Species introduction

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The introduction of species is one of the important aspects of forestation and also of tree improvement. Species trial aims at introduction of potentially suitable tree species at different locations. Various species have been tried at different locations to assess their suitability and growth rate.


2.1.1. Bamboo Trial Plot at Ummathur 1985

Bambusa vulgaris and Dendrocalamus strictus were planted in trenches of size 4m x 0.5m x 0.5m at 3m spacing. The maximum height recorded in Feb' 87 was 3.9m and average number of culms were 4 to 5. Overall performance of both the species is good in high rainfall area.

2.1.2 Bamboos from Arunachal Pradesh

Following Bamboo species were brought from Arunachal Pradesh and planted in April 1991 at Doresanipallya.


Bambusa balcooa


Gigantochloa macrostachya


Bambusa tulda


Oxytenanthera abyssinica


Bambusa pallida


Pseudosasa japonica


Bambusa nutans


Phyllostachys bambusoides


Bambusa glaucescens


Thyrsostachys oliveri


Dendrocalamus hamiltonii

Performance is under observation .


2.2.1 Shorea roxburghii (Jalari )

It is an indigenous tree, which is rarely seen now. Raising of seedlings from fresh seeds and planting of the same was attempted in the Central Zone. Seedlings were raised in sunken beds. The germination percentage was about 60. It was found that casualty is very high at all stages. Attempt is now being made to raise plants from stumps.

2.2.2 Trial Plot at Watehalla, Hasan 1980

Acacia auriculiformis, Acrocarpus fraxinifolius, Artocarpus hirsuta, Albizzia odoratissima, Cassia siamea, Cupressus torulosa, Bixa orellana, Chickrassia tabularis, Dalbergia latifolia, Sapindus emarginatus, Santalum album, Bombax ceiba, Sterculia guttata, Tamarindus indica and Eucalyptus hybrid were introduced. Except Acacia auriculiformis and Eucalyptus hybrid no other species performed well.

2.2.3 Trial plot at Chikkole, 1981

Acacia auriculiformis, Acacia dealbata, Albizzia odoratissima, Cassia siamea, Casuarina equisetifolia, Toona ciliata, Ficus nervosa, Leucaena leucocephala, Peltophorum ferugenium and Sesbania were introduced. Acacia auriculiformis, Casuarina equisetifolia and Cassia siamea have performed well and are found suitable in the area.

2.2.4 Trial Plot at K.Nidugane, Kodagu, 1984 ( 3.0 ha )

Cupressus torulosa, Emblica officinalis, Terminalia bellerica were planted at 2m x 2m spacing, in 0.75m x 0.75m x 0.75m pits at Nidugane in Madikeri Range . All the species have come up well.

2.2.5 Trial Plot at Monnangeri, Kodagu, 1985 ( 2.75 ha )

Miscellaneous species like Syzygium cumini, Emblica officinalis, Terminalia tomentosa were planted at a spacing of 3m in 0.75m x 0.75m x 0.75m pits. All the species have established well.

2.2.6 Saline soil afforestation trial plot at Hosur, Bagalkot,1987( 2 ha )

A trial plot was established with species like Azadirachta indica, Acacia nilotica, Albizzia lebbek, Dalbergia sissoo, Caesalpinia coriaria, Ziziphus jujuba and Syzygium cumini . The species were planted in pits, raised mound and in trenches. It was observed that except Acacia nilotica and Ziziphus jujuba , all other species were coming up well.

2.2.7 Fuel wood Species Trial Plot at Tadas, Dharwad 1990

Anogeissus latifolia, Hardwickia binata, Eucalyptus hybrid , Prosopis juliflora, Calliandra calothyrsus and Albizzia lebbek were introduced in pits 2m apart and in 4m apart trenches formed after ripping the area. Growth of Eucalyptus hybrid is found to be more promising than the other species. Anogeissus latifolia and Hardwickia binata stand second. Prosopis juliflora failed completely. Calliandra calothyrsus and Albizzia lebbek established but failed to put on further growth due to wildlife and cattle damage. Even Hardwickia binata failed to put on further growth. It could be due to wet climate and edaphic factors. Hence Eucalyptus hybrid and Anogeissus latifolia were found to be suitable.

2.2.8 Evergreen, Semi-evergreen and deciduous species trial at Salur, Shimoga, 1988

At Salur in Thirthalli Range , 6 ha of old Acacia auriculiformis plantation was under planted

2.2.9 Trial plot of seed dibbling in Acacia auriculiformis plantation

During the last few years, large tracts of grassy blanks in heavy rainfall areas were planted with Acacia auriculiformis. After extracting these plantations, the area becomes barren, if it is not planted with suitable species. Hence, in order to know as to how these areas can be developed by dibbling seeds of native evergreen and semi-evergreen species, a small area was selected (1982 Acacia auriculiformis plantation) at Salur and was fenced with barbed wire. Seeds were dibbled in 20cm x 20cm x 20cm pits during 1990 rains.

2.2.10 Fodder and fuel wood species trial plot at Chiralkoppa, Bagalkot, 1991

In order to find the fodder and fuel wood species most suited for dry zone, the following six species were tried in pits at an espacement of 4m x 4m.

Hardwickia binata, Anogeissus latifolia and Acacia sundra were found to be promising both in respect of plant height and girth. Hence, these three species are recommended for planting in fuel and fodder plantations in dry areas.

2.2.11 Artocarpus lakoocha Trial Plot at Munniyal, Dakshina Kannada, 1992

Artocarpus lakoocha that was planted in an area of 10.0 ha in Moodabidre Range has come up well.

2.2.12 Garcinia Trial Plot at Ayengeri, Kodagu, 1992 ( 10.0 ha )

Garcinia indica was under planted in an older plantation of Acacia auriculiformis, Grevillea robusta and Casuarina equisetifolia at an espacement of 2m x 2m. The plants under Grevillea robusta are performing better than the plants under Acacia auriculiformis and Casuarina equisetifolia.

It is observed that most of the miscellaneous species need proper protection and cultural operations for a long period for their establishment.

2.2.13 Dry Zone species trial at Chiralkoppa, Bagalkot, 1990

To find out the most suitable species for afforestation in the dry zone, an experiment was conducted in Chiralkoppa in Badami Research Range during 1990 rains. Six dry zone species viz ; Ailanthus excelsa, Acacia sundra, Hardwickia binata, Bauhinia racemosa, Wrightia tinctoria and Albizzia amara were tried. Growth details recorded at the end of 9 th year. Growth of Hardwickia binata and Acacia sundra were promising with very high survival rate and hence recommended for afforestation in dry areas.

2.2.14 Syzygium jambos (Pannerale) plot at Hoskote, Bangalore , 1984

This is a commercial species fruit grown by farmers under irrigated condition. An effort was made in 1984 by purchasing good quality fruits from the market and sowing the seeds obtained from them. Two hectare of plantation was raised with the help of poly bag seedlings. The orchard was irrigated manually during the first year. Fruiting was noticed in the 5 th year of planting.

2.2.15 Syzygium jambos (Pannerale) Trial, Northern Zone

It is an agro-forestry species of commercial value and is grown under wet conditions. The trial plot was inter-planted with Syzygium cumini for overhead shade. Plant growth is impressive even in dry conditions. About 60 per cent of the trees are flowering regularly but fruit set is relatively poor. Size of the fruit is small and the quality is also not very good. With irrigation, yield and fruit quality showed improvement.

2.2.16 Arboretum at Kalkere, Bangalore , 1980

An arboretum has been established at Kalkere in the year 1980. The valley portion having rich soil was planted with evergreen, semi-evergreen and moist-deciduous species. Dry-deciduous patches surround the valley. The evergreen and semi-evergreen patches were provided irrigation by drip as well as by pot for a long period. The arboretum is rigidly protected. As of now there are about 80 tree species, 40 species of shrubs and climbers and large number of herbs. There is also a collection of 17 Nitrogen fixing tree species. Growth data of these tree species is being recorded.

2.2.17 Gmelina arborea (Shivane) plot at Hoskote, Bangalore , 1980

Gmelina arborea seedlings were brought from Thirthahalli in 1980 and a plantation of 0.85 ha was raised in pits at 2m x 2m spacing. After two thinning, about 700 stems with reasonably good form are standing on the site. However, seeding is not good.

2.2.18 Ceiba pentandra (Non-dehiscent variety from Tamil Nadu Agricultural University , Coimbatore ), 1989

It was introduced at Turalligudda of Channapatna Range in Mandya district in the year 1989. In all 500 plants were planted and there is 91 per cent survival. Average height recorded was 1.4m in 1994. However, the same species when tried at Nallal, Bangalore showed an average height of 3.39m and average girth of 20.4cm in the year 1994.

2.2.19 Trial of Indian Acacias at Challakere, Chitradurga,1989

With a view to form a Seed Stand of Indian Acacias in 1989, the following species were planted:


Acacia auriculiformis (for comparative study)


Acacia latronum


Acacia sundra


Acacia concinna


Acacia farnesiana


Acacia ferruginea


Acacia leucophloea


Acacia nilotica


Acacia planifrons

Acacia farnesiana, Acacia ferruginea and Acacia auriculiformis have shown better performance and survival.

2.2.20 Ficus plot at Kalkere, Bangalore , 1989

In August 1989 following species of Ficus were planted at Kalkere:

Ficus religiosa

Ficus elastica

Ficus bengalensis

Ficus ovata

Ficus tinctoria

Ficus pandurata

Ficus carica

Ficus microcarpa

Ficus infectoria

Ficus stulhamani

Ficus krishnae

Ficus triangularis

Ficus hispida

Ficus nerriforia

Ficus asperrima

Ficus cyatgistipula

Ficus mysorensis

Ficus nervosa

Ficus glomerata

Ficus racemosa

Ficus altisima

Ficus tomentosa

Ficus benjamina

Ficus pumila

Their rate of growth and performance is being recorded annually.

2.2.21 Development of Typical Moist Deciduous type of Vegetation in a clearfelled area

With a view to develop a typical moist deciduous forest in a clear felled area at Veerampalli in Dandeli research Range an experimental planting was taken-up during 1989. The main objective was to find out the suitable combination of species and spacing to be adopted while mixing dominant, co-dominant and understorey species, as they exist in natural moist deciduous forests.

This area had been clear-felled under Kali Hydel project during 1985-86. The area was covered with a thick growth of Eupatorium and bamboo, which was cleared and burnt. The salient features of the experiment are as under. Three blocks of 0.5 ha each were formed and 0.6 m 3 pits were dug.

I block 1.75 x 1.75m
II block 2.00 x 2.00m
III block 2.50 x 2.50m

The dominant, co-dominant and under-storey species that were planted in an intimate mixture are given below:




Tectona grandis


Dalbergia latifolia


Terminalia tomentosa


Mitragyna parviflora


Terminalia paniculata


Grewia tiliaefolia


Lagerstroemia lanceolata


Albizzia odoratissima


Adina cordifolia


Stereospermum species


Terminalia bellerica


Spondias mangifera


Pterocarpus marsupium

Under storey species


Emblica officinalis


Semecarpus anacardium


Zanthoxylum rhetsa


Dendrocalamus strictus


Acacia concinna


Carissa caranda


Butea monosperma


Santalum album


Sapindus trifoliatus

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