Table of contents introduction



Download 1.63 Mb.
Page40/50
Date conversion08.07.2018
Size1.63 Mb.
1   ...   36   37   38   39   40   41   42   43   ...   50

NIGHT OR NVG CONSIDERATIONS:


  1. Night. During unaided night flight, the crew may use formation and position lights to aid in maintaining the aircraft's position in the formation.

  2. NVG. A thorough crew briefing should be conducted prior to NVG operations, crew coordination is crucial. Transfer of controls should be covered in detail. When maneuvering the aircraft the P* must consider obstacles and other aircraft. The P should announce when his attention is focused inside or outside the cockpit. He should ensure that the P* maintains his attention outside the cockpit. Increase the interval between aircraft to a minimum of three to five rotor disks. Keep changes in the formation to a minimum. All crew members must avoid fixation by using proper scanning techniques.
  • TRAINING AND EVALUATION REQUIREMENTS:


    1. Training. Training will be conducted in the aircraft.

    2. Evaluation. Evaluation will be conducted in the aircraft.
  • REFERENCES: Appropriate common references plus the following.


    1. 2012

      1. PERFORM TACTICAL FLIGHT MISSION PLANNING.
    1. CONDITIONS: Before a tactical flight in an OH-58D helicopter and given a mission briefing, navigational maps, a navigational computer/AMPS, and other materials as required.

    2. STANDARDS: Appropriate common standards plus the following:


      1. Analyze the mission using the factors of METT-T (mission, enemy, troops, time, and terrain).

      2. Perform a map/photo reconnaissance using the available map media, AMPS video map terminal, or photos. Ensure that all known hazards to terrain flight are plotted on the map or into the AMPS.

      3. Select the appropriate terrain flight modes.

      4. Select appropriate primary and alternate routes and enter all of them on a map, route sketch, or into the AMPS.

      5. Determine the distance ±1 kilometer, ground speed ±5 knots, and ETE ±1 minute for each leg of the flight.

      6. Determine the fuel required ±100 pounds.

      7. Obtain and evaluate the weather briefing.

      8. Perform risk assessment per unit SOP.

      9. Conduct a thorough crew mission briefing per the unit SOP and Task 1000.
    3. DESCRIPTION:


      1. Crew actions.

            1. The PC will ensure that all necessary tactical flight information is obtained and will conduct a thorough crewmember briefing in accordance with the unit SOP and Task 1000. He may delegate mission planning tasks to the other crewmember but retains overall responsibility for mission planning. He will analyze the mission in terms of METT-T.

            2. The PI will perform the planning tasks directed by the PC/AMC.

      2. Procedures. Analyze the mission using the factors of METT-T. Conduct a map or aerial photo reconnaissance. Obtain a weather briefing that covers the entire mission. Include sunset and sunrise times, density altitudes, winds, and visibility restrictions. If the mission is to be conducted at night, the briefing should also include moonset and moonrise times, ambient light levels, and an electro-optical forecast, if available. Determine primary and alternate routes terrain flight modes, and movement techniques. Determine time, distance, and fuel requirements using the navigational computer or AMPS. Annotate the map, overlay, or AMPS with sufficient information to complete the mission. This includes waypoint coordinates that define the routes for entry into the AMPS. (Up to 10 routes may be planned for two different missions.) Consider such items as hazards, checkpoints, observation posts, and friendly and enemy positions. Review contingency procedures.

    1. Evaluate weather impact on the mission. Considerations should include aircraft performance, limitations on visual sensors, and weapons employment.
    1. NIGHT OR NVG CONSIDERATIONS: More detailed flight planning is required when the flight is conducted in reduced visibility, at night, or in the NVG flight environment. TC 1-204 contains details on night navigation.

    2. TRAINING AND EVALUATION CONSIDERATIONS: This task specifically considers the tactical flight planning aspects of mission planning. The standards of this task may be achieved through exclusive manual means or AMPS automation. (See Tasks 1008, Operate aviation mission planning station and 1010, Verify Performance Planning) Evaluation of this task will be accomplished academically since actual tactical planning – even for training missions – is normally a collective event with unit members planning separate components of the mission.

    3. TRAINING AND EVALUATION REQUIREMENTS:


      1. Training. Training will be conducted academically.

      2. Evaluation. Evaluation will be conducted academically.
    4. REFERENCES: Appropriate common references plus:

    5. Task 1000 Task 1004 Task 2012 Task 1010 TB 11-7010-301-10-3





    1. 2042

      1. PERFORM ACTIONS ON CONTACT
    1. CONDITIONS: In an OH-58D helicopter.

    2. STANDARDS: Appropriate common standards plus the following:


      1. Use correct actions on contact consistent with the tactical situation.

      2. Perform evasive maneuvers appropriate for type of threat.
    3. DESCRIPTION:


      1. Crew actions. The first crewmember to recognize the threat will immediately announce enemy contact (visual or electronic), type (hostile fire), and location of threat.

            1. The P* will remain focused outside the aircraft. He is responsible for clearing the aircraft and obstacle avoidance. The P* will deploy to cover or position the aircraft to return suppressive fire. He will announce the direction of flight to evade detection and will direct the P to remain focused outside the aircraft for clearing.

            2. The P will remain oriented on threat location and assist clearing the aircraft. He will announce warning to avoid obstacles and when his attention is focused inside the aircraft.

            3. The crew will transmit a report as required.

      2. Procedures. Fly the helicopter to a concealed area/bypass, using evasive maneuvers and suppressive fire as required. Attempt to determine location using target locate, if possible capture sightings with the MMS. Report the situation and choose a course of action that supports the mission as briefed. If an evasive maneuver is required to evade enemy fire use the procedures described below for the type weapon encountered.

            1. Tanks and small arms. Immediately turn away from the fire toward an area of concealment. If concealment is unavailable, make sharp turns of unequal magnitude and unequal intervals and small changes in altitude to provide the best protection until beyond the effective range of hostile weapons. If the situation permits, employ immediate suppressive fire.

            2. Large caliber, antiaircraft fire (radar-controlled). Immediately execute a 90-degree turn. Do not maintain a straight line of flight or the same altitude for more than ten seconds before initiating a second 90-degree turn (ensure this turn is away from the threat). An immediate descent to NOE altitude will reduce the danger.

            3. Fighters. When in an area where threat fighters are known or suspected to be operating, fly the helicopter at NOE altitude as much as possible. Upon sighting or sensing a fighter, try to mask the helicopter. If the fighter is alone and executes a dive, turn the helicopter toward the attacker, gain airspeed quickly and descend. This maneuver will cause the fighter pilot to increase his attack angle. Make a 60 degree bank turn away from the attacker. As soon as the attacker is committed to follow the bank, make a 60 degree bank turn in the opposite direction. The fighter pilot will then have to break off his attack to recover from the maneuver. Once the fighter breaks off his attack, maneuver the helicopter to take ad­vantage of terrain, vege­tation, and shadow for concealment. If the engaging fighters are a multiple element, the P* and P must maintain contact with all the fighters as they maneuver to ensure that countering one fighter attack does not make them an easy target for the second fighter.

            4. Helicopters. Use the appropriate terrain flight maneu­vers to break contact with or to evade threat helicopters.

            5. Heat-seeking missiles. Try to keep helicopter heat sources away from the threat. If a missile is sighted, turn the tail of the helicopter away from the missile and mask the helicopter.

            6. Antitank-guided missiles. Some missiles fly rela­tively slowly and can be avoided by rapidly repositioning the helicop­ter. If terrain or vegetation is not available for mask­ing, remain oriented on the missile as it approaches. As the missile is about to impact, rapidly change the flight path or altitude to evade it.

            7. Artillery. Depart the impact area and determine NBC requirements.

    1. If hit by hostile fire, rapidly assess the situation and determine an appropriate course of action. The most important consideration in an emergency is aircraft control. Therefore, the first step is to assess aircraft controllability. Then check all instruments and warning and caution messages. If a malfunction is indicated, initiate the appropriate emergency procedure. If continued flight is possible, take evasive action. Make a radio call (Mayday or Pan) to report your situation, location, and action. Also request assistance if desired. Continue to be alert for unusual control responses, noises, and vibrations. Monitor all instruments for an indication of a malfunction. Fly the aircraft to the nearest secure location. Then land and inspect the aircraft to determine the extent of damage and whether flight can be continued to a medical or maintenance facility.
    1. NIGHT OR NVG CONSIDERATIONS: Threat elements will be harder to detect. Rapid evasive maneuvers will be more hazardous. Crewmembers must maintain situational awareness. Aircraft control is the primary concern.

    2. TRAINING AND EVALUATION REQUIREMENTS:


      1. Training. Training will be conducted in the aircraft.

      2. Evaluation. Evaluation will be conducted in the aircraft.
    3. REFERENCES: Appropriate common references plus tasks 1153 and 1548.


    1. 2043

      1. PERFORM DOWNED AIRCRAFT PROCEDURES
    1. CONDITIONS: In an OH-58D helicopter, or classroom.

    2. STANDARDS: Appropriate common standards plus the following:


      1. Without delay, zeroize all data in the MFK and ATHS.

      2. Without delay, remove, secure or destroy critical items such as maps, SOI, ordnance and special equipment.

      3. Administer first aid to injured personnel.

      4. Accurately report the situation using the prescribed elements of information.

      5. From memory, know the procedure for destroying the aircraft.
    3. DESCRIPTION:


      1. Crew actions.

      2. Procedures. The actions to be taken by the crew of a downed aircraft will depend on the intensity of the threat and the capabilities of the aviation unit. In combat operations the recovery of downed aircraft is secondary to mission accomplishment by the total force.

            1. Low threat environment. If the aircraft is downed in a low threat environment, the crew should--

          1. Zeroize frequencies, navigation data, laser codes and IFF information in the MFK and clear all data entries.

          2. Remove, secure or destroy critical items such as classified material, ordnance and sensitive equipment.

          3. Administer first aid to injured personnel.

          4. Use the fastest means available to report the situation to the aviation commander. Elements of information to include in the report are--

            1. Identification.

            2. Location

            3. Personnel injured and personnel able to continue the mission.

            4. Condition of the aircraft.

            5. Evidence of NBC contamination.

            6. Enemy situation, to include the air defense threat.

            7. Accessibility to the downed aircraft.

            8. Intentions.

            9. High threat environment. If the aircraft is downed in a high threat environment, the crew should accomplish the actions described in a. In addition, the crew should--

          5. Secure the immediate area around the aircraft.

          6. Prepare the aircraft for destruction on order or as specified in the unit SOP or mission briefing.

          7. Move to a rendezvous point or follow the escape and evasion plan in the unit SOP or mission briefing.
    4. TRAINING AND EVALUATION REQUIREMENTS:


      1. Training. Training will be conducted in the aircraft or academically.

      2. Evaluation. Evaluation will be conducted in the aircraft or academically.
    5. REFERENCES: FM 1-400, TM 750-244-1-5, Unit SOP


    1. 2068

      1. PERFORM SHIPBOARD OPERATIONS
    1. CONDITIONS: In an OH-58D helicopter, provided with a field deck landing spot area or a designated ship, with a DLQ PC, UT, or IP.


    1. Units and assigned aviators will fully adhere to the Army/Air/NAVY Force Deck Landing Operations MOU and JOINT PUB 3-04.1 procedures. This includes pre-sail forecasting and scheduling, conferencing, initial qualification, currency requirements, and applicable waiver procedures.
    1. STANDARDS: Appropriate common standards plus the following:


      1. Participate in the mission briefing.

      2. If required ensure the NAV ALIGN page has been enabled for SHIP ALIGN.

      3. Perform the deck landings as briefed.
    2. DESCRIPTION:


      1. Crew actions.

            1. During over-water flight, the P* will maintain vertical clearance above the water with assistance provided by the P.

            2. The P will alert the P* to any descent that might violate minimum briefed altitudes.

            3. The crew must be thoroughly familiar with the various communication methods and terminology/phraseology used by Naval personnel from vessels equipped with landing deck spots. Communication is a critical aspect of deck landing operations and the Navy uses a variety of communication methods. Radio voice communication is the primary means for conveying and receiving instructions while other shipboard methods include flags, lights, colored clothing ID, and hand and arm signals. Hand and arm signals, at night wands and flashlights, are used throughout deck landing operations as referenced in Joint Pub 3-04.1.

      2. Procedures.

            1. Ensure that a valid aircraft (EGI) initialization using the SHIP ALIGN mode if required. Signal the LSE, LSO, or HCO, when all prelaunch checks have been completed. When takeoff clearance is granted and all tiedowns have been removed, take off at the LSE’s signal. Perform a hover power check and depart as briefed. Effects of the wind will be more noticeable when operating on ships that are underway. Once the helicopter has cleared the ship, signal or report as briefed. Prior to departing the pattern, or unless instructed otherwise, turn the landing light on and perform a “fly by”.

            2. Aircrews are expected to check in with the ship prior to entering the control area, (approximately 50 miles out). At the periphery of the control zone, or when otherwise instructed, make contact to receive landing information. Maneuver the aircraft to stay on line with the landing area. While on final, the LSE will give hand and arm signals. As the helicopter approaches the flight deck, avoid the tendency to fixate on the movement of white water from the ship's waterline to the wake. Anticipate burble effects of wind around the superstructure of the ship. Refer to the radar altitude readout to assist in maintaining a safe height for crossing the deck. Make an announcement when the deck begins to pass under the nose. Clear the aircraft and call out when the landing gear is over the deck. When hovering over the deck, it is important to guard against drift and the tendency to over control. Constantly monitor for drift. Scan should not be limited to the flight deck but should take in the horizon. Once the aircraft is cleared, land the aircraft "firmly" on the deck. Landing lights will be used as briefed. After landing the aircraft will normally be chained to the deck. The aircrew will be prebriefed as to what flyaway gear requirements exist. After all shutdown and post flight procedures are completed, the crew will report as briefed.

    1. When the P* makes an approach on the 45 degree bearing to land immediately in front of a spot occupied by another helicopter (on LHD/LHA/LPH class ships), rotor clearances (main and tail) between the two aircraft during the final portion of a 45-degree approach are significantly reduced. When the P* makes an approach to a spot immediately in front of a spot occupied by another helicopter, the final portion of the approach on the 45-degree bearing should terminate at a point directly abeam the intended landing spot. From this point the final transition is flown by sliding sideways to a hover over the landing spot.

    2. With good night illumination, use the horizon and the ship for hover reference while operating over the ship. During low or no illumination nights, the aviator will only have the ships structure for reference. Care must be taken for landing operations during these periods.

    3. Landing lights will only be used in case of emergencies. The using unit should provide NVGs to the applicable deck crew while performing NVG deck operations.

    4. The Landing Signal Officer is responsible for the visual control of aircraft in the terminal phase of the approach immediately prior to landing.

    5. The safe launch and recovery wind limitations are presented in NWP-42, "Shipboard Helicopter Operating Procedures" and COMDTINST M3710.2 (Series) "USCG Shipboard Helicopter Operational Procedures Manual."

    6. Considerable differences may exist between a ship’s flight deck winds and those measured by bridge-level anemometers. However, aircraft wind limitations are based on winds measured by the windward bridge-level anemometer. When operating at or near the outer wind limits the probability of damage increases sharply when wind gusts exceed 10 knots. Also the maximum safe wind in conjunction with excessive ship pitch or roll can make flight operations unacceptably hazardous; therefore, operations shall be adjusted accordingly. Common sources of turbulence are stack gasses and wash, ship superstructures, deck protrusions, and rotor wash or jet blast caused by the takeoff and landing of adjacent aircraft.

    7. A wave off or a hold signal is a mandatory signal and must be followed if given by the LSE.

    8. During rough sea operations, chains will be used to secure aircraft to the deck before passengers are allowed to deplane or enplane.

    9. While the aircraft is on the deck of a moving ship, care must be taken not to move the cyclic while the ship pitches or rolls. Movement of the cyclic could cause the rotor to dip down to extreme low positions. Use the ships structure for reference.
  • 1   ...   36   37   38   39   40   41   42   43   ...   50


    The database is protected by copyright ©dentisty.org 2016
    send message

        Main page