SAfety VEhicle(s) using adaptive Interface Technology (SAVE-IT) Program
A Proposal Submitted to
U.S. Department of Transportation
RSPA/Volpe National Transportation Systems Center
Attn: Kathleen Regan, DTS-853
55 Broadway, Kendall Square
Cambridge, MA 02142
25 March, 2003
Correspondence and questions about the proposal may be directed to:
Gerald J. Witt
Delphi Delco Electronics Systems
One Corporate Center
P.O. Box 9005
Kokomo, Indiana 46904-9005
This proposal includes data that shall not be disclosed outside the Government and shall not be duplicated, used, or disclosed – in whole or in part – for any purpose other than to evaluate this proposal. If, however, a contract is awarded to this offeror as a result of – or in connection with – the submission of this data, the Government shall have the right to duplicate, use, or disclose the data to the extent provided in the resulting contract. This restriction does not limit the Government’s right to use information contained in this data if it is obtained from another source without restriction. The data subject to this restriction are contained in all sheets of this proposal.
Table of Contents
Executive Summary 1
Section 1: Program Description 3
1.1 Introduction 3
1.2 Objectives and Goals 4
1.3 Benefits 4
1.4 Program Plan Summary 5
Section 2: Technical Approach 6
2.1 System Development 6
2.1.1 SAVE-IT System Concept 6
2.1.2 Sensor Arrays 9
2.1.3 Workload/Distraction Management (Data Fusion) 11
2.1.4 Adaptive Interface 11
2.2 The Philosophy of Human Factors Research 12
2.2.1 The Arousal Approach 12
2.2.2 The Demand Approach 12
2.2.3 The SAVE-IT Program Approach 12
2.2.4 SAVE-IT Task Structure and Methodology 13
2.3. Summary of Tasks 19
Section 3: Management Plan 20
3.1 Program Team Structure 20
Appendix A: References 22
Appendix B: List of Figures 23
Appendix C: List of Tables 24
Appendix D: Acronyms Glossary 25
In order to support safe vehicular control, a substantial portion of the driver’s attention must be focused on driving-related tasks, such as interacting with other vehicles, pedestrians, obstacles, and weather conditions. Additionally, many tasks that are unrelated to operating the vehicle may consume the driver’s attention, for example, talking with a passenger, thinking about work, or conversing on a cellular phone. All of these activities require a portion of the driver’s attention, contributing to the total workload imposed on the driver. When the driver allocates attention to non-driving tasks, attention is diverted away from the driving tasks that ensure safety. If an unexpected event occurs in the environment, a distracted driver may be ill-equipped to react appropriately.
Near term solutions to this problem have focused on improving designs to minimize driver head-down and hands-off-wheel time. In addition, human factors principles have been applied to map vehicle interfaces to more closely match user expectations, thereby reducing the cognitive load on the driver. Safety enhancement systems such as Forward Collision Warning (FCW) and Adaptive Cruise Control (ACC) assess direct and immediate threats and can warn the driver to take appropriate action. As the technologies continue to evolve, it is anticipated that an increasing number of safety-enhancing technologies will be integrated into the vehicle. Although substantial improvements continue to be made within specific interface components, the system interface as a whole may become increasingly complex as it integrates a wider range of sub-components. To counteract this expansion in complexity, the human-machine interface must evolve into one that provides synergistic consideration of all safety aspects of the driving experience. In essence, the driver must become a key component in a closed-loop vehicle environment. The longer-term vision drives safety significantly further by developing synergies between active and passive safety, mobile multimedia, and the inclusion of a revolutionary driver state monitor. The new system will not only measure the vehicle environment, but also the biological element within the vehicle-environment system, supporting an unprecedented level of human-system integration.
This program will serve several important objectives. Perhaps the most important objective will be demonstrating a viable proof of concept that is capable of reducing distraction-related crashes and enhancing the effectiveness of collision avoidance systems. By working with such a large portion of the automotive sector, this program will provide the foundational building blocks for a system to be implemented in a uniform manner across all adopters. This will provide a pathway for consistent performance from vehicle to vehicle. Program success will be contingent on integrated closed-loop principles that, not only include sophisticated telematics, mobile office, entertainment and collision warning systems, but also incorporate the state of the driver. This revolutionary closed-loop vehicle environment will be achieved by measuring the driver’s state, assessing the situational threat, prioritizing information presentation, providing adaptive countermeasures to minimize distraction, and optimizing advanced collision warning.
A comprehensive program team has been established to demonstrate and evaluate integrated solutions for SAfety VEhicles using adaptive Interface Technologies (SAVE-IT). The team is pleased to submit this proposal in order to advance the science of automotive Human Machine Interface (HMI) Technology. Based on a wealth of prior HMI and system-integration experience, Delphi Delco Electronic Systems (DDE), a world-class tier-one automotive supplier, will lead a team composed of two of the most highly acclaimed universities in the area of automotive human factors, the two largest automotive manufacturers in the world, and the leading developer of stereo-vision eye-tracking systems. The University of Iowa will provide a recognized level of expertise in the areas of cognitive distraction, standards and guidelines development, and driving simulator research. The University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute (UMTRI) will contribute extensive multidisciplinary automotive experience in the areas of driver performance, driving task demand, crash-statistics analysis, vehicle system evaluation, and field operational testing. These two renowned automotive human factors institutions will draw upon a partnership that will bring an unsurpassed level of human factors innovation to this program. General Motors (GM) and Ford Motor Company will provide an industry perspective to the evaluation of such a ground-breaking system. Seeing Machines Inc. will continue their revolutionary development of a robust non-invasive eye-tracking system that will incorporate significant advancements beyond the version that is presently on the market for human-factors research. Over the past decade, DDE has developed advanced safety warning systems including the associated sensor suites, detection, recognition, and threat assessment algorithms and human-machine interfaces. The DDE Integrated Safety Systems (ISS) development initiative was established to elevate safety systems from those that we understand today, to holistic systems that include driver state monitoring. Successful in-car demonstration of the ISS concept was first performed in September of 2000 at the Paris Auto Show. The system consisted of a safety warning system that provided 360 degrees of environmental coverage and a driver workload manager which included adaptive safety and distraction mitigation countermeasures. The next generation of ISS concept vehicle was demonstrated in September 2001 at the Frankfurt Auto Show. This is a road worthy vehicle, incorporating the latest developments in the areas of driver state monitoring, associated sensor array, and distraction mitigation technology in addition to safety warning systems. An important feature of this concept vehicle is a new technology for face and eye gaze tracking, pioneered by Seeing Machines Inc.. Successful development and evaluation of the SAVE-IT system will highly leverage the foundational work provided by Delphi Delco Electronics Systems. Within a market driven business environment, this team brings together a unique blend of expertise and complementary capabilities to ensure superb technical solutions that are grounded in sound research, development, and engineering practices.
This proposal presents a multifaceted three-year program, designed to develop, demonstrate, and evaluate a system which embodies the SAVE-IT requirements. The proposed program budget is approximately $6 million. The program is partially supported by the Government through a cost sharing plan. The cost sharing will be an approximate 50/50 split ratio with the Government providing $3 million. In order to produce the ground-breaking human factors research that is required to fulfill the SAVE-IT objectives, the majority of Government funds will be allocated to the academic institutions. Two development phases are proposed. Phase I will consist of human factors research to determine diagnostic measures of distraction and workload, architecture concept development, technology development and evaluation, vehicle demonstration, and Phase II planning. Phase II will focus on algorithm and guideline development, data fusion, integrated countermeasure development, vehicle demonstration, and evaluation of benefit.
A comprehensive SAVE-IT research program, as defined within this proposal, has never been undertaken in the United States or internationally. This program will break new ground in providing a distraction and safety mitigation system solution that integrates driver state. This research and development program will provide an ideal opportunity for the Government, industry, and academic community to gain a thorough understanding of the requirements, functions, and social impact of such technology. Additionally, any potential adverse operational and safety-related issues could be addressed while the technology is in the early stages of development. Therefore, this program will complement and extend the activities of other relevant Government sponsored programs and provide the opportunity to make a positive contribution to automotive safety.