mina Loy's "Anglo-Mongrels and the Rose’, Mina Loy: Woman and Poet, ed. by Maeera Shreiber and Keith Tuma (Orono, ME.: National Poetry Foundation, 1998), p. 131.

363 Amanda J. Bradley, ‘Millay and Loy: Two Iconic Feminist Poets’, Limina Journal of Historical and Cultural Studies, volume 18 (2012).

364 Bradley (Ibid).

365 This cited from Mina Loy’s essay: ‘Modern poetry’ from The Lost Lunar Baedeker: Poems of Mina Loy, ed. by Roger L. Conover (New York: Noonday Press, 1996), p.157, in which Loy also wrote: ‘Poetry is prose bewitched, a music made of visual thoughts, the sound of an idea’.

366 Torczyner, Magritte: the True Art of Painting (London: Thames and Hudson, 1979).

367 ‘I consider valid the linguistic attempt to say that my picture were conceived as material signs of freedom of thought’ – Torczyner, p. 50.

368Carolyn Burke, ‘Becoming Mina Loy’, Women’s Studies 7 (1980), 136-150.

369 Julie Schmid, ‘Mina Loy’s Futurist Theatre’, Performing Arts Journal 18.1, January (1996), 1-7.

370 Loy, ‘Parturition’, p. 8.

371 Loy, ‘Parturition’, p. 8.

372 Virginia M. Kouidis, Mina Loy: American Modernist Poet (Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1980), p. 46.

373 Kenneth Rexroth, ‘Les Lauriers Sont Coupes No2: Mina Loy’, Circle, 1.4 (1994), 69-70.

374 Loy, ‘Italian picture’, p. 12.

375 William Carlos William, ‘Mina Loy’ Lunar Baedeker and Time Tables, ed. Jonathan Williams (Highlands, NC: Jargon Society, 1958b).

376Samuel French Morse, ‘The Rediscovery of Mina Loy and the Avant-Garde’, Wisconsin Studies in Contemporary Literature, 2.2 (Spring/Summer 1961), 12-19.

377 Loy, ‘Three moments in Paris’, p. 15.

378 Loy, ‘Babies in hospital’, p. 26.

379 Jacques Meuris, René Magritte, 1898-1967 (Ko¨ln: Benedikt Taschen, 1998), p. 19.

380 Meuris, p. 71.

381 Torczyner, p.60 (Letter to Hornik, May 8, 1959, in Andre Bosmans archive).

382 Marcel Paquet, René Magritte, 1898-1967: thought rendered visible (Ko¨ln: Benedikt Taschen, 1994), p. 51.

383 Meuris, p. 89.

384 Paquet, p. 51.

385 Paquet, p. 53.

386 David Sylvester, Magritte (Houston: Menil, 1992), p. 237.

387 Patrick Walberg, Surrealism (London: Thames and Hudson, 1966), p. 97.

388 Walberg, p. 32.

389 Torczyner, p. 112.

390 Paquet, 'Collective Invention', 1934, p. 74.

391 Francis Murphy, The Uncollected Essays and Reviews of Yvor Winters (Chicago: Swallow Press, 1973).

392 See the case of Breton while he ‘proposes to modify the social condition, he is attentive to the human condition’ (Ferdinand Alquie, Waldrop Bernard, The philosophy of surrealism (Ann Arbor: Univ. of Michigan Press, 1965), p. 147).

393 Loy, ‘Three moments in Paris’, p. 15.

394 ‘I had a little idea: instead of writing a strange word under an object, I thought of trying to paint a plum on a pear, or something else, such as a locomotive on a recumbent lion, etc.’, (Harry Torczyner, 1979, p. 128) (letter from Magritte to Mirabelle Dors and Maurice Rapin, February 14, 1956).

395 Meuris, ‘Homesickness’, 1940, p. 72.

396 Walberg, p. 81.

397 Paquet, p. 39.

398 Meuris, p. 104.

399 Mary Ann Caws, Surrealism (London: Phaidon, 2004), p. 22.

400 Caws, p. 22.

401 Loy, p. 36.

402 Loy, ‘The Effectual Marriage or The Insipid Narrative of Gina and Miovanni’, p. 36.

403 Loy, Ibid, p. 39.

404 ‘woman (...) There is no half-measure – NO scratching on the surface of the rubbish heap of tradition, will bring about Reform, the only method is Absolute Demolition’ – ‘Feminist Manifesto’, Loy, p. 153.

405 ‘There is no half-measure—NO scratching on the surface of the rubbish heap of tradition, will bring about Reform, the only method is Absolute Demolition’ – Loy, p. 153

406 Meuris, ‘The two mysteries’, 1966, p. 123.

407 Ben Stoltzfus, ‘Magritte, Cladel, and The Tomb of the Wrestlers: Roses, Daggers, and Love in Interarts Discourse’, University of Nebraska Press, Vol. 19, No. 1-2 (2011), 173-90 (p. 173).

408 Nicholson Baker, ‘Wrapping Sentences Around Things’, lecture at Lingua Franca: The 2014 D-Crit Conference Presented by the SVA MFA in Design Criticism, School of Visual Arts Theatre, New York City, May 2 (2014).

409 Carolyn Burke, ‘Carolyn Burke in conversation with Pam Brown about Mina Loy’ [accessed on 8 Dec 2015].

410 Loy, ‘Human Cylinders’, The Lost Lunar Baedeker, p. 40.

411 Danielle Pafunda, ‘On Human Cylinders: The Pregnant Poet‘, American Poet, issue 38 (Spring 2010) https://www.poets.org/poetsorg/text/human-cylinders-pregnant-poet

412 Loy, ‘The Widow’s Jazz’, The Lost Lunar Baedeker, p. 95.

413 Paquet, pp. 32-33.


414 Meuris, p. 104.

415 Paquet, p. 19.

416 Caws, p. 70.

417 Loy, ‘Lunar Baedeker’, p. 81.

418 Loy, ‘Lunar Baedeker’, p. 82.

419 ‘”The starry sky” of Wyndham Lewis’, p. 91.

420 Loy, ‘Marble’, p. 93.

421 Loy, ‘Gertrude Stein’, p. 93.

422 Jacinta Kelly, ‘The Dissolution of Space in Mina Loy’s Poetry’, Limina, < http://www.limina.arts.uwa.edu.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0010/2570959/Jacinta_Kelly_-_Purging_the_Birdcage-2.pdf> [accessed 8 October 2015]


423 Kelly, p. 3.

424 Meuris, p. 136.

425 Loy, ‘Virgins Plus Curtains Minus Dots’, p. 23.

426 Loy, ‘Virgins Plus Curtains Minus Dots’, p. 21.

427 Laura Scuriatti, ‘Negotiating boundaries : the economics of space and gender in Mina Loy’s early poems’, Feminismo/s, N. 5 (Jun 2005), 71-84 (p. 82).

428 Paquet, p. 42.

429 Paquet, p. 42.

430 René Magritte, ed. by Jose Maria Faerna, Magritte (London: Cameo, 1996), p. 23.

431 Paquet, p. 61.

432 Neil Matheson, ‘Something borrowed, something new’, Tate Etc., 22 (2011) < http://www.tate.org.uk/context-comment/articles/something-borrowed-something-new> [accessed 20 December 2015].


433 Meuris, ‘Golconde’, 1953, pp. 110-11.

434 Meuris, ‘The Month of the Vintage’, 1959, pp. 106-07.

435 See L. S. Lowry, ed. by Michael Leber, L S Lowry (London: Phaidon Press, 1995).

436 Andrew Kalman, Andrew Lambirth, L.S. Lowry: Conversation Pieces, (Oxford: Chaucer Press, 2003), p. 136.

437 Sarah Whitfield, René Magritte Newly Discovered Works: Oil Paintings, Gouaches, Drawings Volume 6: Catalogue Raisonne (London: Philip Wilson Publishers, 1993), p. 141.

438 Meuris, p.200.

439 Gablik, ‘Time transfix’, 1938, p. 108.

440 Matheson, ibid.

441 Walter Benjamin, ‘The storyteller: Reflections on the Works of Nicolai Leskov’, in Illuminations, ed. Hannah Arendt (New York: Schocken Books, 1969), pp. 83-110.

442 Blanchot, p. 41.

443 Michel Remy, On the Thirteenth Stroke of Midnight (Manchester: Carcanet Press, 2013).

444 Tony del Renzio, ‘Those Pennies Were Well Spent’, Remy, p. 79.

445 Emmy Bridgwater, ‘Weed Growing’, Remy, p. 52.

446 David Gascoyne, ‘The Very Image’, Remy, p. 101.

447 Gascoyne, ‘Automatic Writing’, p. 107.

448 Len Lye, ‘Chair in Your Hair’, Remy, p. 121.

449 E.L.T. Mesens, ‘Untranslatable, Statistical and Critical News Item’, Remy, p. 141.

450 Messen, ‘War Poem’, p. 137.

451 ‘The Boat and the Sea’ in Vietnamese Feminist Poems from Antiquity to the Present (Hanoi: Women’s Publishing House, 2008), p. 193.

452 Loy, ‘Song to Joannes’, The Lost Lunar Baedeker, p. 53.

453 Nguyễn Đình Đăng, ‘The Silent Piano’, 2001, Bui, Nhu Huong, and Pham Trung, Vietnamese Contemporary Art 1990 – 2010, trans. by Bui Le Na, and Matt Lureco (Hanoi: Knowledge Publishing House, 2012), p. 75.

454 Bui, Nhu Huong, and Pham Trung, p. 72.

455 Nguyễn Đình Đăng, ‘Awakening of the Past’, 2004, Bui, Nhu Huong, and Pham Trung, p. 73.

456 ‘Magritte writes that the evocation of night and day appears to have the power to surprise and delight us. His name for this power is poetry and the reason he believes in its existence is because he has always been interested in night and day, without preferring one to the other’, Cathrin Klingsöhr-Leroy, Uta Grosenick, Surrealism (Cologne: Taschen, 2004), p. 68.

457 Olivia Bloechl, Melanie Lowe and Jeffrey Kallberg, Rethinking Difference in Music Scholarship, (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2015), pp. 290-91.

458 Klingsöhr-Leroy and Uta Grosenick, p. 68.

459 Ibid, p. 64.

460 Matsuo Basho, trans. by David Landis Barnhill, Basho's Journey: The Literary Prose of Matsuo Basho (New York: State University of New York Press), p. 182.

461 David Hinton ed., Classical Chinese Poetry: An Anthology (New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2010), p. xix.

462 Bui, Nhu Huong, and Pham Trung, p. 76.

463 Woolf, A Room of One's Own.

464 Elaine Showalter, ‘Feminist Criticism in the Wilderness’, Critical Inquiry, Vol. 8, No. 2, Writing and Sexual Difference (Winter, 1981), pp. 179- 205 (p. 201).

465 Woolf, p. 103.

466 Woolf, p. 92.

467 Marjorie Garber, Bisexuality and the Eroticism of Everyday Life (London: Routledge, 2000), p. 515.

468 Ibid.

469 Woolf, p. 98.

470 Woolf, p. 76.

471 Nguyen Thi Minh Hà, Nguyen Thi Thanh Bình and Lady Borton, Vietnamese Feminist Poems from Antiquity to the Present (Hanoi: Women’s Publishing House, 2008), p. 17.

472 See Nguyen Thi Minh Ha, Vietnamese Feminist Poems from Antiquity to the Present, p. 32.

473 Ibid, p. 28.

474 Ibid, p. 16.

475 Nguyen Thi Minh Hà, Nguyen Thi Thanh Bình and Lady Borton, Vietnamese Feminist Poems from Antiquity to the Present, p. 33.

476 Loy, ‘Parturition’, p. 8.

477 See Janine A. Mileaf, Please Touch: Dada and Surrealist Objects after the Readymade (London: University Press of New England, 2010).

478 Meuris, ‘Golconde’, 1953, pp. 110-11.

479 ‘Vietnamese students were reading the works of Rousseau, Hugo, Proust, and Gide in French, they memorised poems by Hugo, Baudelaire, and Verlaine. The French emphasised their own history, thereby educating a generation of revolutionaries’, Nguyen Thi Minh Ha, Vietnamese Feminist Poems from Antiquity to the Present, p. 40.

480 Hélène Cixous, trans. by Keith Cohen and Paula Cohen, ‘The Laugh of the Medusa’, Signs, Vol. 1, No. 4 (Summer, 1976), pp. 875-893 (p. 876).

481 Hélène Cixous, p. 881.

482 Nguyen Thi Minh Ha, p. 15.

483 D. H Lawrence, ‘The Woman who Rode Away’, Sexual Politics (New York: Kate Millet, 1970), p. 285.

484 Elaine Showalter, p. 308.

485 Julia Kristeva, Woman’s Review number twelve, p. 19.

486 Jonathan Culler, On Deconstruction: Theory and Criticism after Structuralism (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1982), p. 54.

487 Từ Huy, p. 4.

488 Dương Tường, ‘Mea Culpa: 1’, Mea Culpa, p. 83.

489 Từ Huy, p. 17.

490 Loy, ‘The Effectual Marriage or The Insipid Narrative of Gina and Miovanni’, The Lost Lunar Baedeker, p. 39.

491 Từ Huy, p. 10.

492 Dương Tường, p. 81.

493 Ibid.

494 Vi Thùy Linh, Movie in Couple – Love in Andate (Hanoi: Youth Publishing house, 2010).

495 Vi Thuy Linh, p. 9.

496 Nguyen Thi Minh Ha, p. 38.

497 Nguyen Thi Minh Ha, p. 123.

498 Nguyen Thi Minh Ha, p. 281.

499 Nguyen Thi Minh Ha, p. 291.

500 Nguyen Thi Minh Ha, p. 219.

501 See A. David Moody, Thomas Stearns Eliot: Poet (Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press, 1994).

502 Thomas Ernest Hulme, Speculations: Essays on Humanism and the Philosophy of Art, p. 111.

503 William Wordsworth, A.R Jones, Samuel Taylor Coleridge; R.L Brett, Lyrical Ballads (London: Methuen, 1963).

504 Peter Jones, Imagist Poetry, ibid.

505 ‘By 1913, not yet fifty, Yeats had begun to write his memoirs and rewrite his past. He was well embarked on his development into a new and uncompromising tradition, in poetry as in stagecraft: encouraged by his secretary and companion, Ezra Pound. He would look to the East, to Europe and eventually back to Ireland’, in Jonathan Allison, Yeats's Political Identities: Selected Essays (Michigan: University of Michigan Press, 1996), p. 100.

506 ‘Modern Fiction’, Virginia Woolf, The Common Reader, p. 189.

507 Victor Shklovsky, ‘In the Early Part of the Last Century’, James L. Resseguie, ibid.

508 Roland Barthes, The Rustle of Language, ibid, p. 49and see Seán Burke, The Death and Return of the Author: Criticism and Subjectivity in Barthes, Foucault and Derrida (Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 1998).


509 Dương Tường, Mea Culpa, Ibid.

510 Julia Kristeva, ed. by Leon S. Roudiez, Revolution in Poetic Language (Guildford: Columbia Univ. Press, 1984).

511 See Hoai Thanh and Hoai Chan, ibid.

512 ‘Nevertheless, Pound seems to have been quite successful in producing a haiku in English on another occasion. "Fan Piece, for Her Imperial Lord" is based on the subject matter of a poem from the Chinese’ in Richard Eugene Smith, ‘Ezra Pound and the Haiku’, College English 26, no. 7 (1965): 522-27, p. 525

513 T.S Eliot: Pound was ‘the inventor of Chinese poetry for our time’, Selected Poems, edited and with an introduction by T. S. Eliot, Faber & Gwyer, 1928, Laughlin, 1957, p. 14.

514 ‘During most of the Twentieth century, Western scholars and translators used the term haiku for both modern haiku and premodern hokku. And haiku has thus come to be the generally accepted term in the West’, in Matsuo Basho, Basho's Haiku: Selected poems of Matsuo Basho, trans. David Landis Barnhill (New York: Tate University of New York Press, 2004), p. 4.

515 Basho was also considered as an imitation monk. He ‘spent a number of years in travel, sleeping at monasteries and inns’. To Basho, ‘travel and its difficulties were a form of freedom and a way of disciplining the mind’ (quoted in Hass, p.10).

516 ‘Unending circle of birth, death and rebirth’ (Buddhist theory of salvation), Kunio Komparu, The Noh Theater: Principles and Perspectives (New York: Weatherhill; Tokyo: Tankosha, i983), p. 42.

517 ‘While the mainly English background of the poetry does not reflect a fully “British” context, the question of what constitutes the “experimental” in poetry is robustly argued in a convincing argument for the validity of the avant-garde legacy’, in a book review of David Kennedy and Christine Kennedy, Women’s Experimental Poetry in Britain 1970–2010: Body, Time and Locale, Contemporary Women's Writing, 9 (2015), pp. 159-160.

518 Bích Khê, ‘Tì Bà’ (Spleen Music), Tinh Tuyển Văn Học Việt Nam (Vietnamese Literature Anthology), Vol. 7 (Hanoi: Social Science Publishing, 2004), p. 235.

519 Hoài Thanh, Hoài Chân, Thi Nhân Việt Nam, p. 221.

520 Chế Lan Viên, ‘Đêm tàn’ (The End of the Night), Thi nhân Việt Nam, p. 216.* Chế Lan Viên wrote this poem in the mood of an imagined person from Cham’s nation, which had ‘Chiem’ as its kingdom. ‘Cham’ was attacked throughout war and was no longer existed. Thus, Chế Lan Viên thought of the girl in Chiem’s kingdom, and the sorrow of losing country as symbols for his lost-feeling during the war in Vietnam in 1930s.


521 Dương Tường, ‘Chợt Thu 1’ (Sudden Autumn 1), p. 39.

522 Dương Tường, ‘Chợt Thu 2’ (Sudden Autumn 2), p. 39.

523 Dương Tường, ‘Serenade 3’, p. 36.

524 Dương Tường, ‘Serenade 1’, p. 11.

525 Dương Tường, ‘Serenade 1’, p. 13.

526 Hàn Mặc Tử, ‘Đây Thôn Vĩ Dạ’, Thơ Hàn Mặc Tử (Hanoi: Nhà xuất bản Hội nhà văn, 2014), p. 28.

527 Lê Đạt, Bóng chữ (The Shadow of Words), p. 96.

528 Lê Đạt, ‘Em đi’, p. 89.

529 Lưu Trọng Lư, ‘Tiếng thu’ (The Sound of Autumn), Thi nhân Việt Nam, p. 287

530 Như Huy, Những Câu Phức (Complex Sentences) (Hanoi: Nhà xuất bản hội nhà văn, 2008).

531 Nhu Huy (trans. by Dinh Minh Hang), ‘A poem’, Stand Magazine, Volume 13 (1) 205 (2015), 30-35, p. 30.


532 Nhu Huy (trans. by Dinh Minh Hang), ‘A poem passing the door’, Stand Magazine, p.30.

533 Nhu Huy (trans. by Dinh Minh Hang), ‘The inability of language’, Stand Magazine, p.31.

534 Nhu Huy (trans. by Dinh Minh Hang), ‘The face of sadness’, Stand Magazine, p.31.

535 Nhu Huy (trans. by Dinh Minh Hang), ‘Two complex sentences’, Stand Magazine, p.31.

536 Nhu Huy (trans. by Dinh Minh Hang), ‘H’, Stand Magazine, p.32.

537 Nhu Huy (trans. by Dinh Minh Hang), ‘Language is’, Stand Magazine, p.33.

538 Nhu Huy (trans. by Dinh Minh Hang), ‘And he knows’, Stand Magazine, p.34.

539 Nhu Huy (trans. by Dinh Minh Hang), ‘Memory’, Stand Magazine, p.34.

540 Nhu Huy (trans. by Dinh Minh Hang), ‘There is something disintegrating’, Stand Magazine, p.35.

541 Phan Huyền Thư, ‘Nằm Nghiêng’, [accessed 16 December 2016].


542 Trần Dần, ‘Thơ Mini’, Thơ Trần Dần, p. 413.

543 Trần Dần, Thơ Trần Dần (Tran Dan’s poetry) (Da Nang: Nhà xuất bản Đà Nẵng, 2008), p.121.

544 Trần Dần, ‘Đừng yêu’, Thơ Trần Dần, p. 119.

545 Trần Dần, ‘Yêu’, Thơ Trần Dần, p. 119.

546 Trần Dần, ‘Không đề số 4’, Thơ Trần Dần, p. 136.

547 Xuân Diệu, ‘Đây Mùa Thu Tới’, Thơ Xuân Diệu (Hanoi: Nhà xuất bản Văn Học, 2015), p. 21.
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