Artificial hybridization has been commonly used in wheat breeding (OECD, 1999). Hand pollination, use of phytohormones such as gibberellic acid or 2,4-D, in vitro anther cultivation, embryo rescue and artificial chromosome doubling using colchicine are routinely used (see section 2.4 for details). Some of the available studies have been reviewed by (Jacot et al. 2004). Wheat was crossed as a pollinator with Agropyron, Aegilops, Elytrigia, Roegneria and Secale. These studies showed that crosses under controlled conditions were more successful than natural hybridization (Jacot et al. 2004; Eastham & Sweet 2002). These crosses have been used for wheat improvement. In particular, wheat–Aegilops interspecific hybrids have been developed and useful agronomical traits such as disease resistance or salt tolerance have been incorporated in the wheat gene pool (Schneider et al. 2008; Colmer et al. 2006).
Hybrids between H. vulgare and T. aestivum have been produced, in order to transfer agronomical traits to wheat (such as drought resistance and salt tolerance) (Molnar-Lang et al. 2000; Islam et al. 1981; Koba et al. 1991). Hybrids were produced by hand pollination and embryo rescue, cultivated in vitro (due to their complete sterility) and backcrossed using the wheat parent. Increased chromosome arm associations have been observed in wheat-barley hybrids regenerated in vitro (Molnar-Lang et al. 2000). The authors suggest that this could be used to generate recombinant progenies and transfer agronomic traits from barley to wheat. H. marinum - T. aestivum hybrids were recently assessed for their tolerance to salt and waterlogging, demonstrating the importance of wild related species for wheat improvement (Munns et al. 2011).
Two other examples of successful crosses under experimental conditions are triticale and perennial wheat. Triticale, the first successful human-made cereal grain, was first developed in 1888 when fertile hybrids were obtained by crossing wheat and rye (Secale cereale) (Ammar et al. 2004). The name triticale combines the names of the two Triticum and Secale genera involved in the crossing. T. aestivum was first used for these crosses, resulting in a sterile hybrid (2n=28, ABDR), which can be treated with colchicine to artificially double the chromosome number and create a fertile octaploid hybrid (2n=56, AABBDDRR). Most commercial triticales are derived from crosses between T. turgidum and rye, producing a hexaploid hybrid (2n=42, AABBRR) after chromosome doubling. Most wheat x rye hybrids are completely male sterile and highly female fertile (Hegde & Waines 2004). Wheat x triticale crosses have been performed using hand pollination and embryo rescue. Hybrids obtained were almost totally self-sterile and severe hybrid necrosis was observed in all crosses (Bizimungu et al. 1997).
Crosses between tetraploid/hexaploid wheat and wheatgrass species (such as Thinopyrum sp.) have been performed to produce perennial wheat, as a way to reduce the environmental impact of annual crops (Hayes et al. 2012; Bell et al. 2010). Trials in Australia using 81 hybrids have shown that a few of them (3/81) could be harvested over at least three years (Hayes et al. 2012). Several perennial relatives of wheat, such as the native Elymus scaber (a species of particular interest as it is widely distributed across Australia’s cropping zones) are described as being highly resistant to diseases and/or tolerant to salt (Bell et al. 2010). Conversely, perennial wheat could be a “green bridge” for pathogens, where they could accumulate over several years as no annual crop rotation would take place (Bell et al. 2010).
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