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CHARACTER LIST (per anatomical region)
SKULL
1. Dorsal margin of the skull:

0 - straight or curved downward

1 - concave

2 - only rostrum curved upward


2. Upper and lower jaw:

0 - laterally compressed

1 - comparatively broad
3. Rostral part of the skull anterior to the external nares:

0 - reduced

1 - elongated (less than half of skull length)

2 - extremely elongated (more than half of skull length)


4. Rostral end of premaxillae/maxillae downturned:

0 - absent

1 - present
5. Position of the external naris:

0 - above the premaxillary tooth row

1 - displaced posterior to the premaxillary tooth row
6. Process separating the external nares:

0 - broad

1 - narrow
7. External naris and antorbital fenestra:

0 - separated

1 - confluent forming a nasoantorbital fenestra
8. Naris and antorbital fenestra:

0 - shorter than 40% of the skull length

1 - longer than 40% of the skull length
9. Posterior margin of antorbital (or nasoantorbital) fenestra:

0 - straight

1 - concave
10. Nasoantorbital (or antorbital) fenestra extending dorsal to the orbit

0 - absent

1 - present
11. Shape of the orbit:

0 - subcircular

1 - circular

2 - circular, with open ventral margin

3 - piriform (elongated)
12. Orbit comparatively small and positioned very high in the skull:

0 - absent

1 - present
13. Position of the orbit relative to the nasoantorbital fenestra (naris + antorbital fenestra):

0 - same level or higher

1 - orbit lower than the dorsal rim of the nasoantorbital fenestra
14. Suborbital opening:

0 - absent

1 - present
15. Lower temporal fenestra:

0 - piriform, with ventral portion wider than dorsal

1 - piriform, with dorsal portion wider than ventral

2 - reduced (slit-like)


16. Premaxillary sagittal crest:

0 - absent

1 - present
17. Premaxillary sagittal crest, position:

0 - confined to the anterior portion of the skull

1 - starting anterior to the anterior margin of the nasoantorbital fenestra, extending beyond occipital region

2 - starting at about the anterior margin of the nasoantorbital fenestra, reaching the skull roof above the orbit but not extending over the occipital region

3 - starting close or at the anterior portion of the skull and extended over the occipital region

4 - starting at the posterior half of the nasoantorbital fenestra.

5 - starting at the middle portion of the nasoantorbital fenestra, extending above the occipital region.
18. Premaxillary sagittal crest shape:

0 - striated, low with a nearly straight dorsal margin

1 - striated, high, spike-like

2 - round dorsal margin, blade-shaped

3 - smooth, expanded anteriorly and forming a low rod-like extension posteriorly

4 - smooth, starting low anteriorly and very expanded posteriorly


19. Expansion on the anterior part of the premaxillary sagittal crest:

0 - absent

1 - present
20. Elongated dorsal premaxillary spike-like extension

0 - absent

1 - present
21. Expansion of the premaxillary tip:

0 - absent

1 - present, with premaxillary end high

2 - present, with premaxillary end dorsoventrally flattened.


22. Posterior ventral expansion of the maxilla:

0 - absent

1 - present
23. Maxilla-nasal contact

0 - broad

1 - absent
24. Free nasal process:

0 - absent

1 - present
25. Free nasal process position:

0 - placed laterally

1 - placed medially
26. Free nasal process size:

0 - long, almost reaching the ventral margin of the skull

1 - short

2 - knob-like (extremely reduced)


27. Free nasal process orientation:

0 - directed anteroventrally

1 - directed ventrally
28. Foramen on nasal process:

0 - absent

1 - present
29. Lacrimal extensively fenestrated

0 - absent

1 - present
30. Lacrimal process of the jugal thickness:

0 - broad

1 - thin
31. Lacrimal process of the jugal inclination:

0 - inclined anteriorly

1 - subvertical

2 - inclined posteriorly


32. Pronounced ridge on the lateral side of the jugal

0 - absent

1 - present
33. Anterior portion of the frontal rugose:

0 - absent

1 - present
34. Bony frontal crest:

0 - absent

1 - present
35. Bony frontal crest, position:

0 - confined to the posterior end of the skull

1 - starting above the orbit

2 - starting on the posterior half of the nasoantorbital fenestra


36. Bony frontal crest, shape:

0 - reduced and blunt

1 - short and spike-like, dorsally deflected

2 - narrow, directed posteriorly

3 - very high and broad, at least doubling the height of the skull above the orbit, directed posteriorly

4 - high, broad base and fan-shaped

5 - casque-like
37. Bony parietal crest:

0 - absent

1 - present
38. Bony parietal crest shape:

0 - blunt

1 - constituting the base of the posterior portion of the cranial crest.
39. Posterior region of the skull rounded with the squamosal displaced ventrally:

0 - absent

1 - present
40. Position of the quadrate relative to the ventral margin of the skull:

0 - vertical or subvertical

1 - inclined about 120° backwards

2 - inclined about 150° backwards


41. Position of the articulation between skull and mandible:

0 - under the posterior half of the orbit or further backwards

1 - under the middle part of the orbit

2 - under the anterior half of the orbit or further anterior


42. Helical jaw joint:

0 - absent

1 - present
43. Supraoccipital:

0 - does not extend backwards

1 - extends backwards
44. Foramen pneumaticum piercing the supraoccipital:

0 - absent

1 - present
45. Expanded distal ends of the paroccipital processes:

0 - absent

1 - present
46. Palatal ridge:

0 - absent

1 - discrete, tapering anteriorly

2 - strong, tapering anteriorly

3 - strong, confined to the posterior portion of the palate
47. Slight expansion of the palate close to the anterior opening of the nasoantorbital (or naris + antorbital) fenestra:

0 - absent

1 - present
48. Maxilla excluded from the internal naris:

0 - absent

1 - present
49. Opening between pterygoids and basisphenoid (interpterygoid opening):

0 - absent or very reduced

1 - present and larger than subtemporal fenestra

2 - present but smaller than subtemporal fenestra


50. Basisphenoid:

0 - short

1 - elongated
51. Mandibular symphysis:

0 - absent or very short

1 - present, at least 30% of mandible length
52. Step-like dorsal margin of the dentary in lateral view:

0 - absent

1 - present
53. Anterior tip of the dentary downturned:

0 - absent

1 - present
54. Dentary bony sagittal crest:

0 - absent

1 - present
55. Dentary bony sagittal crest, position:

0 - confined to the anterior third of the lower jaw

1 - extending close to the middle partion of the jaw
56. Dentary bony sagittal crest shape:

0 - small projection

1 - blade-like

2 - elongated ridge-like

3 - deep, broad in lateral view

4 - shallow


57. Position and presence of teeth:

0 - teeth present, evenly distributed along the jaws

1 - teeth absent from the anterior portion of the jaws

2 - teeth confined to the anterior part of the jaws

3 - jaws toothless
58. Largest maxillary teeth positioned posteriorly:

0 - absent

1 - present
59. Variation in the size of the anterior teeth with the 5th and 6th smaller than the 4th and 7th:

0 - absent

1 - present
60. Teeth with a broad and oval base:

0 - absent

1 - present
61. Teeth finely serrated:

0 - present

1 - absent
62. Peg-like teeth:

0 - absent

1 - present, 15 less on each side of the jaws

2 - present, more than 15 on each side of the jaws


63. Laterally compressed and triangular teeth:

0 - absent

1 - present
AXIAL SKELETON
64. Atlas and axis:

0 - unfused

1 - fused
65. Notarium:

0 - absent

1 - present
66. Postexapophyses on cervical vertebrae:

0 - absent

1 - present
67. Lateral pneumatic foramen on the centrum of the cervical vertebrae:

0 - absent

1 - present

68. Midcervical vertebrae:

0 - short, sub-equal in length

1 - elongated

2 - extremely elongated
69. Cervical ribs on midcervical vertebrae:

0 - present

1 - absent
70. Neural spines of the mid-cervical vertebrae, height:

0 - tall

1 - low

2 - extremely reduced or absent


71. Neural spines of the mid-cervical vertebrae, shape:

0 - blade-like

1 - spike-like

2 - ridge


72. Number of caudal vertebrae:

0 - more than 15

1 - 15 or less
73. Caudal vertebrae with elongated zygapophyses forming rod-like bony processes:

0 - absent

1 - present
74. Proximal caudal vertebrae with duplex centra:

0 - absent

1 - present
PECTORAL GIRDLE
75. Length of the scapula:

0 - subequal or longer than coracoid

1 - scapula shorter than coracoid (1 > sca/cor > 0.80)

2 - substantially shorter than coracoid (sca/cor < 0.80)


76. Proximal surface of scapula:

0 - elongated

1 - sub-oval
77. Shape of scapula:

0 - elongated

1 - stout, with constructed shaft
78. Coracoidal contact surface with sternum:

0 - flattened

1 - oval
79. Coracoidal contact surface with sternum:

0 - no developed articulation surface

1 - articulation straight or slightly concave

2 - articulation strongly concave


80. Posterior expansion on articulation surface of the coracoid with the sternum:

0 - absent

1 - present
81. Deep coracoidal flange:

0 - absent

1 - present
82. Broad tubercle on ventroposterior margin of coracoid:

0 - absent

1 - present
83. Cristospine:

0 - absent

1 - shallow and elongated

2 - deep and short


FORELIMB
84. Proportional length of the humerus relative to the metacarpal IV (hu/mcIV):

0 - hu/mcIV > 2.50

1 - 1.50 < hu/mcIV < 2.50

2 - 0.40 < hu/mcIV < 1.50

3 - hu/mcIV < 0.40
85. Proportional length of the humerus relative to the femur (hu/fe):

0 - hu/fe < 0.80

1 - 1.4 > hu/fe > 0.80

2 - hu/fe > 1.40


86. Proportional length of the humerus plus ulna relative to the femur plus tibia (hu+ul/fe+ti):

0 - humerus plus ulna about 0.80% or less of femur plus tibia length (hu+ul/fe+ti < 0.80)

1 - humerus plus ulna larger than 0.80% of femur plus tibia length (hu+ul/fe+ti > 0.80)
87. Pneumatic foramen on the ventral side of the proximal part of the humerus:

0 - absent

1 - present
88. Pneumatic foramen present on dorsal side of the proximal part of the humerus:

0 - absent

1 - present
89. Deltopectoral crest of the humerus:

0 - reduced, positioned close to the humerus shaft

1 - enlarged, proximally placed, with almost straight proximal margin

2 - enlarged, hatchet shaped, proximally placed

3 - enlarged, hatched shaped, positioned further down the humerus shaft

4 - enlarged, warped

5 - long, proximally placed, curving ventrally
90. Medial (= ulnar) crest of the humerus:

0 - absent or reduced

1 - present, directed posteriorly

2 - present, massive, with a developed proximal ridge


91. Distal end of the humerus:

0 - oval or D-shaped

1 - subtriangular
92. Proportional length of the ulna relative to the metacarpal IV (ul/mcIV):

0 - ulna 3.6 times longer than metacarpal IV (ul/mcIV > 3.6)

1 - length of ulna between 3.6 and two times the length of metacarpal IV (3.6 > ul/mcIV > 2)

2 - ulna between two times and the same length of metacarpal IV (2 > ul/mcIV > 1)

3 - ulna about the same length or smaller than metacarpal IV (ul/mcIV < 1)
93. Diameter of radius and ulna:

0 - subequal

1 - diameter of the radius about half that of the ulna

2 - diameter of the radius less than half that of the ulna


94. Distal syncarpals, shape:

0 - irregular

1 - from a rectangular unit

2 - form a triangular unit


95. Pteroid:

0 - absent

1 - shorter than half the length of the ulna

2 - longer that half the length of the ulna


96. Metacarpals I - III:

0 - articulating with carpus

1 - metacarpal I articulates with carpus, metacarpals II and III reduced

2 - not articulating with carpus


97. Proportional length of the first phalanx of manual digit IV relative to the metacarpal IV (ph1d4/mcIV):

0 - both small and reduced

1 - both enlarged with ph1d4 over four times the length of mcIV (ph1d4/mcIV>4.0)

2 - both enlarged with ph1d4 over two times, but less than four times the length of mcIV (2.0




3 - both enlarged with ph1d4 about or less than two times the length of mcIV (ph1d4/mcIV<2.0) about 2 or smaller.
98. Proportional length of the first phalanx of manual digit IV relative to the tibiotarsus (ph1d4/ti):

0 - ph1d4 reduced

1 - ph1d4 elongated and less than twice the length of ti (ph1d4/ti smaller than 2.00)

2 - ph1d4 elongated about or longer than twice the length of ti (ph1d4/ti subequal/larger than 2.00)


99. Proportional length of the second phalanx of manual digit IV relative to the first phalanx of manual digit IV (ph2d4/ph1d4):

0 - both short or absent

1 - elongated with second phalanx about the same size or longer than first (ph2d4/ph1d4 larger than 1.00)

2 - elongated with second phalanx up to 30% shorter than first (ph2d4/ph1d4 between 0.70 - 1.00)

3 - elongated with second phalanx more than 30% shorter than first (ph2d4/ph1d4 smaller than 0.70)
100. Proportional length of the third phalanx of manual digit IV relative to the first phalanx of manual digit IV (ph3d4/ph1d4):

0 - both short or absent

1 - ph3d4 about the same length or larger than ph1d4

2 - ph3d4 shorter than ph1d4


101. Proportional length of the third phalanx of manual digit IV relative to the second phalanx of manual digit IV (ph3d4/ph2d4):

0 - both short or absent

1 - ph3d4 about the same size or longer than ph2d4

2 - ph3d4 shorter than ph2d4


102. Proportional length of the forth phalanx of manual digit IV relative to the first phalanx of manual digit IV (ph4d4/ph1d4):

0 - both short or absent

1 - both elongated, with the forth phalanx the longer than the first (ph4/d4/ph1d4>1.00)

2 - both elongated with the forth phalanx the same length or shorter, but longer than 35% the length of the first (1.00>ph4d4/ph1d4>0.35)

3 - both elongated with the forth phalanx less than 35% the length of the first (ph4d4/ph1d4<0.35)
HINDLIMB
103. Proportional length of the femur relative to the metacarpal IV (fe/mcIV):

0 - femur about twice or longer than metacarpal IV(fe/mcIV > 2.00)

1 - femur longer but less than twice the length of

metacarpal IV (1.00 < fe/mcIV < 2.00)

2 - femur about the same length or shorter than

metacarpal IV (fe/mcIV < 1.00)


104. Length of metatarsal III:

0 - more than 30% of tibia length

1 - less than 30% of tibia length
105. Fifth pedal digit:

0 - with four phalanges

1 - with 2 phalanges

2 - with 1 or no phalanx (extremely reduced)


106. Last phalanx of pedal digit V:

0 - reduced or absent

1 - elongated, straight

2 - elongated, curved

3 - elongated, very curved (boomerang shape)
DATA MATRIX
Ornithosuchus longidens

0000000-00 000000---0 0000----00 0000--0-00 0000000000 0000--0000 0000000000 0000000000 0000000000 0000000000 000000



Herrerasaurus ischigualastensis

0000000-00 000000---0 0000----00 0000--0-00 0000000000 0000--0000 0000000000 0000000000 0000000000 0000000000 000020



Scleromochlus taylori

000?0?0-?0 ?000?0---0 0000----?? ???0--??00 0?????0??? ?0?0--00?0 ?0??0??00? ?000????00 ????00??0? ??0?0????? ?0????



Anurognathus ammoni

010001???0 ?????0---0 00?0----0? ?0?0--0-?? ??????0??? 0000--0000 110?0??0?? ?100??0??? ???011??10 000?1011?? ??001?



Batrachognathus volans

?10001???? ?????0---0 00???????? ??0--????? ??????00?? 0?00--0000 110??0?0?0 0????00010 ????21??10 ?????????? ??????



Dendrorhynchoides curvidentatus

010001???? ?????0---0 00???????? ???0--???? ??????0??? ??00--0000 110?0??00? ?1000?0010 00?021??1? ?00?101122 2?00??



Jeholopteru ningchengensis

010001???? ?????0---0 00???????? ???0--0-?? 0?????0??? ??00--0000 110?0??01? ?10?000010 00?021??1? ?00?101122 231011



Sordes pilosus

0010100-00 0000?0---0 0000----?0 0000--0-01 0?0?0?0??? 0000--0000 1?0?00?000 0010000010 00?011??10 000?102111 120013



Preondactylusbuffarinii

0010100-???000?0---00000----?????0--0-0?0?????0???0000--0?00?00?0??0???0???????????111??1??10?1021111200??



Scaphognathus crassirostris

0010100-00000000---00000----000000--0-01000?000010?000--0000100?00000000100000100011110010010?102111110013



Dorygnathusbanthensis

0010100-00000000---00000----000000--0-01000?0?0?1?1000--0000100?0??00000100000100??1110020010?102111121013



Dimorphodonmacronyx

0010100-00300010---00000----000000--0-000?0?0?0???0000--0000100?00000000100000100??1110010011?1021111?1011



Raeticodactylus filisurensis

0010100-0000001111000000----0000??????010?????0???0001030000100?0??00???????????????21??20???????1211??0??



Campylognathoidesliasicus

0010100-00000010---00000----000000--0-01000?0001100010--0000100000000000100000100011110020011?101212221010



Campylognathoideszitteli

0010100-00000010---00000----000000--0-010?0???0???0010--00001000000000001000001000?1???12??11?101212220010



Rhamphorhynchuslongicaudus

0010100-00000010---00000----000000--0-01100?000??01000--0000100000?00000100000100011110020011?102222221012



Rhamphorhynchus muensteri

0010100-00 000010---0 0000----00 0000--0-01 1000000110 1010--0000 1000000000 0010000010 0011110020 011?101222 221012



Pterodactylus antiquus

0010101000 000010---0 0011001000 1000--0-12 1?0?000??? 1000--0000 1200000111 0100000010 0012110050 021?103122 222020



Nemicolopterus crypticus

0010101000 0000?0---0 0011110001 1000--0-0? 2?????0??? 1000--3000 100?0?011? ?100000??? 0???11?15? ?2????31?2 2?2120



Pteranodon longiceps

1020101010 300010---0 001112-000 1101221101 2101000121 1000--3000 1001111110 1101110120 0012111041 1312223222 232020



Istiodactylus latidens

0010101100 2???10---0 0?11110?01 21?0--0-01 2?01?00??1 0000--2000 101?111??0 1???111020 002?1?0141 1?22?????? ??????



Nurhachius ignaciobritoi

0010101100 ?000?0---0 001?????01 110??????1 2?????0??? ?000--2000 10101??110 1???1?1020 0?22110?41 ?222?1312? ??21??



Tropeognathus mesembrinus

0010101000 3000110200 101?????00 1101001001 2101020121 1001010000 100??????? ?????????? ?????????? ?????????? ??????



Anhanguera santanae

0010101010 3000110200 1011100100 1101001001 2101010121 100??10010 1001011110 11??211021 00????0141 1?22?1???? ??????



Anhanguera piscator

0010101010 3000110200 1011100100 1101001001 21010?0121 1001010010 1001011110 1101211121 0022110141 1222?1???? ??2120



Ludodactylus sibbicki

0010101000 000010---0 ?011100100 01011?1101 110?0?0??? 1000--0010 100??????? ?????????? ?????????? ?????????? ??????



Guidraco venator gen et sp nov.

0020101010 300010---0 ?01?????00 0101151101 110?0?0??? 1000--0000 100??1101? ?????????? ?????????? ?????????? ??????



Dsungaripterus weii

2010101000 1101111100 0110----00 1001211101 2111110121 1000--1101 1001111110 010?000??? 0?2210??5? 0311?13122 2?2120



"Phobetor" parvus

0010101000 1101111100 0110----00 1001211101 2?1?1?0??? 1000--1101 100??????0 ?????????? ?????????? ???1?????? ??????



Quetzalcoatlus sp.

0010101000 3010?14?00 0010----00 100??????1 21???001?? 1000--3000 1001110212 2?0?000020 10?20?1052 0311??3132 2?2?20



Zhejiangopterus linhaiensis

0010101000 3010?0---0 0010----00 1000--0-01 2?1???0??? ?000--3000 10011??212 2?0?0002?? 10?200??5? ?31?2?313? ??2???



Chaoyangopterus zhangi

1010101??? ?0???????0 00???????? ?????????? ??????0??? 1000--3000 100?010110 0???000??? 00?200???? ?31?2?3122 2321?0



Shenzhoupterus chaoyangensis

1010101101 301020---0 001?????0? 2001241101 2?1???0??? 1000--3000 100?01011? ????0??0?? 0??200???? ?31???3122 2321??



Tupuxuara leonardii

0010101100 3010213400 001?????01 1001231101 2111130121 1001123000 1001111?10 0???000020 0122101052 0311?3213? ??2???



Thalassodromeus sethi

0010101100 3010213400 001112-001 1001231101 2111130121 1000--3000 100??????? ?????????? ?????????? ?????????? ??????



Tapejara wellnhoferi

0011101100 3010213300 0011111011 1001221101 2011101121 1101133000 100?011?10 0?0?000020 01?2101152 03112?31?? ??2120



Sinopterus dongi

0011101100 3010?13300 0011100011 1011211101 2?1???1??? ?101143000 100?010110 0???000020 0??2111?52 ?31?2?3122 2321??


Darwinopteruslinglongtaensis

0010101100000011200000110101011?00--0-11100?0?????0000--00001?0?0??101001?00001000?111?120010?102111111013



Wukongopteruslii

001010??????????????00????????????????????????????0000--0000120?0?0101001?000???0??111?0???10?102111111013



Darwinopterusmodularis

0010101100000011200000110100011000--0-11100?0?????0000--0000120?0??1?1001?000???0??1????2?010???2????1??13



Darwinopterusrobustus

0010101100000011200000110100011000--0-11100?0?????0000--00001?0?0??101001?00001000?111?0?0010?102111111013



Kunpengopterussinensis

00101010000000?0---000110101001?00--0-11100?0?????0000--0??01?0?000101001?00001000?111???0010?102111121012



IVPP V 17959

00?01011000000?100?0?01100?0011?00--0-1110????????00????0??01?00?0?101001??00??????1?????0010?102?1???????


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