Titanium and its characteristics



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Titanium and its characteristics


Titanium was discovered in 1910 and got its name from the enormously strong giant from Greek mythology; "Titan".

Titanium is a light metal composed of 60% iron, 4.5 g/cm3 . It is strong and highly resistant to corrosion. Titanium is highly resistant to heat with a melting temperature as high as 1668 . Its melting point is higher than that of steel. Although heat conductivity of titanium is almost the same as that of stainless steel, its weight is almost half of stainless steel. Titanium is also non-toxic and non-allergenic, often used in piercing jewelry.

Due to its unprecedented strength, lightness, stable market and non-corrosive characteristics, titanium has emerged as the metal of choice for aerospace, industry and medical, leisure and consumer products, notably golf clubs and bicycle frames. Furthermore, due to its strength and lightness, titanium is currently being tested in the automobile industry which has found that the use of titanium for connecting rods and moving parts has resulted in significant fuel efficiency.

Aerospace:
About 50% of titanium produced is used for aerospace parts.

Chemical plants:
Titanium is highly corrosion resistant. It is used in many types of chemical equipment.

Seawater usage:
Titanium is greatly used in nuclear and fossil power stations. It is, amongst other parts, used for heat exchangers; condensers, which cool the steam from turbines with seawater. Because titanium does not corrode, the wall thickness of the tube can be as thin as 0.5 mm. Usage of titanium in the chemical, nuclear and fossil plants makes up approximately a third of the world production.

In the oil platform industry, titanium was previously employed "topside" for seawater management systems, however, due to its low modulus, high fracture toughness and fatigue resistance, titanium is now being used for stress joints and complete riser systems.



Titanium in daily life:
Recently, titanium is being used in many goods we use such as in sports, building material, medical applications and accessories.

Ti and its Alloys

There are three structural types of titanium alloys:



Alpha

Alpha-Beta

Beta

Alpha alloys are non-heat treatable and are generally very weldable. They have low to medium strength, good notch toughness, reasonably good
ductility and possess excellent mechanical properties at cryogenic temperatures. The more highly alloyed alpha and near-alpha alloys offer optimum high temperature creep strength and oxidation resistance as well.

Alpha-Beta alloys are heat treatable and most are weldable. Their strength levels are medium to high. Their hot-forming
qualities are good, but the high temperature creep strength is not as good as in most alpha alloys.

Beta or near-beta alloys are readily heat treatable, generally weldable, and capable of high strengths and good creep resistance to intermediate temperatures. Excellent formability can be expected of the beta alloys in the solution
treated condition. Beta-type alloys have good combinations of properties in sheet, heavy
sections, fasteners and spring applications.

Outstanding Corrosion resistance

Titanium is immune to corrosive attack by saltwater or marine atmospheres. It also exhibits exceptional resistance to a broad range of:



  • Acids

  • Alkalis

  • Natural waters, fresh and salt

  • Corrosive gases

  • Reducing atmospheres

  • Passivation with inhibitors

  • Organic Media

Superior strength-to-weight ratios

The combination of high strength and low density results in exceptionally favorable strength-to-weight ratios for titanium-based alloys.

The densities of titanium-based alloys range between 4.43 gm/cm3 (0.160lb/in3) and 4.85 gm/cm3 (0.175lb/in3). Yield strengths range from 172 MPa (25,000 psi) for commercially pure Grade 1, to above 1380 MPa (200,000 psi) for heat treated beta alloys. These ratios for titanium- based alloys are superior to almost all other metals and are important in such diverse applications as deep well tubestrings in the petroleum industry and surgical implants in the medical field.


Strength/density ratio for titanium compared with other materials

Material

Yield point at 20°C

Density

Strength/weight ratio at
20°C


Strength/weight ratio
compared to


   

   

min.MPa

g/cm³

  

Ti Grade 2

Ti Grade 5

Titanium Gr. 2

275

4.51

61

100%

32%

Titanium Gr. 5

830

4.42

188

308%

100%

Titanium Gr. 9

485

4.48

108

177%

57%

Titanium Gr. 12

345

4.43

78

128%

41%

Aluminum alloy B51S, NS 17305

300

2.70

110

180%

59%

Stainless steel 13% Cr

- AISI 410 - NS 14110



350

7.72

45

74%

24%

Stainless steel

AISI 316L – NS 14460



210

7.94

26

43%

14%

Stainless steel duplex

SAF 2205 -ASTM A 669



450

7.80

58

95%

31%

Stainless steel super duplex SAF 2507

550

7.80

70

115%

37%

Stainless steel

6% Mo - 254 SMO®



300

8.00

38

62%

20%

Monel® 400

200

8.83

23

38%

12%

Inconel® 625

415

8.44

49

80%

26%

Hastelloy® C-276

355

8.89

40

66%

21%

Copper-nickel 90/10

90

8.90

10

16%

5%

High heat transfer efficiency

Under 'in service' conditions, the heat transfer properties of titanium are similar to those of admiralty brass and copper-nickel. There are several reasons for this; the higher strength of titanium permits the use of thinner walled equipment, the oxide film confers unusual characteristics which are beneficial to heat transfer, the absence of corrosion leaves the surface bright and smooth for improved lamellar flow, and titanium's erosion-corrosion resistance allows significantly higher operating velocities.



Titanium's oxide film

Titanium develops a thin, tenacious and highly protective surface oxide film. The surface oxide of titanium will, if scratched or damaged, immediately reheal and restore itself in the presence of air or even very small amounts of water. The corrosion resistance of titanium depends on this protective TiO2 surface oxide film.



Titanium and methanol

Anhydros methanol is unique in its ability to cause stress corrosion cracking of titanium and titanium alloys. Industrial methanol normally contains sufficient water to provide immunity to titanium and for there to be no problem in practical applications.

Work is in hand to confirm the actual level of water required to provide immunity to stress corrosion cracking in all conditions. Testing conducted to date confirm levels above 2%, but safely below 5% are required.

Halogen compounds

Titanium alloys are highly resistant to wet (aqueous) chlorine, bromine, iodine and other chlorine chemicals because of their strongly oxidizing natures. Titanium's outstanding resistance to aqueous chlorides has been the primary historical incentive for utilizing titanium in industrial service. In many chloride and bromide-containing environments, titanium has cost-effectively replaced stainless steels, copper alloys and other metals which have experienced severe localized corrosion and stress corrosion cracking.



Chlorine chemicals, gas and chlorine solutions

Titanium is fully resistant to solutions of chlorites, hypochlorites, chlorates, perchlorates and chlorine dioxide. It has been used to handle these chemicals in the pulp and paper industry for many years with no evidence of corrosion.

Titanium is widely used to handle moist or wet chlorine gas, and has earned a reputation for outstanding performance in this service. The strongly oxidizing nature of moist chlorine passivates titanium resulting in low corrosion rates.

Titanium is used in chloride salt solutions and other brines over the full concentration range, especially as temperatures increase. Near nil corrosion rates can be expected in brine media over the pH range of 3 to 11. Oxidizing metallic chlorides, such as FeCl3, NiCl2 or CuCl2, extend titanium's passivity to much lower pH levels.



Titanium alloys are also used because of their:

  • Low coefficient of expansion

  • Non-magnetic

  • Excellent fire resistance

  • Fire test

  • Short radioactive half life

Brought to you by Ocean International Suppliers, Inc. For information about Ocean's products in 6% Molybdenum, Duplex, Super Duplex,  and Titanium.


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