The junctions between adjacent bones are described as articulationes (joints). We differentiate two elementary types of bone connections:
Fluent connection using connective tissue – synarthrosis. According to the type of connective tissue, we differentiate articulatio fibrosa (syndesmosis) connection using ligaments (connective tissue), articulatio cartilaginea (synchondrosis) connection using cartilage, and synostosis – secondary connection using bone tissue.
Joint connection with contact – articulatio synovialis (diarthrosis).
Synartroses – Synarthrosis
Connecting bones don’t have created articulations areas; understandably the joint capsule is also missing. Movements in these synarthroses are limited, mostly minimal in its extent, or they are connections practicably immobile.
Articulatio fibrosa– syndesmosis is connection using connective tissue. The simplest type of this connection is a connection using ligaments (ligamenta) – e.g. connection of adjoining vertebral arches, or using fibrous membranes – e.g. membrana interossea antebrachii. Fibrous connection of the skull plane bones is indicated as suture (sutura). The layer of connective tissue between the edges of adjoining bones here is minimal. The sutures enable the growth of skull bones approximately up until the age of 20 years. In adulthood the sutures begin to obliterate, in senium, most skull bones connect together through synostosis. After modification, we distinguish three elementary types of sutures:
serrated suture (sutura serrata). Margins of adjacent bones are indented to the joint of being serrated and bone margins interlock together (e.g. sutura sagittalis, sutura lambdoidea)
squamous suture(sutura squamosa). Squama temporalis with its thinned margin overlap sideways intersected margo inferior of ossis parietalis
smooth suture (sutura plana seu levis). Margins of connecting bones are straight, and mutually adjoin together (e.g. bone connection in orbita wall)
In group of syndesmoses also includes wedging (gomphosis), helping the tooth being inserted into alveolus dentalis of the jaw (for further details - see Teeth, chapter Digestive system).
Articulatio cartilaginea–synchondrosis is a connection using a cartilage (gristle), which is being inserted between connecting bones. For example, hyaline gristle is inserted between rib and sternum, as an example the fibrous cartilage (fibrocartilage) creates symphysis pubica between both pubic bones or it can create an intervertebral disc between the bodies of adjacent vertebrae. Synchondroses are found in those sites of skeleton, where the pressure and traction are changing. Movements in these connections are limited, alternatively these connections are practically immobile. During the development, between diaphyses and epiphyses of long bones there are growth cartilages, in which the bones are growing lengthwise. These cartilages ossify after puberty.
Synostosis is a connection, in which originally independent bones (or its parts) grow together with the help of bone tissue (e.g. sacral bone, os coxae etc). In senium the skull sutures obliterate (see above). These physiological synostose must be differentiated from pathological synostoses, when for example in consequence of inflammatory processes; the bones grow together (ankylosis) in joints that were moveable originally.
Joint – Articulatio synovialis. Diarthrosis
Joint, articulation, as a rule, is a moveable connection of two or more bones, which meet together with the help of connection (articulation) areas, covered by a joint cartilage (gristle). On each joint we differentiate contact surfaces (facies articulares), joint capsule (capsula articularis), joint cavity (cavitas articularis) and supportive joint apparatus.
Joint faces – facies articulares have various shapes, as a rule, one is convex and is called a joint head (caput articularis), the other one is concave, and it is called an articular fovea (fossa seu fovea articularis). The contact surface is created by a layer of compact bone on its surface, and it is covered by a layer of joint cartilage (cartilago articularis). The joint cartilage is mostly created by a hyalite gristle, in some cases by fibrous cartilage (e.g. in a sternoclavicular joint). The thickness of a joint cartilage runs between 0,5 to 5 mm (thickness of joint cartilage must be taken into account during an assessment of X-ray images). The gristle has a smooth surface enabling mutual shifting of contact surfaces. In mostly cases the contact surface of the head corresponds by its shape and size to the contact surface of the pit area, alternatively the shape or size imbalance is balanced out with the help of accessory joint apparatus (see next).
Joint capsule – capsula articularis has a cuff-shape, which typically grows together to the margins of joint contact surfaces, and closes the joint (and therefore it separates the joint from its surrounding). In some cases, the attachment of joint capsule is running away from the margins of joint contact surfaces. The joint capsule is then freer, and the joint cavity is more spacious. The joint capsule is created by the two layers of connecting tissue. The external layer (membrana fibrosa) is firm, and is created by fibrous connective tissue with many colagenous fibres. This layer has the important task of firming up the joint connection. Fibrous layer transforms itself into loose porous connective tissue in the direction of joint cavity (membrana synovialis). This layer is thinner, it contains vessels and nervous fibrous, and often protrudes into the joint cavity in a form of folds (plicae synoviales) or villi (villi synoviales). Membrana synovialis produces into joint cavity a synovium (synovia), which participates both on nourishment of joint cartilages, and also has significance for joint movement. It diminishes friction and it improves adhesivity of joint cartilages by moistening them.
Joint cavity – cavitas articularis is a fissure between joint contact surfaces and a joint capsule, and is filled by synovia. It changes into a real cavity only during pathological states, when it is filled with blood, exudates or by pus. During an arthroscopical examination it can be filled with air.
Special (accessory) joint apparatus
Joint ligaments – ligamenta articularia, are bands of fibrous gristle various latitude and length, which reinforce the joint capsule and influence movements within the joint (enforced ligaments, leading ligaments, obstructing ligaments). Based on their relationship to the joint, we divide them into three groups: ligamenta capsularia reinforcing the joint capsule and grow together with it, ligamenta intracapsularia (intraarticularia) run inside joint cavity. Ligamenta extracapsularia are located in the surrounding of the joint.
Cartilaginous labra – labra articularia are bands of cartilaginous gristle, which enlarge and deepen joint pits at some joints (e.g. shoulder joint, and iliac joint).
Cartilaginous plates – disci et menisci are plates of cartilaginous gristle, which are located intraarticularly. Discus articularis completely separates (septates) the joint cavity and divides it into two independent cavities (e.g. articulatio temporomandibularis). Meniscus doesn’t separate the entire joint cavity. It is of a falciform shape, its external circumference is higher, it is sharpened in the direction into joint (in articulatio genus). We find them in joints with incongruental joint surfaces (joint surfaces do not have the same shape and size). Both formations also help to diminish strong impact, and the discus in temporomandibular joint enables simultaneous performing of the two different movements.
Synovial burses – bursae synoviales are great cavities of various sizes in close proximity of the joints, which are filled by synovia. They are bordered by a fibrous capsule, which has an analogical structure to the joint capsule (membrana fibrosa and membrana synovialis). They lie in places, where muscles or ligaments attach themselves immediately to the joint capsule, and diminish friction (facilitate movement). In some cases they can communicate directly with the joint cavity.
Division of joints
The joints are classified based on numerous criteria. The most usual classification is according to the number of contact bones, according to the shape of contact surfaces, according to the level of movement and according to the number of movement axis and basal movements.
I. Classification (types) of joints according to the number of connecting bones
Simple joint – Articulatio simplex. Only two bones are connecting in the joint (e.g. shoulder joint).
Composed joint – Articulatio composita. In a composed joint more than two bones meet together (e.g. elbow joint) or discus or meniscus articularis is inserted into the joint (e.g. temporomandibular joint, knee-joint).
II. Classification of joints according to the shape of contact surfaces
Tough joint with irregular surfaces (amphiarthrosis). Uneven contact surfaces disable their mutual shifting (e.g. articulatio sacroiliaca).
Flat joint –articulatio plana. Contact planes are straight, and sliding on one another during movement (e.g. tiny joints between processus articulares vertebrarum).
Spherical joint – articulatio spheroidea. Joint planes (head and pit) represent spherical segments. Spherical joints are very moveable.
spherical free joint – arthrodia has a shallow and relatively small pit, head is significantly larger. Therefore the movements have great range (e.g. shoulder joint).
spherical joint restricted – enarthrosis has a deepened pit, and head interlocks deeply into the pit. Range of its movements is therefore restricted (e.g. iliac joint).
Elipsoidal joint – articulatio ellipsoidea. Contacts surfaces have mostly ovoidal (elipsoidal) shape, which enable movement around the two axis (e.g. radiocarpal joint).
Sellar joint – articulatio sellaris. Contact planes of both articulating bones have a shape of horse saddle. Each of them is concave in one direction, and in convex in the other direction, therefore both bones perfectly interlock into each other. Movements are possible along two mutually perpendicular axis (e.g. carpometacarpal joint of thumb).
Cylindrical joint – articulatio cylindroidea. Contact surfaces form segments of the jacket of the cylinder (one plane creates a convex section of cylinder, the second plane is adequately excavated). The movement is possible along one axis, which corresponds to the axis of the cylinder. According to the positioning of cylindrical joint surfaces, we differentiate two forms:
ginglymus. Axis of movement is perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of bone (e.g. temporomandibular joint).
wheel joint – articulatio trochoidea. Axis of movement is paralel to the longitudinal axis of a long bone, bones are moving like a „door hinge“ (e.g. proximal radioulnar joint) .
Trochlear joint – articulatio trochlearis. Edge is on one of the joint surfaces and a leading groove is on the other (e.g. humeroulnar joint).
III. Types of joints according to the level of moveability, and according to the number of axis of movements
The direction of articular movement is given by the shape of joint surfaces. Range of the movement is determined by the ratio between the flat extent of the joint head and a pit, by osseous projections in the surrounding of a joint and by ligaments which can significantly restrict movement. Another factor is freedom of movement of joint capsule, and the amount and adaptation of muscles in the surrounding of a joint.
Joints with minimum movement (amphiarthrosis)
Joints with sliding movements. Only sliding, shifting is happening in joints (articulatio plana)
Joints with rotational movements
one-axis joints. Movement is possible only along one axis (e.g. flexion – extension) – cylindrical and trochlear joints.
two-axis joints. Movements are possible along two mutual perpendicularly axis (e.g. flexion – extension, abduction – adduction) – ovoidal and sellar joints .
triaxial joints. Movements are possible along three mutual perpendicular axis (flexion–extension, abduction–adduction, supination–pronation)
Combined joints are joints, which form a functional unit with another joint, such that in all joints adjoined this way the movements occur simultaneously (e.g. both temporomandibular joints, joints of vertebral column, some leg joints).
Elementary position of a joint means the position in a normal anatomical body position – while standing backwards with upper extremities lowered close to the body and palms inverted frontally.
Middle position of a joint is a position, in which is a joint capsule evenly relaxed, i.e. a position between possible marginal positions of a joint. The joint gets into such position in the state of health and by joint illness it is limited. Joint can also be immobilized (fixed) in middle position.
articulationes intervertebrales. Joint surfaces are flat facies articulares located on against each other processus articulares of adjacent vertebrae. Orientation of joint surfaces is different in individual sections of vertebral column. In cervical column processus articulares are inclined sideways, in the thoracic column they are situated in the frontal plane, in the lumbar column they are in the sagittal plane. Each joint has its own individual joint capsule.
disci intervertebrales represents synchondrotical connection between vertebral bodies. Cartilaginous plate is inserted between terminal planes of adjacent vertebrae. Its circumferential part (anulus fibrosus) is formed by a fibrous cartilage, and it slightly overlaps the margins of vertebral bodies. Central part – nucleus pulposus – is jelly–like, contains great amount of water, and it represents a spherical focus, around which adjacent structures shift during movement. There is 23 intervertebtal discs totally (the first is inserted between 2nd and 3rd cervical vertebra, the last between 5th lumbar vertebra and facies terminalis superior ossis sacri. The summary height of disci intervertebrales represents 1/5 to 1/4 of height of the vertebral column (1/14 of total body height).
adjacent vertebrae are also connected using syndesmotical system. It is a system of fibrous bundles and membranes, which are being inserted between adjacent vertebral arches – ligamenta flava – (they omit the area of foramina intervertebralia). Ligamenta intertransversaria are stretched between adjoining processus transversi. Ligamenta interspinalia are connected with adjacent processus spinosi.
2. Junctions common for all vertebrae
ligamentum longitudinale anterius is connecting to the frontal (anterior) side of vertebral bodies (from sacral bone to axis). It grows together with vertebral bodies, it is connected more loosely with disci intervertebrales.
ligamentum longitudinale posterius runs inside the spinal canal (on its anterior side). This ligament is more firmly connected with disci intervertebrales, connection with vertebral bodies is looser.
ligamentum supraspinale is stretched on the dorsal side of the vertebral column. It runs from crista sacralis mediana, it ascends cranially and it connects apex processus spinosi. In the area of cervical column it is cranially triangularly enlarged, and it attaches to crista occipitalis externa. This ligament is called ligamentum nuchae and it creates a sagittal septum between nuchal muscles. Dorsal margin of this ligament grows together with superficial fascia of nuchal region.
3. Synchondrosis sacrococcygea. Facies terminalis inferior ossis sacri and facies terminalis coccygis are connected with a layer of fibrous cartilage. This connection is reinforced using ligamenta sacrococcygea, which are laid out along the whole circumference of synchrondrosis.
Shape of vertebral column
The vertebral column originates by the junction of vertebrae, sacral bone and coccygeal bone. The individual parts of vertebrae are imposed upon each other in such way that column of vertebral bodies originates frontally, dorsally processus spinosi are imposed upon each other, alongside there are processus transversi. Foramina vertebralia being imposed upon each other results in incompletely closed canalis vertebralis, which cranially links to neurocranial cavity through foramen magnum, and caudally ends in hiatus canalis sacralis. Between the adjacent vertebrae, foramina intervertebralia originate by junction of incisurae vertebrales.
The vertebral column isn’t straight; it is curved in the sagittal plane and in the frontal plane. Changing of lordoses – lordosis (curvature forwards) and kyphoses – kyfosis (curvature backwards) is typical for a human column. The reason for this formation is the upright body position of humans. Cervical lordosis is caused by traction of nuchal muscles. Though it is indicated as early as in the prenatal period, it is fully only developing in children in first months after birth (as soon as the child starts lifting his head). Lumbar lordosis is related to the activity of dorsal muscles, in connection with capability of child to stand and especially then to walk. Therefore it starts at the end of the 1st year. The mutually transition of lordose and kyphoses is fluent, with the exception of transition between the areas of lumbar and sacral backbone. In this site there is a break and promontorium ossis sacralis creates accentuating, forward protruding edge (very mechanically exposed part of the spinal column) in this site.
The curvature in the frontal plane – skoliosis is not very prominent in physiological states. In right-handed individuals a mild physiological dextroscoliosis occurs in the area of thoracic backbone, in left-handed individuals it is called physiological sinistroscoliosis.
Movements of vertebral column
The general movements of vertebral column are directly related to the total movements of relatively little extent between single vertebrae. In vertebral column the possible movements are flexion (lateroflexion, anteflexion, retroflexion), rotational and springy movements. The individual segments of the soft backbone are very different when it comes to mobility. The most mobile section is the cervical column. In the area of thoracic backbone, flection movements are restricted due to adjacent ribs: predominantly rotational movements occur in here. In lumbar backbone, the sagittal position of facies articulares restricts rotational movements.