Studies identified in the literature search that were rejected A. Rejected after initial examination of study titles and abstracts

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A.2 Chest radiography, but not dealing with acute lower respiratory infection

Ahn JM, Lee KS, Goo JM, Song KS, Kim SJ, Im JG: Predicting the histology of anterior mediastinal masses: comparison of chest radiography and CT. J Thorac Imaging 1996; 11: 265-71

Amorosa JK, Laraya-Cuasay LR, Sohn L, Loeb DM, Geller NL, Stylianou M, Nosher JL: Radiologic diagnosis of cystic fibrosis in adults and children. Acad Radiol 1995; 2: 222-5

Birkebaek NH, Hansen LK, Elle B, Andersen PE, Friis M, Egeblad M, Damgaard-Pedersen K, Nielsen NT, Oxhoj H: Chest roentgenogram in the evaluation of heart defects in asymptomatic infants and children with a cardiac murmur: reproducibility and accuracy. Pediatrics 1999; 103: E15

Bueso-Engelhardt A, Sosa-de-Martinez MC, Perez-Fernandez L, Cuevas-Schacht F: [Observer variability in the radiologic interpretation of interstitial lung disease] [Spanish]. Rev Invest Clin 1998; 50: 139-43

Cleveland RH, Neish AS, Zurakowski D, Nichols DP, Wohl ME, Colin AA: Cystic fibrosis: predictors of accelerated decline and distribution of disease in 230 patients. Am J Roentgenol 1998; 171: 1311-5

Cleveland RH, Schluchter M, Wood BP, Berdon WE, Boechat MI, Easley KA, Meziane M, Mellins RB, Norton KI, Singleton E, Trautwein L: Chest radiographic data acquisition and quality assurance in multicenter studies. Pediatr Radiol 1997; 27: 880-7

Currie DC, Cooke JC, Morgan AD, Kerr IH, Delany D, Strickland B, Cole PJ: Interpretation of bronchograms and chest radiographs in patients with chronic sputum production. Thorax 1987; 42: 278-84

de Pablo A, Villena V, Echave-Sustaeta J, Encuentra AL: Are pleural fluid parameters related to the development of residual pleural thickening in tuberculosis? Chest 1997; 112: 1293-7

Dimitriou G, Greenough A, Kavvadia V, Shute M, Karani J: A radiographic method for assessing lung area in neonates. Br J Radiol 1999; 72: 335-8

Don S, Cohen MD, Kruger RA, Winkler TA, Katz BP, Li W, Dreesen RG, Kennan N, Tarver R, Klatte EC: Volume detection threshold: quantitative comparison of computed radiography and screen-film radiography in detection of pneumothoraces in an animal model that simulates the neonate. Radiology 1995; 194: 727-30

Durand P, Begin R, Samson L, Cantin A, Masse S, Dufresne A, Perreault G, Laflamme J: Silicon carbide pneumoconiosis: a radiographic assessment. Am J Ind Med 1991; 20: 37-47

Franken EA Jr, Smith WL, Berbaum KS, Kao SC, Sato Y: Comparison of a PACS workstation with conventional film for interpretation of neonatal examinations: a paired comparison study. Pediatr Radiol 1991; 21: 336-40

Grenier P, Valeyre D, Cluzel P, Brauner MW, Lenoir S, Chastang C: Chronic diffuse interstitial lung disease: diagnostic value of chest radiography and high-resolution CT. Radiology 1991; 179: 123-32

Gross GW, Boone JM, Greco-Hunt V, Greenberg B: Neural networks in radiologic diagnosis. II: Interpretation of neonatal chest radiographs. Invest Radiol 1990; 25: 1017-23

Gurney JW, Habbe TG, Hicklin J: Distribution of disease in cystic fibrosis: correlation with pulmonary function. Chest 1997; 112: 357-62

Jagannath AS, Sos TA, Lockhart SH, Saddekni S, Sniderman KW: Aortic dissection: a statistical analysis of the usefulness of plain chest radiographic findings. Am J Roentgenol 1986; 147: 1123-6

Kido S, Ikezoe J, Takeuchi N, Kondoh H, Tomiyama N, Jokoh T, Kohno N, Takashima S, Yamagami H, Naito H, et al: Interpretation of subtle interstitial lung abnormalities: conventional versus storage phosphor radiography. Radiology 1993; 187: 527-33

Kwong JS, Carignan S, Kang EY, Muller NL, FitzGerald JM: Miliary tuberculosis. Diagnostic accuracy of chest radiography. Chest 1996; 110: 339-42

Muller RD, Von Koschitzki T, Hirche H, John V, Hering K, Gocke C, Turowski B: Frequency-filtered image post-processing of digital luminescence radiographs in pulmonary nodule imaging. Clin Radiol 1996; 51: 577-86

Niccolai F, Vannucchi L, Moreau G, Bernabei P, Piperno G, Bernardi L: [Diagnostic accuracy of teleradiology in thoracic and abdominal diseases] [Italian]. Radiol Med (Torino) 1997; 93: 591-4

Norgaard H, Gjorup T, Brems-Dalgaard E, Hartelius H, Brun B: Interobserver variation in the detection of pulmonary venous hypertension in chest radiographs. Eur J Radiol 1990; 11: 203-6

Rubenfeld GD, Caldwell E, Granton J, Hudson LD, Matthay MA: Interobserver variability in applying a radiographic definition for ARDS. Chest 1999; 116: 1347-53

Sawyer SM, Carlin JB, DeCampo M, Bowes G: Critical evaluation of three chest radiograph scores in cystic fibrosis. Thorax 1994; 49: 863-6

Schafer C, Sokiranski R, Bartzsch OM, Riedl W: [Diagnosis of pleural effusion in intensive care patients with supine digital thoracic imaging. A study of CT validated cases] [German]. Anasthesiol Intensivmed Notfallmed Schmerzther 1997; 32: 109-14

Schafer CB, Sokiranski R, Strayle M, Linstedt-Hilden M, Dietz K, Deusch H, Hoffmann W, Claussen CD: [The value of the supine chest x-ray with digital luminescence radiography in relation to the experience of the observer. A ROC analysis in CT-validated cases] [German]. Rofo Fortschr Geb Rontgenstr Neuen Bildgeb Verfahr 1994; 161: 25-30

Sharma S, Bhargava A, Krishnakumar R, Rajani M: Can pulmonary venous hypertension be graded by the chest radiograph? Clin Radiol 1998; 53: 899-902

van Beek EJ, Bakker AJ, Reekers JA: Pulmonary embolism: interobserver agreement in the interpretation of conventional angiographic and DSA images in patients with nondiagnostic lung scan results. Radiology 1996; 198: 721-4

Weinstein MR, Peters ME, Sadek M, Palta M: A new radiographic scoring system for bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Newborn Lung Project. Pediatr Pulmonol 1994; 18: 284-9

Worrell JA, Cullinan JA, Youree CC, Carroll FE, Lorenz CH: The plain chest radiograph and clinical management of pulmonary edema in pregnancy. J Reprod Med 1996; 41: 629-32

A.3 Chest radiography of acute lower respiratory infection, but in newborn nurseries

Fitzgerald DA, Van Asperen PP, Lam AH, De Silva M, Henderson-Smart DJ: Chest radiograph abnormalities in very low birthweight survivors of chronic neonatal lung disease. J Paediatr Child Health 1996; 32: 491-4

A.4 Chest radiography of acute lower respiratory infection, but involving adults only

Albaum MN, Hill LC, Murphy M, Li YH, Fuhrman CR, Britton CA, Kapoor WN, Fine MJ: Interobserver reliability of the chest radiograph in community-acquired pneumonia. PORT Investigators. Chest 1996; 110: 343-50

Melbye H, Dale K: Interobserver variability in the radiographic diagnosis of adult outpatient pneumonia. Acta Radiol 1992; 33: 79-81

B. Rejected after further examination of the full study report

B.1 All participants did not have acute lower respiratory infection

Bueso-Engelhardt A, Sosa-de-Martinez MC, Perez-Fernandez L, Cuevas-Schacht F. [Observer variability in the radiologic interpretation of interstitial lung disease]. [Spanish] Rev Invest Clin 1998; 50: 139-43

Fleisher G, Ludwid S, McSorley M: Interpretation of pediatric x-ray films by emergency department pediatricians. Ann Emerg Med 1983; 12:1 53-158

Klein EJ, Koenig M, Diekema DS, Winters W: Discordant radiograph interpretation between emergency physicians and radiologists in a pediatric emergency department. Pediatr Emerg Care 1999; 15: 245-8

King BR, Wolfson BJ, Geller E: A comparison of the radiographic interpretation skills of pediatric transport nurses and pediatric residents. Pediatr Emerg Care 1999; 15: 373-5

Pieper CH, van Gelderen WF, Smith J, Kirsten GF, Mohrcken S, Gie RP: Chest radiographs of neonates with respiratory failure caused by congenital syphilis. Pediatr Radiol 1995; 25: 198-200

B.2 Not a study of observer agreement

Razavi M, Sayre JW, Taira RK, Simons M, Huang HK, Chuang KS, Rahbar G, Kangarloo H: Receiver-operating-characteristic study of chest radiographs in children: digital hard-copy film vs 2K x 2K soft-copy images. Am J Roentgenol 1992 Feb;158(2):443-8

Simpson W, Hacking PM, Court SDM, Gardner PS: The radiological findings in respiratory syncitial virus infection in children. Part I. Definitions and interobserver variation in assessment of abnormalities on the chest x-ray. Pediatr Radiol 1974; 2: 97-100

B.3 Chest radiography of acute lower respiratory infection, but no separate data for children

Franken EA Jr: Bias and "overcall" in interpreting chest radiographs in young febrile children. Invest Radiol 1994; 29: 253-5

B.4 Chest radiography of acute lower respiratory infection, but in newborn nurseries

Bloomfield FH, Teele RL, Voss M, Knight DB, Harding JE: Inter- and intra-observer variability in the assessment of atelectasis and consolidation in neonatal chest radiographs. Pediatr Radiol 1999; 29: 459-62

B.5 Chest radiography of acute lower respiratory infection, but involving adults only

Shaw NJ, Hendry M, Eden OB: Inter-observer variation in interpretation of chest X-rays. Scott Med J 1990; 35: 140-1
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