Tooth development begins: At the apical aspect



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ORA W 1
Tooth development begins:


  1. At the apical aspect.

  2. Centrally and progresses peripherally.

  3. At the larteral margins and progresses apically and centrally.

  4. At the cusp tips and proceeds apically.

  5. At the apical aspect of the cap stage tooth bud and progresses apically and occlusally.

Ten Cate AR. Development of the tooth and its supporting structures. In: Ten Cate, AR ed. Oral histology: development, structure, and function, 5th ed. St. Louis: Mosby, 1998; 87-92.

ORA W 2
In a 3 year old horse, the lucent appearance of the apical portion of the 307 is most likely a result of:


  1. Demineralization from infection.

  2. Demineralization from delayed development and subsequent inflammation from the eruption process.

  3. Lack of mineralization as a result of defective blast cell activity.

  4. Lack of mineralization as a result of loss of odontoblast cells.

  5. Normal mineralization process which does not terminate until up to a year or so after tooth eruption.

Hoppe KA, Stover SM, Pascoe JR, Amundson R. Tooth enamel biomineralization in extant horses: implications for isotopic microsampling. Palaeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 2004: 206; 355-365. Referenced in: Klugh DO. Embryology. In Klugh DO, ed. Principles of equine dentistry. London: Manson, 2010. 49-56.

ORB W 1

A 2010 study published by White and Dixon (2010) looked at the thickness of subocclusal of dentine above the pulp horns of cheek teeth. Which ONE of the following statements is correct concerning their findings :



a. Subocclusal dentine of less than 5mm thickness was present in some normal teeth

b. Maxillary cheek teeth had significantly thicker subocclusal dentine than mandibular cheek teeth

c. Subocclusal secondary dentine thickness increased significantly with age

d. Subocclusal dentine thickness was constant above all pulp horns within the same cheek tooth

e. The mean subocclusal dentine thickness in maxillary cheek teeth of all ages is circa 15mm

Ref


White, C., & Dixon, P. M. (2010). A study of the thickness of cheek teeth subocclusal secondary dentine in horses of different ages. Equine veterinary journal, 42, 119-123

ORA B 103

12

This image was obtained with the cheek teeth in apposition. Which of the following statements is most accurate concerning these incisors?



  1. This slope mouth is most likely due to a primary cheek tooth problem.

  2. This slope mouth is most likely due to an underlying craniofacial developmental abnormality.

  3. This slope mouth is most likely due to a fracture of the premaxilla (incisive bone).

  4. These incisors should be treated by making all of equal height in a single session.

  5. These incisors should be treated by making all of equal height over 3 to 4 sessions.

Deorey MS. A Retrospective Evaluation of 204 Diagonal Incisor Malocclusions in the Horse, J Vet Dent, Vol. 24, no. 3, p. 145-149, 2007.

Dixon, PM, du Toit N and Dacre IT (2010) Equine Dental Pathology: Equine Dentistry (3rd Edition) Editors Easley, KJ, Dixon, PM and Scumacher JS Elsevier Saunders

PMD ORA B 2

11_2_5_j

Which of the following ages best describes the pony mandible shown in the radiograph?



  1. 1 years



  1. 2 years



  1. 3 years



  1. 4 years



  1. 5 years

Dixon P M and Copeland A N (1993). The radiological appearance of mandibular cheek teeth in ponies of different ages. Equine Veterinary Education 5, 317-323.

PMD ORB B 119


picture3
Which of the following options gives the best reason for the development of overlong tooth 311 in this specimen?



  1. Maxillary Brachygnathia




  1. Developmental displacement of 211




  1. Developmental displacement of 210




  1. Palatal displacement of 209 and rostral (mesial) drifting of 210 and 211




  1. Supernumerary teeth

Dixon, PM, du Toit N and Dacre IT (2012) Equine Dental Pathology: In: Equine Dentistry (3rd Edition) Editors Easley, KJ, Dixon, PM and Schumacher JS, Elsevier Saunders

ORC B 1


question3
Which of the following pieces of dental equipment would be most useful to examine the cheek teeth of this horse?


  1. A Swales gag




  1. A Butler gag




  1. A Haussmann gag with gum plates




  1. A Varnell’s gag




  1. A metal spool gag


Ref. Easley and Tremaine (2011) Oral and Dental Examination. In: Equine Dentistry (3rd Edition) Editors Easley, KJ, Dixon, PM and Schumacher JS Elsevier Saunders


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