OH-58D aircrews must be prepared to support operations at all levels of command. Often this support is conducted with minimal guidance, prior planning, and under some of the most severe adverse environmental conditions. Kiowa Warrior battalions/squadrons enable the force commander to rapidly concentrate combat power at the decisive time and place on the battlefield. They provide the force commander a highly mobile and rapid means of moving lethal combat systems throughout his area of operations. Additionally, the attack helicopter battalions, air cavalry squadrons, supporting assault battalions, along with appropriate fire and close air support, and required air defense support, provide the force commander with a robust air assault force capable of moving large numbers of combat soldiers great distances. They operate throughout the battlefield framework and are capable of conducting operations day and night. Critical missions for attack battalions and cavalry squadrons as found in MTP 1-112 and MTP 1-114 include:
Air assault security
The Combined Arms Training Strategies (CATS) are the Army's "over-arching training architecture”. They contain approved training and doctrinal strategy, and provide the framework for total Army structured training for both units and institutions. Aviation CATS were built with a focus on individual aviator, crew, and collective proficiency vice individual currency. The aviation CATS provide required flying hours to attain and maintain proficiency and guidance for the use of simulators to train specific individual, crew and collective tasks. Additionally, the aviation CATS provides information on task requirements for readiness reporting in conjunction with the Commander’s Guide, TC 1-200. The aviation CATS are the foundation of this ATM.
A critical aspect of the Army’s battle focused training doctrine concept is to understand the responsibility for and the linkage between the collective mission essential tasks and the individual and crew tasks that support them. A unique aspect of Army Aviation is the individual and aircrew training requirements, training guidance, resources and focus commanders must provide to effectively and efficiently train aircrews to standard. ATMs are the basic source document for this individual and aircrew training and are developed for use by all leaders who have aviation training responsibilities.
Once individuals and units have trained to a required level of proficiency, leaders must structure collective, crew and individual training plans to repeat critical task training at the minimum frequency necessary for sustained proficiency. Army units prepare to accomplish wartime missions by continuous sustainment training on critical tasks rather than by "peaking" to the appropriate level of wartime proficiency before a major deployment. Sustainment training enables crews and individuals to operate in the "band of excellence" described in FM 25-100 by appropriate repetitions of critical task training. MTPs and ATMs are tools to help achieve and sustain collective, crew and individual proficiency. 75-80% of individual and crew aviator training can be done while performing collective tasks.
It is a challenge to train and maintain a modern aviation battalion at a T level of proficiency without the use of Training Aids, Devices, Simulators and Simulations (TADSS). Resources, environmental restrictions and Personnel Tempo (PERSTEMPO) put serious limitations on the dictum to "train as we fight”. Aircrew Training Programs must reflect structured training programs that use available TADSS for individual, crew and collective training. Structured training programs with supervision and after action reviews are necessary for individual, crew and collective simulation training periods.
The protection of aviation soldiers and their weapon systems is a way of life in the aviation business. An effective training program that is well thought out and planned in conjunction with appropriate regulations and guidance is arguably the most important factor in any units safety program when it is embraced by every soldier in the unit. Flying "by the book" does not hinder a unit's battle focus but will actually enhance it. Risk management, crew coordination training, crew endurance programs and all of the other facets of an Aircrew training Program (ATP) establish the basic framework within which to perform the tasks outlined in this ATM and the MTP.
CREW STATION DESIGNATION
The commander will designate a crew station(s) for each crewmember. The individual's Commander’s Task List (CTL) must clearly indicate all crew station designations. Non-Crew Member (NCM) training and proficiency sustainment is required in each designated crew station. Training and proficiency sustainment for rated crewmembers is required in each designated crew station with access to the flight controls. Instructor Pilots (IPs), Standardization Pilots (SPs), Instrument Examiner (IEs) and Maintenance Examiner (MEs) must maintain proficiency in both seats. Except for Flight Activity Category 3 (FAC 3), aviators designated to fly from both pilots’ seats will be evaluated in each seat during Annual Proficiency Aviator Readiness Test (APART) evaluations. This does not mean that all tasks must be evaluated in each seat. Multiple crew station designation evaluation requirements are covered in chapter 3.
SYMBOL USAGE AND WORD DISTINCTIONS
Symbol Usage. The diagonal (/) is used to indicate and or, or. For example, IP/SP may mean IP and SP or may mean IP or SP.
Warnings, cautions, and notes. These words emphasize important and critical instructions.
A warning indicates an operating procedure or a practice which, if not correctly followed, could result in personal injury or loss of life.
A caution indicates an operating procedure or a practice which, if not strictly observed, could result in damage to, or destruction of, equipment.
A note indicates an operating procedure or condition, which is essential to highlight.
Will, must, should, and may. These words distinguish between mandatory, preferred, and acceptable methods of accomplishment.
Will or must indicates a mandatory requirement.
Should indicates a preferred, but non-mandatory, method of accomplishment.
May indicates an acceptable method of accomplishment.
Night vision devices.
NVS refers to the night vision system that is attached to the aircraft.
NVG refers to any night vision goggle image intensifier system; for example, the AN/AVS-6 (ANVIS).
NVD refers to both NVS and NVG.
Rated crewmember (RCM). RCMs are aviators. Therefore, the terms “rated crewmember”, “aviator”, and “pilot” are used synonymously.
Non-Rated Crewmember (NRCM). NRCMs are individuals other than aviators who perform duties aboard an aircraft that are essential to the operation of the aircraft.
Non-Crewmember (NCM). These individuals perform duties directly related to the in-flight mission of the aircraft but are not essential to the operation of the aircraft. Their duties cannot be performed by assigned crewmembers. AR 600-106 list the categories non-crewmember position and the number authorized in each unit.
Aircraft series and effectivity codes. Throughout this manual, any reference to OH-58D or OH-58D(I), implies applicability to all OH-58D series unless stated otherwise.
OH-58D – This term is used throughout this manual to refer to all OH-58D aircraft.
OH-58D(I) – Armed, or improved OH-58D equipped with MCPUs, ISPs, and the Allison C30R or C30R1 engine.
OH-58D(R) – Armed OH-58D equipped with dedicated left and right IMCPUs, and the Allison C30R3 engine. The following equipment is normally installed – EGI in place of AHRS, IDM in place of ATHS, MDU in place of DTS, and RMS. For clarity, unique training requirements for the OH-58D(R) will be indicated with the symbol (R)
Effective individual and crew training programs form the foundation for an aviation battle focused training program. These programs produce combat ready crews and become the basis for the unit’s collective training program. Collective training focuses on combined arms/joint operations across the spectrum of the unit’s METL. Limited resources, environmental restrictions, new and sophisticated aircraft mission equipment packages and a myriad of contingency operations will all impact on the commanders ability to train and maintain proficiency at all levels. The key to success is proficient leadership at each level of command, which is given the resources and guidance to train to warfighting standards. This chapter describes requirements for qualification, Readiness level (RL) progression and individual and crew sustainment training. Crewmember qualification requirements will be per AR 95-1, TC 1-200 and this ATM.