The Ventricular System.
Ventricles are fluid filled cavities located within the brain; 2 lateral ventricles, 3rd ventricle and 4th ventricle.
2 lateral ventricles communicate through interventricular foraminaà 3rd ventricleà4th ventricle by the cerebral aqueduct.
The 4th ventricle à central canal of spinal cord and subarachnoid space through 3foraminea.
Diamond shape when viewed superiorly and tent-à shaped when viewed laterally.
Last and lowest ventricle .
Cavity of hindbrain.
Situated b/w pons ad medulla infront and
With 3rd ventricleà cerebral aqueduct.
Inferiorly communicate with central canal of
Dorsally---median aperture(FORAMEN OF
The cerebral aqueduct is about—1.8 cm long.
Connects 3rd to 4th ventricle.
It lined with ependyma cells with central gray area.
The direction of flow is from 3rdà4th ventricle.
There is no choroid plexus in the cerebral aqueduct.
CSF produced by choroid plexus of ventricles and
Choroid plexus is located in roof of 3rd &4th
Choroid plexus is composed of highly vascular
Total volume of CSF—130ml .
Normal pressure is 60—150 mm of water.
Glucose ½ of blood.
Traces of protein.
Few lymphocytes (0—3 cells/cmm)
Nourishes the brain tissue.
Cushion and mechanical buoyancy—brain.
Removal of products—neuronal metabolism.
Pathway for the pineal gland secretion –pituitary gland.
Blood Brain Barrier
Types of Hydrocephalus