Table of contents introduction



Download 1.63 Mb.
Page41/50
Date conversion08.07.2018
Size1.63 Mb.
1   ...   37   38   39   40   41   42   43   44   ...   50

TRAINING AND EVALUATION REQUIREMENTS:


  1. Training. Training will be conducted in the aircraft.

  2. Evaluation. Evaluation will be conducted in the aircraft.
  • REFERENCES: Appropriate common references plus the following.


    COMDTINST M3710.2 Series

    FIH


    FM 1-564

    JOINT PUB 3-04.1 (28 JUNE 1993) with MOU

    NATOPS Manuals

    NWP-42


    1. 2092

      1. RESPOND TO NVD FAILURE
    1. CONDITIONS: In an OH‑58D helicopter given an academic or a visual cue that the NVG have failed.

    2. STANDARDS: Appropriate common standards plus the following:


      1. Identify or describe indications of impending NVG failure.

      2. Perform or describe emergency procedures for NVG failure.
    3. DESCRIPTION: Impending NVG failure may be indicated by illumina­tion of the 30‑minute low‑voltage warning indicator. It also may be indicated by one or both tubes flickering or blanking.


      1. Crew Actions.

            1. The P* will remain focused out side the aircraft. He is responsible for clearing the aircraft and obstacle avoidance. If the P*’s NVGs fail or indicate impending failure, he will announce goggle failure. Transfer the controls to the P.

            2. If the P’s NVGs fail or indicate impending failure, he will announce goggle failure. Switch batteries or troubleshoot the goggles. If the NVGs are not restored to operation make the appropriate report and modify the mission as briefed.

      2. Procedures.

            1. During NOE or contour flight. Immediately announce "goggle failure" and begin a climb at a rate that will ensure obstacle avoidance. Transfer the flight controls if necessary, discontinue the mission and attempt to restore the goggles. If NVGs are restored, continue the mission. If not restored, lock the NVGs in the up posi­tion and proceed as briefed.

            2. During low‑level flight or flight conducted at higher altitude, use the procedure described above. A climb is not required.

    1. NVG tube failure is infrequent and usually provides ample warning. Only occasionally will a tube fail completely in a short time. Rarely will both tubes fail at the same time. There is no remedy for in‑flight tube failure.
    1. TRAINING AND EVALUATION REQUIREMENTS:


      1. Training. Training will be conducted in the aircraft.

      2. Evaluation. Evaluation will be conducted in the aircraft.
    2. REFERENCES: Appropriate common references plus TM 11‑5855‑263‑10.


    1. 2128

      1. PERFORM COMBAT POSITION OPERATIONS
    1. CONDITIONS: In an OH-58D helicopter.

    2. STANDARDS: Appropriate common standards plus the following:


      1. Apply the proper criteria in selecting the combat position.

      2. Enter the combat position keeping the aircraft masked from visual or electronic detection.

      3. Acquire/engage the target as appropriate.

      4. Egress the combat position keeping the aircraft masked from visual or electronic detection.
    3. DESCRIPTION:


      1. Crew actions.

            1. The P* will maintain visual reference outside the aircraft to ensure that the aircraft is clear of all obstacles and will main­tain orientation toward the objective. He will announce any maneuver/­movement prior to execution.

            2. The P will direct the P* to position the aircraft to maintain visual/MMS reference on the objective by announcing, "Slide right," "Slide left," "Come up," or "Come down." If visual/MMS contact can be maintained, he will announce "Hold." If duties permit he will assist clearing the aircraft.

      2. Procedures.

            1. A combat position is a specified point within the battle area which is occupied by reconnaissance/attack helicop­ters. Select the position based on the tactical mission requirements. This position is a concealed position that provides observation and fields of fire into an objective area. Selection of the combat position should be based on the following considerations:

          1. Background. The firing positions should be located so that the heli­copter will not be silhouetted.

          2. Range. The firing position should be located so that the kill zone is within the last one third of the weapon range.

          3. Altitude. The firing position should be level with or higher than the target area, if possible.

          4. Sun or full moon. The firing position should be located so that the sun or full moon is behind or to the side of the helicopter.

          5. Shadow. When possible, the firing position should be within an area covered by shadow.

          6. Concealment. Vegetation surrounding the firing position should allow the helicopter to remain masked.

          7. Rotor wash. The location of the firing position should be such that the effect of rotor wash on surrounding debris, trees, snow, and dust is reduced.

          8. Maneuver area. The area surrounding the firing position should permit easy ingress and egress.

          9. Field of fire. The firing position should permit target visibil­ity throughout the kill zone.

            1. The crew will enter the firing position, engage the ene­my, leave the firing position without being detected, and reposi­tion the aircraft to an alter­nate firing position as briefed in the mission briefing.

    1. Live fire is not needed to complete this task.

    2. Hover OGE power is required for combat position opera­tions.
    1. TRAINING AND EVALUATION REQUIREMENTS:


      1. Training. Training will be conducted in the aircraft.

      2. Evaluation. Evaluation will be conducted in the aircraft.
    2. REFERENCES: Appropriate common references.


    1. 2160

      1. PERFORM AERIAL OBSERVATION
    1. CONDITIONS: In an OH‑58D helicopter.

    2. STANDARDS: Appropriate common standards plus the following:


      1. Detect target using visual and on board sensors search techniques.

      2. Locate the target.

      3. Identify the target.

      4. Make appropriate spot report.
    3. DESCRIPTION:


      1. Crew actions.

            1. The P* is responsible for clearing the aircraft and obstacle avoidance. He will maintain aircraft orientation and perform reconnaissance of his assigned sector as duties permit.

            2. The P will operate the MMS, NAV, and COMM systems. When scan­ning the area, he should concentrate on avenues of approach while period­ically scanning adjoining terrain. (The P can use the prepoint mode to aid orientation.) He will select mutually supportive fields of view when work­ing with other aircrews. (This will ensure coverage of "dead spaces" that may exist in front of the aircraft. He will perform reconnaissance of his assigned sector and announce when his attention is focused inside the cockpit. Duties permitting he will assist the P* in clearing the aircraft.

      2. Procedures.

            1. Visual/sensor search is the systematic search of a given area so that all parts of the area are observed or scanned. The purpose of visual/sensor search is to detect objects (targets) or activities.

          1. Detection. Detection requires determination that an object or an activity exists.

          2. Identification. Major factors in identifying a target are size, shape, and type of armament. Targets are classified as friendly or enemy.

          3. Location. Determining the exact location of targets is the objective of the mission. Depending on the nature of the tar­gets, the P may be able to locate the center of mass or the boundaries of the entire area with the LRF/D.

          4. Reporting. Spot reports provide commanders with critical information during the conduct of missions. The method of spot reporting is specified by the requesting agency. Reports of no enemy sightings are frequently just as important as actual enemy sightings.

            1. The ability of a crewmember to search a given area effectively depends on several factors. In addition to the limitations of the human eye itself, the most important of these factors are altitude, airspeed, terrain and meteorological conditions, and visual cues.

          5. Altitude. Higher altitudes offer greater visibility with less detail. Lower altitudes are usually used because of survivability considerations.

          6. Airspeed. Selection of the airspeed is determined by the altitude, the terrain, the threat, and meteorological conditions.

          7. Terrain and meteorological conditions. The size and details of the area that can be effectively covered largely depend on the type of terrain, such as dense jungle or barren wasteland. The prevailing terrain and meteorological conditions often mask objects and allow only a brief exposure period, especially at NOE altitudes.

          8. Visual cues. In areas where natural cover and concealment make detection difficult, visual cues may indicate enemy activity. Some of these cues are as follows:

            1. Color. Foliage used for camouflage will differ from the color of natural foliage. Color cannot be detected with the MMS.

            2. Texture. Smooth surfaces, such as glass windows or canopies, will shine when reflecting light. Rough surfaces will not.

            3. Shadows. Man‑made objects cast distinctive shadows characterized by regular shapes and contours, as opposed to the random patterns which occur naturally. The TIS LEVEL may be increased to search in shadows.

            4. Trails. Trails leading into an area should be observed for cues as to the type and quantity of traffic, and how recently it passed. Vehicle trails, especially at night, can often be detected with the TIS for some time after a vehicle has passed.

            5. Smoke. Smoke should be observed for color, smell, and volume. The TIS can used the to determine the cause of the smoke.

            6. Movement and light. The most easily detectable sign of enemy activity is movement and, at night, light. Movement may include disturbance of foliage, snow, soil, or birds.

            7. Obvious sightings. The enemy is skillful in the art of camouflage. The P*/P must be aware that obvious sightings may be intentional because of high concentrations of antiaircraft weapons.

            8. Heat. Heat, especially at night, is normally a sign of man‑made objects. The TIS can be used the to detect heat from standoff ranges and through obscurations.

            9. The techniques that provide systematic methods for conducting visual aerial observation, with or without the use of the MMS, are motive and stationary. The technique used will depend on the altitude flown and the terrain encountered.

          9. Motive technique. This technique is used when the aircraft is operating at terrain flight altitudes and at air­speeds of generally 10 KIAS or faster. The entire area on either side of the aircraft is divided into two major sectors: the non-observation sector and the observation work sector. The non-observation sector is the area where the crewmember's field of vision is restricted by the physical configuration of the air­craft. The observation work sector is that portion of the field of vision to which search activity is confined. The observation work sector is subdivided into two smaller sectors, the acquisi­tion and recognition sectors.

            1. The acquisition sector is the forward 45‑degree area of the observation work sector. This is the primary area of search.

            2. The recognition sector is the remainder of the observation work sector. In using the motive technique, the crewmember looks forward of the aircraft and through the center of the acquisition sector for obvious sightings. He then scans through the acquisition sector, gradually working back toward the air­craft.

          10. Stationary technique. This technique is used at NOE altitudes with the helicopter hovering in a concealed position. When using the stationary technique, the crewmember makes a quick overall search for sightings, unnatural colors, outlines, or movements. He starts scanning to the immediate front, search­ing an area approximately 50 meters in depth. He continues to scan outward from the aircraft, increasing the depth of the search area by overlapping 50‑meter intervals until he has covered the entire search area.

            1. During terrain flight the MMS can be used the to clear terrain and detect targets. Depending on the factors of METT‑T, the aircraft may initially be unmasked so the area can be quickly scanned the for obvious sightings. After the area has been scanned remask the aircraft, move to a new position, and unmask only the MMS. (Task 1158 describes masking and unmasking procedures.) Once the MMS is unmasked the scan the area using the WFOV feature of the TVS or TIS.

          11. The MMS has four search capabilities which should be used to the fullest advantage. They are‑‑

            1. Forward‑manual search. The TIS WFOV WHOT/BHOT is normally used to initially scan the desired viewing area for obvious enemy sightings.

            2. Area track. This allows for viewing likely avenues of approach or target areas.

            3. Prepoint mode. Prepoint mode allows the MMS to be oriented on specific points on avenues of approach while periodically scanning the adjoining terrain. It can also be used as an aid in orienting the MMS. The MMS can prepoint to any waypoint stored in the waypoint list.

            4. Search mode. This is used to search large open areas, target areas, or avenues of approach in a predetermined search pattern.

          12. The crew can use four techniques to display the MMS sensors on the MFDs. They are‑‑

            1. Single screen. The crewmember can use any of the MMS modes/sensors as desired. The TIS is the quickest mode for detecting targets which give off heat.

            2. Dual screen daytime. One MFD should be in the TIS mode and properly adjusted for maximum target detection. The other MFD should be in the TVS mode. This allows the crewmember to maintain battlefield orientation with one MFD while searching for hot spots with the other. This technique is especially useful when searching for targets in dense vegetation.

            3. Dual screen nighttime. Both MFDs may be operat­ed in the TIS mode.

            4. Split Screen. Split screen may be used in a similar fashion to dual screen daytime. The MMS symbology is only displayed on the active sensor’s video image (TVS or TIS). Except for LOS, only the active sensor’s controls may be manipulated. The fields of view (wide or narrow) and the magnification are independently selectable between the two sensors. Some individuals may experience visual reference problems when using split screen with both sensors in the same field of view. If visual reference problems are encountered, one sensor should be operated in wide field of view and the other sensor in narrow field of view.
  • 1   ...   37   38   39   40   41   42   43   44   ...   50


    The database is protected by copyright ©dentisty.org 2016
    send message

        Main page