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HIGHER ORDER THINKING SKILLS (HOTS) QUESTIONS
1) Give two reasons for the appearance or variation among the progeny formed by sexual reproduction.

2) Colonies of yeast fail to multiply in water but multiply in sugar solution. Give one reason.

3) Malaria parasite divides into many daughter individual simultaneously through multiple fission. State an advantage the parasite gets because of this type of reproduction.

4) What is the importance of DNA copying in reproduction?

5) How does reproduction help in providing stability to population of species?

6) Why is vegetative propagation practised for growing some types of plants?

7) Why would be the reason for adopting contraceptive methods ?

8) Name those parts of flower , which serve the same function as the following do in the animals a) testies b) Eggs, c) Ovary ,d) Sperms.

*Activity- to grow rhizopus & prepare its temporary slide.

Aim: to show asexual reproduction in an organism.

App: slice of bread, water, box, slide, cover slip.

Procedure: children grow rhizopus on slice of bread and make a temporary slide.


*Project: 1.a) To study manner of vegetative reproduction in some commercially useful plants.

b) To study the seeds during sprouting period.


2. How do organisms reproduce.

1.Seprating the various parts of any 5 flowers displaying and comparing them.

2.Growing some plants by vegetative propagation.

*Seminars: reproductive health and sexually transmitted disease: children form groups and discuss.


*Symposium: gender related problems: female infanticide.
*Group discussion: if there was no sexual reproduction…..
*Debate: is it necessary to learn about reproductive health from class VII?

TOPIC 4: HEREDITY AND EVOLUTION
POINTS TO REMEMBER:
1.HEREDITY: Transmission of features or characters from one generation to another or from

parents to offspring through their genes


2.VARIATION: It occurs due to sexual reproduction, inaccuracies during DNA replicating

(mutation) and due to environmental factors.


3.GENETICS: Branch of biology dealing with the study of heredity and variations.
4.ALLELES :There is one pair of alleles which can express itself whether present in homozygous

state or heterozygous state. Eg – T (tallness in pea plant), R(round seeds in pea

plant)
5.GREGOR JOHANN MENDEL:- (1822-1884): He is known as the father of ‘genetics’. He

worked on Sweet pea plant(pisum sativum).


6.GENOTYPE: genetic composition of an individual, eg – pure tall-TT, hybrid tall-Tt
7.PHENOTYPE: Visible traits of an individual. Eg – Tallness or Dwarfness.
8.EVOLUTION: gradual changes in traits of organisms from pre existing organisms is called

evolution.


9.SPECIATION: It may take place when variation is combined with geographical isolation.

(Formation of new species)




MIND MAP



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