United Nations ece/trade/C/WP. 7/2011/19



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United Nations

ECE/TRADE/C/WP.7/2011/19



Economic and Social Council

Distr.: General

25 August 2011


Original: English

POST SESSION DOCUMENT AUGUST 2012
Economic Commission for Europe

Committee on Trade



Working Party on Agricultural Quality Standards

Sixty-seventh session

Geneva, 8-10 November 2011

Item 7(a) of the provisional agenda

Specialized Section on Standardization of Dry and Dried Produce

Texts for adoption as UNECE recommendations

POST SESSION DOCUMENT AUGUST 2012

Whole Dried Chilli Peppers

I. Definition of produce

This Standard applies to whole dried chilli peppers 1 of varieties (cultivars) grown from Capsicum annuum L., intended for direct consumption or for food when intended to be mixed with other products for direct consumption without further processing. This standard does not apply to whole dried chilli peppers for industrial processing.

This standard covers the following commercial types of whole dried chilli peppers, including commercial types such as: ancho, de árbol, guajillo, mulato, pasilla and puya.2

II. Provisions concerning quality

The purpose of the standard is to define the quality requirements of whole dried chilli peppers at the export-control stage, after preparation and packaging.

However, if applied at stages following export, the holder/seller shall be responsible for observing the requirements of the standard. The holder/seller of products not in conformity with this standard may not display such products or offer them for sale, or deliver or market them in any other manner.

A. Minimum requirements 3

In all classes, subject to the special provisions for each class and the tolerances allowed, the whole dried chilli peppers must display the following characteristics:

intact; however, slight superficial damage is not considered as a defect;

sound; produce affected by rotting or deterioration such as to make it unfit for consumption is excluded;

clean, practically free of any visible foreign matter;

sufficiently developed and with attached peduncle;

shape and colour characteristic of chilli commercial types[4];

free from living pests whatever their stage of development;

free from damage caused by pests, including the presence of dead insects and/or mites, their debris or excreta;

free from blemishes, areas of discolouration or spread stains in pronounced contrast with the rest of the produce affecting in aggregate not more than 5 per cent of the surface of the produce;

free from mould filaments visible to the naked eye;

free of abnormal external moisture;

free of foreign smell and/or taste.

The condition of the whole dried chilli peppers must be such as to enable them:

to withstand transportation and handling;

to arrive in satisfactory condition at the place of destination.



B. Moisture content 5

Whole dried chilli peppers should have a maximum moisture content in accordance with the following table:



Commercial type

Maximum moisture content in per cent (m/m)

Guajillo, Pasilla

13.5

Ancho, Mulato

12.5

Puya

10.0

De árbol

9.0

C. Classification

In accordance with the defects allowed in section “IV. Provisions concerning tolerances”, whole dried chilli peppers are classified into the following classes:

“Extra” Class, Class I and Class II.

The defects allowed must not affect the general appearance of the produce as regards quality, keeping quality and presentation in the package.



D. Colour

[Colour requirement for whole dried chillies is mandatory for the commercial types in accordance with the table below:]



Commercial Type

Extra

Class I

Class II

Guajillo

Uniform; intense or dark red with no discoloration

Uniform; intense or dark red with no discoloration

Uniform; intense or dark red with slight discoloration

Puya

Uniform; intense or dark red with no discoloration

Not totally uniform; intense or dark red with no discoloration

Not totally uniform; intense or dark red slightly discoloured

Ancho

Uniform; light red to dark red, free from discolouring

Uniform; intense red to dark red with no discoloration

Uniform; intense red to dark red slightly discoloured

Mulato

Uniform; intense black, free from discolouring

Uniform; intense black, free from discolouring

Non-uniform; black, discoloured

Pasilla

Uniform intense black without discolouration

Uniform black without discolouring

Non-uniform; black or greenish. Slightly discoloured

De arbol

Uniform; intense red without any discolourationNot applicable

Uniform; intense red without any discolouration

Intense red. May present discolouring stains

E. Pungency6 - moved to Annex I

Commercial types of whole dried chilli peppers are characterized by pungency in accordance with the following table.



Dry chilli

Total capsaicinoids (µg/g dry weight)

Pungency Intensity (Scoville units a)

Intensity

Ancho

67 - 100

1 000 – 1 500

Mild

Mulato

67 - 100

1 000 – 1 500




Pasilla

67 - 100

1 000 – 1 500




Guajillo

201 - 335

3 000 – 5 000

Medium

De árbol

335 – 2010

5 000 – 30 000

Medium - Hot

Puya

335 - 2010

5 000 – 30 000

a The Scoville scale is a system to measure the pungency in chillies. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) can also be used to measure content of capsaicin in chillies.

III. Provisions concerning sizing

Sizing of whole dried chilli peppers is mandatory for “Extra” Class and Class I.

Size is determined by the length (measured from the apex of the fruit without considering the peduncle).

The commercial types are sized in accordance with the following table:



Commercial Type

Class

Length (cm)

Guajillo

Extra

> 14

Class I

10 – 14

Class II

< 10

Puya

Extra

 10

Class I

8 – 10

Class II

< 8

Ancho

Extra

 10

Class I

7 – 10

Class II

7 – 10

Mulato

Extra

> 10

Class I

7 – 10

Class II

< 7

Pasilla

Extra

> 20

Class I

14 – 20

Class II

< 14

De árbol

Class I

9 – 11

Class II

< 9

IV. Provisions concerning tolerances

At all marketing stages, tolerances in respect of quality and size shall be allowed in each lot for produce not satisfying the minimum requirements of the class indicated.



A. Quality tolerances

Defects allowed


Tolerances allowed, percentage of defective produce, by number or weight

Extra

Class I

Class II

(a) Tolerances for produce not satisfying the minimum requirements

5

10

15

of which no more than:










Blemishes, stains, discolorations, burns, scratches, scars, deformations

2

5

10

Decayed and mouldy fruit

0.5

1

2

Damaged by pests

0.5

0.5

1

Living pests

0

0

0

(b) Size tolerances, if sized










For produce not conforming to the size indicated, in totalif sized

10

10

10

(c) Tolerances for other defects




Missing stems and broken fruit

5

7

10

Foreign matter (by weight)

1

1

1

Foreign matter of plant material

1.5

1.5

2

Whole dried chilli peppers belonging to commercial types other than that indicated

5

10

10

V. Provisions concerning presentation

A. Uniformity

The contents of each package must be uniform and contain only whole dried chilli peppers of the same origin, quality, colour, size (if sized) and commercial type.

The visible part of the contents of the package must be representative of its entire contents.

B. Packaging

Whole dried chilli peppers must be packed in such a way as to protect the produce properly.

The materials used inside the package must be clean and of a quality such as to avoid causing any external or internal damage to the produce. The use of materials, particularly of paper or stamps bearing trade specifications, is allowed, provided the printing or labelling has been done with non toxic ink or glue.

Packages must be free of all foreign matter in accordance with the table of tolerances in section “IV. Provisions concerning tolerances”.



VI. Provisions concerning marking

Each package7 must bear the following particulars in letters grouped on the same side, legibly and indelibly marked and visible from the outside:



A. Identification

Packer and/or Dispatcher:

Name and physical address (e.g. street/city/region/postal code and, if different from the country of origin, the country) or a code mark officially recognized by the national authority8.

B. Nature of produce

“Whole dried chilli peppers”

Name of the commercial type

Level of pungency indicated as “mild”, “medium”, “hot” or “extra hot”, as appropriate9

Method of drying (optional).

C. Origin of produce

Country of origin10 and, optionally, district where grown or national, regional or local place name.



D. Commercial specifications

class


size (if sized); expressed in accordance with section III

Method of drying (optional)



“Best before” followed by the date (optional).

E. Official control mark (optional)

Adopted 20121.

Annex 1 – moved to brochure

Annex I (move to brochure)

Commonly used terminology for whole dried chillies

Ancho chilli

Fruits have a conical shape, with sizes that vary in longitude and width. The base of the insertion of the peduncle can be flat or with indented shoulders; the body is generally flattened; the apex is pointed or round, and presents from two to four loculi. Its production as dry pepper is achieved mostly by artificially dehydrating the fruits, although a large part of this type of chilli is commercialized fresh.

De árbol chilli

Small fruits, with a uniform intense or dark red coloration, with no discoloration, cylindrical, with a shape prominently long and pointed, characterized by their high pungency.

Guajillo chilli

Also known as mirasol. Generally, it is long, with a sharp end; its body is cylindrical, smooth and with slight undulations. It has two to three locules; its position is hanging, even when there are some variants with erected fruits. This type of chilli is moderately pungent and its commercial production is in its majority dried in the plant in a natural way.

Mulato chilli

With a shape similar to the ancho chilli, it has the same variation in the growth habit and shape of the fruit, but generally less pungent. The basic difference with ancho chilli is the colour, which is dark brown when ripe and blackish brown once it is dehydrated.

Pasilla chilli

Fruit with a long undulated body that ends in a flat or pointed apex; it presents from two to three loculi. Its production is mainly destined for dehydrating, with a small amount consumed fresh.

Puya chilli

Elongated fruit, medium size, smaller than mirasol chillies and bigger than de árbol chillies, with a uniform intense red or dark red colour, with no discoloration. Its production is dehydrated mainly in a natural way in the plant before use in salsas. After the de árbol chilli, it is considered highly pungent.

Dried chilli (dehydrated)

Fruit that has undergone a process of water loss by natural or artificial means.

Capsaicinoids

Compounds responsible for the pungent or hot flavour in the chillies. The main and most pungent of all capsaicinoids is the Capsaicin, which is found in the seeds and placenta of the peppers.

Locule

Small chamber or cavity of the fruit that is formed by the arranging of the walls of the ovary; it is observed by making a transversal cut.

Foreign matter

All material or substance different to that which constitutes the fruit and the peduncle. This includes: stalks, dirt, sand, stones, waste, wires, cords, foreign seeds, dust and leaves, as well as insect debris.

Pungency

Sharp or intense sensation caused by the effect of the capsaicins after the ingestion of chilli or its sub-products.

Annex I

Pungency of certain commercial types of whole dried chilli peppers

The following commercial types of whole dried chilli peppers are characterized by pungency in accordance with the following table.



Dry chilli

Total capsaicinoids (µg/g dry weight)

Pungency Intensity (Scoville units a)

Intensity

Ancho

67 - 100

1 000 – 1 500

Mild

Mulato

67 - 100

1 000 – 1 500

Mild

Pasilla

67 - 100

1 000 – 1 500

Mild

Guajillo

201 - 335

3 000 – 5 000

Medium

De árbol

335 – 2010

5 000 – 30 000

Medium -– Hot
Medium - Hot

Puya

335 - 2010

5 000 – 30 000

a The Scoville scale is a system to measure the pungency in chillies. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) can also be used to measure content of capsaicin in chillies.
Methods to determine pungency

Pungency is reported in the Scoville scale and analyzed by the method of high performance resolution liquid chromatography (HPLC) methods.

References

ISO 972: 1997: Chillies and capsicums, whole or ground (powdered) - Specifications.

ISO 930: 1997: Spices and condiments - Determination of acid-insoluble ash

ISO 3513:1995 Chillies - Determination of Scoville index Edition: 2

ISO 7543-1 Chillies and chilli oleoresins - Determination of total capsaicinoid content - Part 1: Spectrometric method

ISO 7543-2 Chillies and chilli oleoresins - Determination of total capsaicinoid content - Part 2: Method using high-performance liquid chromatography

Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Forestales, Agrícolas y Pecuarias. Centro de Investigación Regional del Noreste. Campo Experimental Palma de la Cruz. Nuevas Variedades del Chile Mirasol para el Centro Norte de México. Folleto Técnico Nro. 21, Marzo 2001.

Pozo Campodónico, Octavio. Descripción de Tipos y Cultivares de Chile (Capsicum spp.) en México. Secretaría de Agricultura y Recursos Hidráulicos/Instituto Nacional de Investigación y Tecnología Agraria y Alimentaria (SARH/INIA). Folleto Técnico Nro. 77, Octubre 1981.



1  Whole dried chilli peppers presenting a minimum pungency of 900 Scoville index; for levels of pungency, see Annex.

2  This list of commercial types is non-exhaustive.

3  Definitions of terms and defects are listed in annex III of the Standard Layout – Recommended terms and definition of defects for standards of dry (Inshell Nuts and Nut Kernels) and dried produce

4  [For examples of colour and visual quality, see Draft Explanatory Brochure for Whole Dried Chilli Peppers]

5  The moisture content is determined by the method given in annex I of the Standard Layout – Determination of the moisture content for dried produce . The laboratory reference method shall be used in cases of dispute.

6  For methods of verification, see Annex II: Methods to determine pungency.

7  These marking provisions do not apply to sales packages presented in packages.

8  The national legislation of a number of countries requires the explicit declaration of the name and address. However, in cases where a code mark is used, the reference “packer and/or dispatcher” (or equivalent abbreviations) must be indicated in close connection with the code mark, and the code mark should be preceded by the ISO 3166 alpha country code of the recognizing country, if not the country of origin.

9 In case of conflict, the packer and/or dispatcher/shipper shall supply information regarding the level of pungency

10  The full or commonly used name should be indicated.

GE.11-24520



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