STANDARDS: Appropriate common standards plus the following.
Maneuver the aircraft to establish and maintain the desired airspeed, altitude, course, ground track, or heading, as appropriate.
Enter, operate in and depart a traffic pattern.
Crew actions. The P* will remain focused outside the aircraft and is responsible for clearing the aircraft and obstacle avoidance.
The P will assist in clearing the aircraft and will provide adequate warning to avoid traffic and obstacles. He will announce when attention is focused inside the cockpit.
Procedures. VMC climb. Increase collective to initiate climb. Adjust pedals to maintain aircraft in trim. Reduce collective to stop climb at desired altitude.
VMC climbing turns. Increase collective to initiate climb. Adjust pedals to maintain aircraft in trim. Apply cyclic in the desired direction of turn. Adjust cyclic as required to stop turn on heading. Reduce collective to stop limb at desired altitude.
VMC straight-and-level flight. Adjust collective to maintain altitude. Adjust pedals to maintain aircraft in trim. Maintain airspeed and heading.
VMC level turns. Apply cyclic in the desired direction of turn. Adjust collective to maintain altitude. Adjust pedals to maintain aircraft in trim. Apply cyclic opposite the direction of turn to stop the turn on the desired heading.
VMC descents. Decrease collective to initiate the descent. Adjust pedals to maintain aircraft in trim. Increase collective to stop rate of descent at the desired altitude.
VMC descending turns. Decrease collective to initiate descent. Adjust pedals to maintain aircraft in trim. Apply cyclic in the desired direction of turn. Adjust cyclic as required to stop turn on desired heading. Increase collective to stop descent at desired altitude.
Traffic pattern flight.
Maneuver the aircraft into position to enter the downwind leg midfield at a 45-degree angle (or according to local procedures), at traffic pattern altitude, and at the desired air-speed. (A straight-in or base-leg entry may be used if approved by ATC.) On downwind, complete the before-landing check. Prior to turning base, reduce power and airspeed as required and initiate a descent. If performing a straight-in or a base-leg entry, reduce airspeed at a point to facilitate a normal approach. Turn base and final leg, as appropriate, to maintain the desired ground track. Execute the desired approach. Announce and clear each turn in the pattern and the type of approach planned.
For a closed traffic pattern after takeoff, climb straight ahead at climb airspeed to the appropriate altitude, turn to crosswind, and continue the climb. Initiate the turn to downwind as required to maintain the desired ground track. Adjust power and attitude, as required, to maintain traffic pattern altitude and airspeed.
Ensure that the before-landing check is completed.
Call out the before-landing check and announce when it is completed. The other crewmember will acknowledge that the before-landing check is complete.
NIGHT OR NVG CONSIDERATIONS: Maintain a continuous coordinated turn to the downwind leg and establish airspeed and altitude as required. Initiate the turn from downwind when in a position to make a continuous coordinated turn to the final approach course.
OVERWATER/SNOW/SAND CONSIDERATIONS (LIMITED CONTRAST AREAS): Flight over areas of limited contrast, especially at night, is characterized by a lack of visual cues and therefore, has the potential of causing visual illusions. Be alert to any unannounced changes in the flight profile and be prepared to take immediate corrective actions. The radar altimeter low altitude warning may used to assist in altitude control. Hazards to terrain flight (for example, harbor lights, buoys, wires, and birds) must also be considered during overwater flight.
TRAINING AND EVALUATION REQUIREMENTS:
VMC flight maneuvers can be trained and evaluated completely separate from, or as components of, a traffic pattern.
Training. Training will be conducted in the aircraft. For traffic pattern training, the recommended airspeed is 60 KIAS on crosswind and base legs and 80 KIAS on the downwind leg. For NVG training in the traffic pattern, the recommended maximum airspeed is 80 KIAS, and the recommended maximum bank angle is 30 degrees.
Evaluation. Evaluation will be conducted in the aircraft.
REFERENCES: Appropriate common references.
SELECT LANDING ZONE/PICK-UP ZONE/HOLDING AREA
Not all hazards will be depicted on a map. When using a map reconnaissance to determine suitability, the added risk of unknown hazards must be addressed during the mission risk assessment process.