Rule 17, exhibit 9 Chronic Pain Disorder Medical Treatment Guidelines Revised: December 27, 2011 Effective: February 14, 2012



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NEURALGIA Pain in the distribution of a nerve or nerves.

NEURITIS Inflammation of a nerve or nerves.

NEUROGENIC PAIN Pain initiated or caused by a primary lesion, dysfunction, or transitory perturbation in the peripheral or central nervous system.

NEUROPATHIC PAIN Pain due to an injured or dysfunctional central or peripheral nervous system.

NEUROPATHY A disturbance of function or pathological change in a nerve: in one nerve, (mononeuropathy) in several nerves, (mononeuropathy multiplex); OR diffuse and bilateral, (polyneuropathy). Neuropathy should be associated with objective findings such as consistent sensory abnormalities, consistent motor findings (e.g. weakness, atrophy, fasciculations, muscle cramping) and/or neuropathic abnormalities on EMG/nerve conduction testing.

NOCICEPTOR A receptor preferentially sensitive to a noxious stimulus or to a stimulus which would become noxious if prolonged.

PAIN BEHAVIOR The non-verbal actions (such as grimacing, groaning, limping, using visible pain relieving or support devices and requisition of pain medications, among others) that are outward manifestations of pain, and through which a person may communicate that pain is being experienced.

PAIN THRESHOLD The smallest stimulus perceived by a subject as painful during laboratory testing. The term also loosely applies to the biological variation among human beings in sensing and coping with pain.

PARESTHESIA An abnormal sensation that is not described as pain. It can be either a spontaneous sensation (such as pins and needles) or a sensation evoked from non-painful or painful stimulation, such as light touch, thermal, or pinprick stimulus on physical examination.

PERIPHERAL NEUROPATHIC PAIN Pain initiated or caused by a primary lesion or dysfunction in the peripheral nervous system.

SOMATIC DYSFUNCTION Somatic dysfunction is impaired or altered function of related components of the somatic (body framework) system which includes skeletal, arthrodial, and myofascial structures.

SUMMATION Refers to abnormally painful sensation to a repeated stimulus although the actual stimulus remains constant. The patient describes the pain as growing and growing as the same intensity stimulus continues.

SYMPATHETICALLY MAINTAINED PAIN (SMP) A pain that is maintained by sympathetic pathways and intensified by circulating catecholamines.

TENDER POINTS Tenderness on palpation at a tendon insertion, muscle belly or over bone. Palpation should be done with the thumb or forefinger, applying pressure approximately equal to a force of 4 kilograms (blanching of the entire nail bed).


INITIAL EVALUATION & DIAGNOSTIC PROCEDURES

The Division recommends the following diagnostic procedures be considered, at least initially, the responsibility of the workers’ compensation carrier to ensure that an accurate diagnosis and treatment plan can be established. Standard procedures that should be utilized when initially diagnosing a work-related chronic pain complaint are listed below.



    1. HISTORY TAKING AND PHYSICAL EXAMINATION (Hx & PE): are generally accepted, well-established and widely used procedures that establish the foundation/basis for and dictate subsequent stages of diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. When findings of clinical evaluations and those of other diagnostic procedures are not complementing each other, the objective clinical findings should have preference. The medical records should reasonably document the following:

Medical History: As in other fields of medicine, a thorough patient history is an important part of the evaluation of chronic pain. In taking such a history, factors influencing a patient’s current status can be made clear and taken into account when planning diagnostic evaluation and treatment. One efficient manner in which to obtain historical information is by using a questionnaire. The questionnaire may be sent to the patient prior to the initial visit or administered at the time of the office visit. History should ascertain the following elements.

General Information – General items requested are name, sex, age, birth date, etc.

Level of Education – The level of patients’ education may influence response to treatment.

Work History/Occupation – To include both impact of injury on job duties and impact on ability to perform job duties, work history, job description, mechanical requirements of the job, duration of employment, and job satisfaction.

Current employment status.

Marital status.

Family Environment – Is the patient living in a nuclear family or with friends? Is there or were there, any family members with chronic illness or pain problems? Responses to such questions reveal the nature of the support system or the possibility of conditioning toward chronicity.

Ethnic Origin – Ethnicity of the patient, including any existing language barriers, may influence the patient’s perception of and response to pain. Literature indicates that providers may under-treat patients of certain ethnic backgrounds due to underestimation of their pain (Todd, 2000).

Belief System – Patients should be asked about their value systems, including spiritual and cultural beliefs, in order to determine how these may influence the patient’s and family’s response to illness and treatment recommendations.

Activities of Daily Living – Pain has a multidimensional effect on the patient that is reflected in changes in usual daily vocational, social, recreational, and sexual activities.

Past and present psychological problems.

History of abuse – Physical, emotional, sexual.

History of disability in the family.

Sleep disturbances.

Causality: How did this injury occur? Was the problem initiated by a work-related injury or exposure?

Pain History: Characterization of the patient’s pain and of the patient’s response to pain is one of the key elements in treatment.

Site of Pain – Localization and distribution of the pain help determine the type of pain the patient has (i.e., central versus peripheral).

Pain diagram drawings to document the distribution of pain.

Visual Analog Scale (VAS). Including a discussion of the range of pain during the day and how activities, use of modalities, and other actions affect the intensity of pain.

Duration.

Place of onset. Circumstances during which the pain began (e.g. an accident, an illness, a stressful incident or spontaneous onset).

Pain Characteristics – Such as burning, shooting, stabbing, and aching. Time of pain occurrence, as well as intensity, quality, and radiation, give clues to the diagnosis and potential treatment. Quality of pain can be helpful in identifying neuropathic pain which is normally present most of the day, at night and is described as burning.

List of activities which aggravate or exacerbate, ameliorate, or have no effect on the level of pain.

Associated Symptoms – Does the patient have numbness or paresthesia, dysesthesia, weakness, bowel or bladder dysfunction, decreased temperature, increased sweating, cyanosis or edema? Is there local tenderness, allodynia, hyperesthesia, or hyperalgesia?

c. Medical Management History:

i. Diagnostic Tests – All previous radiological and laboratory investigations should be reviewed.

ii. Prior Treatment – Chronological review of medical records including previous medical evaluations and response to treatment interventions. In other words, what has been tried and which treatments have helped?

iii. Prior Surgery – If the patient has had prior surgery specifically for the pain, he/she may be less likely to have a positive outcome.

iv. Medications – History of and current use of medications, including over the counter and herbal/dietary supplements to determine drug usage (or abuse) interactions and efficacy of treatment. Drug allergies and other side effects experienced with previous or current medication therapy and adherence to currently prescribed medications should be documented. Ideally, this includes dosing schedules as reported by the patient or patient representative. Information should be checked against the Colorado Prescription Drug Monitoring Program (PDMP), offered by the Colorado Pharmacy Board.

v. Review of Systems Check List – Determine if there is any interplay between the pain complaint and other medical conditions.

vi. Psychosocial Functioning – Determine if any of the following are present: current symptoms of depression or anxiety; evidence of stressors in the workplace or at home; and past history of psychological problems. Other confounding psychosocial issues may be present, including the presence of psychiatric disease. Due to the high incidence of co-morbid problems in populations that develop chronic pain, it is recommended that patients diagnosed with chronic pain should be referred for a full psychosocial evaluation.

vii. Pre-existing Conditions – Treatment of these conditions is appropriate when the pre-existing condition affects recovery from chronic pain.

viii. Family history pertaining to similar disorders.

d. Substance Use/Abuse:

i. Alcohol use.

ii. Smoking History and use of nicotine replacements.

iii. History of current and prior prescription and street drug use or abuse.

iv. The use of caffeine or caffeine containing beverages.

v. Substance abuse information may be only fully obtainable from multiple sources over time. Patient self reports may be unreliable. Patient self reports should always be checked against medical records.

e. Other Factors Affecting Treatment Outcome:

i. Compensation/Disability/Litigation.

ii. Treatment Expectations – What does the patient expect from treatment: complete relief of pain or reduction to a more tolerable level?

f. Physical Examination:

i. Neurologic Evaluation – Includes cranial nerves survey, muscle tone and strength, atrophy, detailed sensory examination (see ii-below), motor evaluation (station, gait, coordination) reflexes (normal tendon reflexes and presence or absence of abnormal reflexes such as frontal lobe release signs or upper motor neuron signs, cerebellar testing and provocative neurological maneuvers.

ii. Sensory Evaluation – A detailed sensory examination is crucial in evaluating a patient with chronic pain complaints. Quantitative sensory testing, such as Semmes-Weinstein, may be useful tools in determining sensory abnormalities. The examination should determine if the following sensory signs are present and consistent on repeated examination.

Hyperalgesia.

Hyperpathia.

Paresthesia.

Dysesthesia.

Mechanical Allodynia – static versus dynamic.

Thermal Allodynia.

Hypoesthesia.

Hyperesthesia.

Summation.

iii. Musculoskeletal Evaluation – Range-of-motion, segmental mobility, musculoskeletal provocative maneuvers, palpation, observation, and functional activities. All joints, muscles, ligaments, and tendons should be examined for asymmetry, swelling, laxity, and tenderness. A portion of the musculoskeletal evaluation is the myofascial examination. The myofascial examination includes palpating soft tissues for evidence of tightness and trigger points.

iv. Evaluation of non-physiologic findings:

A) If applicable, Waddell Signs, which include 5 categories of clinical signs (1) tenderness- superficial and non-anatomic, (2) pain with simulation: axial loading and rotation, (3) regional findings: sensory and motor inconsistent with nerve root patterns (4) distraction /inconsistency in straight leg raising findings, and (5) over-reaction to physical examination maneuvers. Significance may be attached to positive findings in 3 out of 5 of these categories, but not to isolated findings. Waddell advocates considering Waddell’s signs prior to recommending a surgical procedure. These signs should be measured routinely to identify patients requiring further assessment (i.e., biopsychosocial) prior to undergoing back surgery.

It is generally agreed that Waddell signs are associated with decreased functional performance and greater subjective pain levels, though they provide no information on the etiology of pain. Waddell Signs cannot be used to predict or diagnose malingering. Their presence of 3 out of 5 signs may most appropriately be viewed as a “yellow flag”, or screening test, alerting clinicians to those patients who require a more comprehensive approach to their assessment and care plan. Therefore, for chronic back pain, a psychosocial evaluation should be part of the total evaluation of the patient. Refer to Section E. 2, Personality/Psychological/Psychosocial Evaluation.

B) Variability on formal exam including variable sensory exam, inconsistent tenderness, and/or swelling secondary to extrinsic sources.

C) Inconsistencies between formal exam and observed abilities of range-of-motion, motor strength, gait and cognitive/emotional state should be noted in the assessment.

PERSONALITY/ PSYCHOLOGICAL/PSYCHOSOCIAL EVALUATION FOR PAIN MANAGEMENT are generally accepted, well-established, and widely used diagnostic procedures not only with selected use in acute pain problems, but also with more widespread use in subacute and chronic pain populations. Diagnostic evaluations should distinguish between conditions that are pre-existing, aggravated by the current injury or work related.

Psychosocial evaluations should determine if further psychosocial or behavioral interventions are indicated for patients diagnosed with chronic pain. The interpretations of the evaluation should provide clinicians with a better understanding of the patient in his or her social environment, thus allowing for more effective rehabilitation. Psychosocial assessment requires consideration of variations in pain experience and expression resulting from affective, cognitive, motivational and coping processes, and other influences such as gender, age, race, ethnicity, national origin, religion, sexual orientation, disability, language, or socioeconomic status.

While there is some agreement about which psychological factors need to be assessed in patients with chronic pain, a comprehensive psychological evaluation should attempt to identify both primary psychiatric risk factors or “red flags” (e.g. psychosis, active suicidality), as well as secondary risk factors or “yellow flags” (e.g. moderate depression, job dissatisfaction) (Bruns D and Disorbio J 2009). Significant personality disorders must be taken into account when considering a patient for spinal cord stimulation and other major procedures.

Psychometric Testing is a valuable component of a consultation to assist the physician in making a more effective treatment plan. There is good evidence that psychometric testing can have significant ability to predict medical treatment outcome (Sinikallio S, Aalto, T, Airaksinen, O, 2009; Sinikallio S, Aalto, T, Airaksinen, O, Lehto, SM, 2010; Block A 2001). For example, one study found that psychometric testing exceeded the ability of discography to predict disability in patients with low back pain (Carragee, 2005). Pre-procedure psychiatric/psychological evaluation must be done prior to diagnostic confirmatory testing for the procedure. Examples include discography for fusion, spinal cord stimulation, or intrathecal drug delivery systems and should not be done by a psychologist employed by the physician planning to perform the procedure.

In many instances, psychological testing has validity comparable to that of commonly used medical tests; for example, the correlation between high trait anger and blood pressure is equal to the correlation between reduced blood flow and the failure of a synthetic hemodialysis graft (Meyer G 2001). Thus, psychometric testing may be of comparable validity to medical tests and may provide unique and useful diagnostic information (Meyer G 2001).

All patients who are diagnosed as having chronic pain should be referred for a psychosocial evaluation, as well as concomitant interdisciplinary rehabilitation treatment. This referral should be performed in a way so as to not imply that the patient’s claims are invalid, or that the patient is malingering or mentally ill. Even in cases where no diagnosable mental condition is present, these evaluations can identify social, cultural, coping and other variables that may be influencing the patient’s recovery process and may be amenable to various treatments including behavioral therapy. As pain is understood to be a biopsychosocial phenomenon, these evaluations should be regarded as an integral part of the assessment of chronic pain conditions.

Qualifications:

A psychologist with a PhD, PsyD, EdD credentials, or a physician with Psychiatric MD/DO credentials may perform the initial comprehensive evaluations. It is preferable that these professionals have experience in diagnosing and treating chronic pain disorders in injured workers.

Psychometric tests should be administered by psychologists with a PhD, PsyD, or EdD, or health professionals working under the supervision of a doctorate level psychologist. Physicians with appropriate training may also administer such testing but interpretation of the tests should be done by properly credentialed mental health professionals.

Clinical Evaluation:

Special note to health care providers: most providers are required to adhere to the federal regulations under the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA). Unlike general health insurers, workers compensation insurers are not required to adhere to HIPAA standards thus, providers should assume that sensitive information included in a report sent to the insurer could be forwarded to the employer. The Colorado statute provides a limited waiver of medical information regarding the work-related injury or disease to the extent necessary to resolve the claim. it is recommended that the health care provider either 1) obtain a full release from the patient regarding information that may go to the employer or 2) not include sensitive health information not directly related to the work related conditions in reports sent to the insurer.

All chronic pain patients should have a clinical evaluation that addresses the following areas:

A. History of Injury – The history of the injury should be reported in the patient’s words or using similar terminology. Caution must be exercised when using translators.


        • Nature of injury.

        • Psychosocial circumstances of the injury.

        • Current symptomatic complaints.

        • Extent of medical corroboration.

        • Treatment received and results.

        • Compliance with treatment.

        • Coping strategies used, including perceived locus of control, catastrophizing, and risk aversion.

        • Perception of medical system and employer.

        • History of response to prescription medications.

B. Health History.

        • Nature of injury.

        • Medical history.

        • Psychiatric history.

        • History of alcohol or substance abuse.

        • Activities of daily living.

        • Previous injuries, including disability, impairment, and compensation.

C. Psychosocial History.

        • Childhood history, including abuse/neglect.

        • Educational history.

        • Family history, including disability.

        • Marital history and other significant adulthood activities and events.

        • Legal history, including criminal and civil litigation.

        • Employment history.

        • Military duty- because post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) might be an unacceptable condition for many military personnel to acknowledge, it may be prudent to screen initially for signs of depression or anxiety – both of which may be present in PTSD.

        • Signs of pre-injury psychological dysfunction.

        • Current and past interpersonal relations, support, living situation.

        • Financial history.

D. Mental status exam including cognition, affect, mood, orientation, thinking, and perception. May include mini mental status exam or frontal assessment battery if appropriate.

E. Assessment of any danger posed to self or others.

F. Psychological test results, if performed.

G. Current psychiatric diagnosis consistent with the standards of the American Psychiatric Association’s Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders.

H. Pre-existing psychiatric conditions. Treatment of these conditions is appropriate when the pre-existing condition affects recovery from chronic pain.

I. Causality (to address medically probable cause and effect, distinguishing pre-existing psychological symptoms, traits and vulnerabilities from current symptoms).

J. Treatment recommendations with respect to specific goals, frequency, timeframes, and expected outcomes.

Tests of Psychological Functioning: Psychometric testing is a valuable component of a consultation to assist the physician in making a more effective treatment plan. Psychometric testing is useful in the assessment of mental conditions, pain conditions, cognitive functioning, treatment planning, vocational planning, and evaluation of treatment effectiveness. While there is no general agreement as to which psychometric tests should be specifically recommended for psychological evaluations of chronic pain conditions, standardized tests are preferred over those which are not for assessing diagnosis.

In contrast, non-standardized tests can be useful for “ipsative” outcome assessment, where a test is administered more than once, and a patient’s current reports are compared with his or her own reports in the past.

It is appropriate for the mental health provider to use their discretion and administer selective psychometric tests within their expertise and within standards of care in the community. Use of screening psychometrics by non-mental health providers is encouraged but mental health provider consultation should always be utilized for chronic pain patients in which invasive palliative pain procedures or chronic opiate treatment is being contemplated. Some of these tests are available in Spanish and other languages, and many are written at a 6th grade reading level. Examples of frequently used psychometric tests performed include, but not limited to the following:

Comprehensive Inventories for Medical Patients:

a) Battery for Health Improvement, 2nd Edition (BHI-2tm).

What it measures – Depression, anxiety and hostility; violent and suicidal ideation; borderline, dependency, chronic maladjustment, substance abuse, conflicts with work, family and physician, pain preoccupation, somatization, perception of functioning and others.

Benefits – When used as a part of a comprehensive evaluation, can contribute substantially to the understanding of psychosocial factors underlying pain reports, perceived disability and somatic preoccupation; as well as to design interventions. Serial administrations can track changes in a broad range of variables during the course of treatment, and assess outcome.

Characteristics – Standardized test normalized on patients with chronic pain or injury and on community members, with reference groups for six other subcategories of injured patients.

b) Millon tm Behavioral Medical Diagnostic (MBMD tm):

What it measures – Updated version of the Millon Behavioral Health Inventory (MBHI). Provides information on coping styles (introversive, inhibited, dejected, cooperative, sociable, etc.), health habits (smoking, drinking, eating, etc.), psychiatric indications (anxiety, depression, etc.), stress moderators (illness apprehension vs. illness tolerance, etc.), treatment prognostics (interventional fragility vs. interventional resilience, medication abuse vs. medication competence, etc.) and other factors.

Benefits – When used as a part of a comprehensive evaluation, can contribute substantially to the understanding of psychosocial factors affecting medical patients. Understanding risk factors and patient personality type can help to optimize treatment protocols for a particular patient.

Characteristics – Standardized test normalized on medical patients with various diseases, on obesity, and on chronic pain groups.

Comprehensive Psychological Inventories:

These tests are designed for detecting various psychiatric syndromes, but in general are more prone to false positive findings when administered to medical patients.

a) Millon tm Clinical Multiaxial Inventorytm, 3rd Edition (MCMI-III tm).

What it measures – Has scales based on DSM diagnostic criteria for affective, personality and psychotic disorders and somatization.

Benefits – When used as a part of a comprehensive evaluation, can screen for a broad range of DSM diagnoses.

Characteristics – Standardized test normalized on psychiatric patients.

b) Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory®, 2nd Edition (MMPI-2®).

What it measures – Original scale constructs, such as hysteria and psychasthenia are archaic but continue to be useful. Newer content scales include depression, anxiety, health concerns, bizarre mentation, social discomfort, low self-esteem, and almost 100 others.

Benefits – When used as a part of a comprehensive evaluation, measure a number of factors that have been associated with poor treatment outcome.

Characteristics – Standardized test normalized on community members

c) Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory®, 2nd Edition Revised Form (MMPI-2®).

What it measures – 50 scales assess a wide range of psychiatric disorders and personality traits, plus 8 validity scales, critical items.

Benefits – new version of MMPI-2 has undergone extensive revision to correct perceived MMPI-2 deficiencies. Has advantages over the original MMPI-2 in psychiatric assessment, but may be less capable when assessing patients with chronic pain.

Characteristics – Standardized test normalized on community members, with multiple other reference groups.

d) Personality Assessment Inventory tm (PAI).

What it measures – A measure of general psychopathology that assesses depression, anxiety, somatic complaints, stress, alcohol and drug use reports, mania, paranoia, schizophrenia, borderline, antisocial, and suicidal ideation and more than 30 others.

Benefits – When used as a part of a comprehensive evaluation, can contribute substantially to the identification of a wide variety of risk factors that could potentially affect the medical patient.

Characteristics – Standardized test normalized on community members.

Brief Multidimensional Screens for Medical Patients:

Treating providers, to assess a variety of psychological and medical conditions, including depression, pain, disability and others, may use brief instruments. These instruments may also be employed as repeated measures to track progress in treatment, or as one test in a more comprehensive evaluation. Brief instruments are valuable in that the test may be administered in the office setting and hand scored by the physician. Results of these tests should help providers distinguish which patients should be referred for a specific type of comprehensive evaluation.

a) Brief Battery for Health Improvement, 2nd Edition (BBHI-2 tm).

What it measures – Depression, anxiety, somatization, pain, function, and defensiveness.

Benefits – Can identify patients needing treatment for depression and anxiety, and identify patients prone to somatization, pain magnification and self-perception of disability. Can compare the level of factors above to other pain patients and community members. Serial administrations can track changes in measured variables during the course of treatment, and assess outcome.

Characteristics – Standardized test normalized on patients with chronic pain or injury and on community members, with reference groups for six subcategories of injured patients.

b) Pain Patient Profile (P3®).

What it measures – Assesses depression, anxiety, and somatization.

Benefits – Can identify patients needing treatment for depression and anxiety, as well as identify patients prone to somatization. Can compare the level of depression, anxiety and somatization to other pain patients and community members. Serial administrations can track changes in measured variables during the course of treatment, and assess outcome.

Characteristics – Standardized test normalized on patients with chronic pain, and on community members.

c) Multidimensional Pain Inventory (MPI).

What it measures – Interference, support, pain severity, life-control, affective distress, response of significant other to pain, and self-perception of disability at home and work, and in social and other activities of daily living.

Benefits – Can identify patients with high levels of disability perceptions, affective distress, or those prone to pain magnification. Serial administrations can track changes in measured variables during the course of treatment, and assess outcome.

Characteristics – Partially standardized test, initially developed primarily with male military personnel, and later normalized on patients with chronic pain in the United States and Sweden.

d) SF-36.

What it measures – A survey of general health well-being and functional states.

Benefits – Assesses a broad spectrum of patient disability reports. Serial administrations could be used to track patient perceived functional changes during the course of treatment, and assess outcome.

Characteristics – Non-standardized test without norms.

e) Sickness Impact Profile© (SIP).

What it measures – Perceived disability in the areas of sleep, eating, home management, recreation, mobility, body care, social interaction, emotional behavior, and communication.

Benefits – Assesses a broad spectrum of patient disability reports. Serial administrations could be used to track patient perceived functional changes during the course of treatment, and assess outcome.

Characteristics – Non-standardized test without norms.

f) McGill Pain Questionnaire (MPQ).

What it measures – Cognitive, emotional and sensory aspects of pain.

Benefits – Can identify patients prone to pain magnification. Repeated administrations can track progress in treatment for pain.

Characteristics – Non-standardized test without norms.

g) McGill Pain Questionnaire – Short Form (MPQ-SF).

What it measures – Emotional and sensory aspects of pain.

Benefits – Can identify patients prone to pain magnification. Repeated administrations can track progress in treatment for pain.

Characteristics – Non-standardized test without norms.

h) Oswestry Disability Questionnaire (ODQ).

What it measures – Disability secondary to low back pain.

Benefits – Can measure patients’ self-perceptions of disability. Serial administrations could be used to track changes in self-perceptions of functional ability during the course of treatment, and assess outcome.

Characteristics – Non-standardized test without norms.

i) Visual Analog Scales (VAS).

What it measures – Graphical measure of patient’s pain report, where the patient makes a mark on a line to represent pain level.

Benefits – Quantifies the patients’ pain report, most-commonly using a 10 centimeter horizontal line. Serial administrations could be used to track changes in pain reports during the course of treatment and assess outcome.

Characteristics – Non-standardized test without norms. Some patients may have difficulty with this conceptual test format, depending on perceptual, visuomotor, cultural orientation or other factors.

j) Numerical Rating Scales (NRS).

What it measures – Numerical report of patients’ pain.

Benefits – Quantifies the patients’ pain report, typically on a 0-10 scale. Serial administrations could be used to track changes in pain reports during the course of treatment and assess outcome.

Characteristics – Recommended by JCAHO. Non-standardized test without norms. May be more easily understood than the VAS.

Brief Multidimensional Screens for Psychiatric Patients:

These tests are designed for detecting various psychiatric syndromes, but in general are more prone to false positive findings when administered to medical patients.

a) Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI®).

What it measures: Somatization, obsessive-compulsive, depression, anxiety, phobic anxiety, hostility, paranoia, psychoticism, and interpersonal sensitivity.

Benefits: Can identify patients needing treatment for depression and anxiety, as well as identify patients prone to somatization. Can compare the level of depression, anxiety, and somatization to community members. Serial administrations could be used to track changes in measured variables during the course of treatment, and assess outcome.

Characteristics – standardized test normalized on community members

b) Brief Symptom Inventory – 18 (BSI-18®).

What it Measures: Depression, anxiety, somatization.

Benefits: Can identify patients needing treatment for depression and anxiety, as well as identify patients prone to somatization. Can compare the level of depression, anxiety, and somatization to community members. Serial administrations could be used to track patient perceived functional changes during the course of treatment, and assess outcome.

Characteristics – standardized test normalized on patients with chronic pain associated with cancer

c) Symptom Check List 90 (SCL 90).

What it measures: Somatization, obsessive-compulsive, depression, anxiety, phobic anxiety, hostility, paranoia, psychoticism, and interpersonal sensitivity.

Benefits: Can identify patients needing treatment for depression and anxiety, as well as identify patients prone to somatization. Can compare the level of depression, anxiety and somatization to community members. Serial administrations could be used to track changes in measured variables during the course of treatment, and assess outcome.

Characteristics – standardized test normalized on community members

Brief Specialized Psychiatric Screening Measures:

a) Beck Depression Inventory® (BDI).

What it measures: Depression.

Benefits: Can identify patients needing referral for further assessment and treatment for depression and anxiety, as well as identify patients prone to somatization. Repeated administrations can track progress in treatment for depression, anxiety, and somatic preoccupation. Requires a professional evaluation to verify diagnosis.

Characteristics – standardized test without norms, uses cutoff scores.

b) Post Traumatic Stress Diagnostic Scale (PDS®).

What it Measures: Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD).

Benefits: Helps confirm suspected PTSD diagnosis. Repeated administrations can track treatment progress of PTSD patients.

Characteristics – standardized test normalized on community members.

c) Center of Epidemiologic Studies – Depression Questionnaire.

What it measures: Depression.

Benefits: Brief self-administered screening test. Requires a professional evaluation to verify diagnosis.

Characteristics – nonstandardized test without norms

d) Brief Patient Health Questionnaire tm from PRIME - MD®

What it measures: Depression, panic disorder.

Benefits: Brief self-administered screening test. Requires a professional evaluation to verify diagnosis.

Characteristics – nonstandardized test without norms, keyed to diagnostic criteria, uses cutoff scores.

e) Zung Questionnaire.

What it measures: Depression.

Benefits: Brief self-administered screening test. Requires a professional evaluation to verify diagnosis.

Characteristics – Non-standardized test without norms.

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