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TRAINING AND EVALUATION REQUIREMENTS:


  1. Training. Training will be conducted in the aircraft.

  2. Evaluation. Evaluation will be conducted in the aircraft.
  • REFERENCES: Appropriate common references.


    1. 1176

      1. PERFORM NON-PRECISION APPROACH (GCA)
    1. CONDITIONS: In an OH-58D helicopter with reference to flight instruments only. Given the appropriate DOD FLIP, approach clearance, and before-land­ing check complete.

    2. STANDARDS: Appropriate common standards plus the following.


      1. Perform the approach per AR 95-1, FM 1-240, and the DOD FLIP.

      2. Make immediate corrections issued by ATC.

      3. Comply with descent minimums prescribed for the ap­proach.

      4. Execute the correct missed approach procedure immediately upon reaching the MAP if a landing cannot be accomplished.
    3. DESCRIPTION:


      1. Crew actions.

            1. The P* will focus primarily inside the aircraft on the instruments and perform the approach. He will follow the heading/course, altitude, and missed approach instructions issued by ATC/P. He will announce any deviation not directed by ATC/P and will acknowledge all navigation directives. If visual contact with the landing environment is not made by the MAP, he will announce and execute a missed approach.

            2. The P will perform duties as directed by the P*. He will call out the approach procedure to the P* and will acknowledge any unannounced deviations. He will monitor outside for visual contact with the landing environment He will complete the approach as briefed if VMC are encountered. During simulated IMC, the P will remain focused outside the aircraft to provide adequate warning for avoiding obstacles and hazards detected. He will announce when his attention is focused inside the cockpit.

      2. Procedures. Follow all ATC instructions. If compliance with ATC is not possible inform them. Review approach and missed approach instructions before initiating the task. Conduct a co-pilot briefing and designate crew responsibilities for the approach.

    1. FM 1-240 describes approach procedures.

    2. IFR use of the EGI is not authorized; however, the crew should consider and plan for its use as an emergency backup system.

    3. In the initial call to ATC advise them the aircraft is not equipped with any NAVAID receivers.
    1. TRAINING AND EVALUATION REQUIREMENTS:


      1. Training. Training will be conducted in the aircraft.

      2. Evaluation. Evaluation will be conducted in the aircraft.
    2. REFERENCES: Appropriate common references.


    1. 1178

      1. PERFORM PRECISION APPROACH (GCA)
    1. CONDITIONS: In an OH-58D helicopter with reference to flight instruments only. Given the appropriate DOD FLIP, approach clearance, and before-land­ing check complete.

    2. STANDARDS: Appropriate common standards plus the following.


      1. Execute the approach per AR 95-1, FM 1-240, and the DOD FLIP.

      2. Make immediate corrections issued by ATC.

      3. Comply with the descent minimums prescribed for the approach.

      4. Execute the correct missed approach procedure immediately upon reaching the MAP if a landing cannot be accomplished.
    3. DESCRIPTION:


      1. Crew actions.

            1. The P* will focus primarily inside the aircraft on the instruments and perform the approach. He will follow the heading/course, altitude, and missed approach instructions issued by ATC/P. He will announce any deviation not directed by ATC/P, and will acknowledge all navigation directives. If visual contact with the landing environment is not made at decision height, he will announce and execute a missed approach.

            2. The P will perform duties as directed by the P*. He will call out the approach procedure to the P* and acknowledge any unannounced deviations. He will monitor outside for visual contact with the landing environment. He will complete the approach as briefed if VMC are encountered. During simulated IMC, the P will remain focused outside the aircraft to provide adequate warning for avoiding obstacles and hazards detected. He will announce when his attention is focused inside the cockpit.

      2. Procedures. Follow all ATC instructions. If compliance with ATC is not possible, inform them. Review approach and missed approach instructions before initiating the task. Conduct a co-pilot briefing and designate crew responsibilities for the approach.

    1. FM 1-240 describes approach proce­dures.

    2. Use of the EGI as an IFR navigational system is not authorized; however, the crew should consider and plan for its use as an emergency backup system.

    3. In the initial call to ATC advise them the aircraft is not equipped with any NAVAID receivers.
    1. TRAINING AND EVALUATION REQUIREMENTS:


      1. Training. Training will be conducted in the aircraft.

      2. Evaluation. Evaluation will be conducted in the aircraft.
    2. REFERENCES: Appropriate common references.


    1. 1180

      1. PERFORM EMERGENCY INSTRUMENT APPROACH (GPS, INS, EGI)
    1. CONDITIONS: In an OH-58D helicopter with reference to flight instruments only.


    1. Use of the EGI as an IFR navigational system is not authorized; however, its use should be considered and planned for as an emergency backup system.
    1. STANDARDS: Appropriate common standards plus the following:


      1. Planning.

            1. Select a recovery/landing area.

            2. Determine the highest obstruction in the area of operations and establish a minimum safe altitude (MSA) in the area of operations.

            3. Select an approach course, initial approach fix (IAF), final approach fix (FAF) and missed approach point (MAP). Plot intermediate obstacles within an approach corridor that extends 1 kilometer to either side of a line from FAF to MAP.

            4. Determine MDAs for any intermediate obstacle along the approach corridor and for the MAP.

            5. Establish a missed approach procedure.

            6. Establish a 1-minute outbound holding pattern at the IAF (required for multi-aircraft operations and missed approach requirements).

            7. Prepare an approach plate per the example.

      2. Approach.

            1. Maintain cruise airspeed ± 10 KIAS enroute, and 60 KIAS ± 10 on final approach.

            2. Maintain heading ±5 degrees.

            3. Arrive at the MDA prior to reaching the MAP.

            4. At the MAP, execute the missed approach if unable to establish visual contact with the landing zone. If VMC conditions are encountered during the approach, determine if the flight can be continued under VFR conditions or if a landing is required.

            5. Maintain altitude within ± 100 feet.

            6. Maintain heading within ± 10 degrees in the pattern and within ± 5 degrees during the final approach.

      3. Missed approach.

            1. Perform the missed approach procedure per the plan upon reaching the MAP if VMC conditions are not encountered.

            2. Immediately establish a climb utilizing maximum rate of climb airspeed ±10 KTS until established at the MSA.
    2. DESCRIPTION:


      1. Crew actions.

            1. The crew will plan the approach using maps, photos or the AMPS. The PC will review the approach with, and brief the other crew member before initiating the procedure. He will confirm with the PI the specific approach to be flown. The correct communication frequencies are set, and the approach is entered in the NAV system as required. The PC may assign the PI to perform these duties.

            2. The P* will focus primarily inside the aircraft on the instruments. He will follow the heading/course, altitude, and missed approach directives issued by ATC/ P. He will announce any deviation not directed by ATC/P and will acknowledge all navigation directives.

            3. The P will call out the approach procedure to the P*. He will announce changes to ATC communication frequencies and ATC informa­tion not monitored by the P*. The P will complete the approach as briefed when VMC is encountered. During simulated IMC only, the P will remain focused outside the aircraft to provide adequate warning for avoiding obsta­cles and hazards detected. He will announce when his attention is focused inside the cockpit.

      2. Procedures.

            1. Prior to the flight, the crew will perform a map reconnaissance. Select an area of unobstructed flat terrain to use as a landing area and MAP. (This could vary from an airfield to a large open field.) An MDA will then be determined by adding 200 feet to the highest known obstacle within 2 kilometers of the MAP. Determine the highest obstruction in the area of operations (a minimum of 5nm radius of the MAP). The minimum safe altitude will be determined by adding 1,000 feet to the highest obstruction within the area. A FAF will now be determined and located at a sufficient distance, (3-5 NM), from the MAP to allow descent from the minimum safe altitude (MSA) to the MDA at a normal rate of descent. The IAF should be located and positioned to minimize turns to establish the final approach course. The IAF and FAF may be the same point.

            2. After completing immediate Inadvertent IMC procedures (ASR/PAR unavailable), climb to the MSA and turns toward the IAF. Make the appropriate radio calls and set the transponder to EMERGENCY. Enter the waypoints for the approach if not already done. Prior to the FAF adjust airspeed and ground track to cross it on final approach course and 60 KIAS. Over the IAF/FAF begin descent to arrive at MDA prior to the MAP. Cross check the VSD and HSD to remain on course. If possible during descent place the MMS in TIS, using FWD or PREPOINT the MAP.

    1. This procedure will only be used for training in simulated IMC or during Inadvertent IMC when GCA is not available. IFR use of the EGI is not authorized; however, the crew should consider and plan for its use as an emergency backup system.

    2. An IP/IE should prepare the Emergency GPS Approach for unit operations.

    3. The MAP/landing area should be physically reconnoitered when possible.
    1. NIGHT OR NVG CONSIDERATIONS. The P may be able to see the landing area through the NVGs during conditions of light obscuration. During night unaided flight, consider using the searchlight to identify the landing environment.

    2. TRAINING CONSIDERATIONS: The P* performing this procedure will not rely on outside references to complete this task. The P will maintain orientation primarily outside the aircraft to provide warning of obstacles and other aircraft to the P*. This task will only be performed under VMC or simulated IMC conditions.

    3. TRAINING AND EVALUATION REQUIREMENTS:


      1. Training. The planning portion may be trained academically.

      2. Evaluation. Evaluation will be conducted in the aircraft.
    4. REFERENCES: Appropriate common references plus task 1182.


    5. Example approach plate


    Figure 4-5 GPS Approach Chart

    1. 1182

      1. PERFORM UNUSUAL ATTITUDE RECOVERY
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