Variables used in this study and their definitions. #: Variables used in two regions



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Appendix:
Variables used in this study and their definitions. #: Variables used in two regions.

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Mandible


  1. LBCB: Mandibular bicanine breadth, measured as the maximum distance between the labial (buccal) surfaces of the permanent lower canines at the level of the cemento-enamel junction.

  2. LBMB: Mandibular bimolar breadth, measured as the breadth from the buccal surface junction of the waists of the right and left M2 (an external dimension).

  3. LIAW: Mandibular incisor alveolar width, measured between the distal margins of the alveoli of the lateral incisors.

  4. CONDYLL: The maximum anterior-posterior length of the mandibular condyle.

  5. CONDYLW: The maximum mediolateral dimension of the mandibular condyle.

  6. CONM1: Distance from the back of the mandibular condyle to the mesial border of the M1.

  7. CONM3: Distance from the back of the mandibular condyle to the posterior border of the occlusal surface of the hypoconulid of M3.

  8. MAM1: Moment arm of the masseter, measured from the top of the mandibular condyle to the ventral border to the angle of the mandible (vertical distance).

  9. MAT: Moment arm of the temporal muscles, measured from the mid-curvature (point) of the mandibular condyle to the apex of the coronoid process.

  10. MANDLALV: The distance from posterior margin of the condyle to front of the alveoli of the central incisors (infradentale).

  11. MANDH: Height of the mandible between the M1 and M2.

  12. MANDSYM: Length of the mandibular symphysis between the inferior mandibular margin at the midline and the infradentale.

  13. BICONDYL: The maximum distance across the mandibular condyles, measured between their lateral-most points.

  14. MANCORW1: Width of the mandibular corpus, measured at the level of the waist of the M1.

  15. SYMWID: The thickness of the mandibular symphysis, measured parallel to the length of the mandibular symphysis.

  16. LTRLALV: Length of the madibular tooth row, from the distal surface of the M3 to the front of the alveoli of the central incisors (infradentale).

Lower teeth


1-7. LI1MDL-LM3MDL: Mesiodistal lengths of mandibular (lower) incisors, premolars and molars.

8. LCMDL: The greatest length of the lower canine parallel to the alveolus.

9-12. LI1BLL-LP3BLL: Buccolingual lengths of mandibular (lower) incisors and premolars.

13. LCBLL: The greatest width of the lower canine parallel to the alveolus.



14-16. LM1BLLM-LM3BLLM: Buccolingual breadth of the anterior (mesial) loph of the M1 to M3, taken at the base of the tooth.

Upper teeth


The same definitions described above apply to the lower teeth except at ā€˜Uā€™ replaces the ā€˜Lā€™.

Maxilla


  1. MUZL#: Muzzle length, measured as the distance from orbitale to alveolare.

  2. PALLENG: Palatal length, measured as the length of the palate from alveolare to staphylion.

  3. PALWID: Palatal width, measured as the width of the palate between the left and right M1 and M2 teeth (an internal dimension). The tips of the calipers were placed between the M1 and M2 on each side without extending the tips between the teeth.

  4. UBCB: Maxillary bicanine breadth, measured as the maximum distance between the labial (buccal) surfaces of the permanent upper canines at the level of the cemento-enamel junctions.

  5. UBMB: Maxillary bimolar breadth, measured as the breadth from the buccal surface of the waist of one M2 to that of the other (an external dimension).

  6. UIAW: Maxillary incisor alveolar width , measured as the breadth of the alveoli of the upper incisors, between the lateral margins of the alveoli of the lateral incisors.

Upper Face


  1. MUZL#: Muzzle length, measured as the distance from orbitale to alveolare.

  2. BIORBW: Biorbital width, measured as the maximum distance between the orbits, between the lateral edges of the orbits at the zygomaticotemporal suture (ectoconchion).

  3. INTORBW: Interorbital width, measured as the minimum distance between the orbits, between the lateral surfaces of the medial orbital walls at the most superior contacts between the lacrimal and frontal bones (dacryon).

  4. PIRH: Height of the piriform (nasal) aperture.

  5. PIRW: Width of the piriform (nasal) aperture.

  6. UFCEH: Upper facial height, measured as the height of the upper facial skeleton from the alveolus of M3 directly to the superior surface of the supraorbital ridge.

  7. INFRAMAL: Interfrontomalare width, distance between the points on lateral margins of the frontal processes of the left and right zygomatic bones, at the zygomaticofrontal suture.

  8. BIZYGW#: Bizygomatic width, maximum width between the zygomatic arches at the midpoint of the zygomaticotemporal suture.

Cranium


  1. BCRANL: Braincase length, from the tip of the occipital protuberance to orbitale.

  2. CRANL: Cranial length, from the tip of the occipital protuberance to alveolare.

  3. CRANW: Cranial width, distance between the points on the left and right suprameatal crests above the external acoustic meatus.

  4. BIZYGW#: Bizygomatic width, maximum width of the zygomatic arches at the midpoint of the zygomaticotemporal suture.

  5. POSTORB#: Postorbital constriction, measured as the minimum width of the postorbital constriction.

  6. OCCH#: Occipital height, vertical distance from the anterior border of the foramen magnum to the tip of the external occipital protuberance. Distance is measured vertically from the superior edge of a straightedge which is held at the level of the anterior border of the foramen magnum.

  7. ANTBASI: Anterior basicranial length, from the anterior point of the foramen magnum in the midsagittal plane (basion) to alveolare.


Calvaria


  1. CALVL: Calvarial length, from glabella to the tip of the occipital protuberance.

  2. BPORW: Biporionic width, measured as the distance between the most lateral points on the external auditory canals (porion).

  3. MIDPARW: Midparietal width, measured as the distance between the points on the left and right parietal bones that lie above the external acoustic meatus, at the maximum expansion of the parietals.

  4. POSTORB#: Postorbital constriction, measured as the minimum width of the postorbital constriction.

  5. OCCH#: Occipital height, vertical distance from the anterior border of the foramen magnum to the tip of the external occipital protuberance. Distance is measured vertically from the superior edge of a straightedge which is held at the level of the anterior border of the foramen magnum.

  6. FORMAGL: Length of the foramen magnum, from its most anterior to its most posterior point in the midsagittal plane (from basion to opisthion).

  7. FORMAGW: Width of the foramen magnum, measured perpendicular to its length.

Other variables (Additional measurements for cranial region)

  1. TEMFOSL: Length of the infratemporal fossa, measured from the back of the postorbital plate to the most posterior point of the infratemporal fossa (the greatest length of the temporal fossa).

  2. TEMFOSW: Width of the infratemporal fossa, measured from the point of the minimum width of the postorbital constriction to the medial surface of the zygomatic arch at the midpoint of the zygomaticotemporal suture (the widest measurement of the temporal fossa).

  3. ZYGH: Height of the zygomatic arch at the midpoint of the zygomaticotemporal suture.

  4. GLENOL: Length of the glenoid fossa, maximum anterior-posterior length of the glenoid fossa, measured in the sagittal plane.

5. GLENOW: Width of the glenoid fossa, maximum width of the glenoid fossa.

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