|References that show that SHED or DPSC are superior to other sources of MSC.
Karaoz E. et al. “Human dental pulp stem cells demonstrate better neural and epithelial stem cell properties than bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells”. (2011) Histochem Cell Biol 136:455-473.
Proliferation capacities, gene expression profiles, phenotypic, ultra structural, and differentiation characteristics of human DP-SCs from impacted third molar were analyzed in comparison to human bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells. DPSC showed more developed and metabolically active cells. In addition the proliferation rate in vitro was much higher in DPSC compared to BMMSC. DPSC differentiated into adipogenic, osteogenic, and chondrogenic lineage. DPSC have intrinsic neuro-glia characteristics and verified by expression of neuronal genes and proteins. DPSC can also differentiate into both neural and vascular endothelial cells in vitro.
Yu J. et al. “Odontogenic capability: bone marrow stromal stem cells versus dental pulp stem cells”. (2007) Biol. Cell 99, 465-474.
STRO-1+ DPSC and bone marrow stromal stem cells were isolated from rat dental pulp and bone marrow by magnetic cell sorting. Odontogenic capacity was compared and DPSC showed more active odontogenic differentiation ability then BMSSC as shown by matrix mineralization, and expression of tooth specific proteins and genes. After 14 days renal capsules in rat host showed that DPSC/ABC pellets formed tooth shaped tissues whereas BMSSC/ABC developed into atypical dentin-pulp complexes without enamel formation.
Nakamura S. et al. “Stem cell proliferation pathways comparison between human exfoliated deciduous teeth and dental pulp stem cells by gene expression profile from promising dental pulp”. (2009) JOE 35,11.
Characterization of SHED compared to DPSC and BMMSC. The “stemness” proliferation rate and the expression of stem cell markers in addition to gene expression profiles were used to determine pathway differences. The proliferation rate of SHED was significantly higher than that of DPSC and BMMSC. Higher expression in SHED was observed for genes that participated in pathways related to cell proliferation and extracellular matrix.
Huang G. et al. “Mesenchymal stem cells derived from dental tissues vs. those from other sources: their biology and role in regenerative medicine”. (2009) J DENT RES 88:792. (Excellent review paper.)
To date 5 different human dental stem cells have been isolated and characterized dental pulp stem cells (DPSC), stem cells from exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHED), periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs), stem cells from apical papilla (SCAP), and dental follicle progenitor cells (DFPCs). Dental tissue derived stem cells have the ability to give rise to other cell lineages similar to, but different in potency from that of BMMSCs. Dental stem cell populations appear to be more committed to odontogenic rather than osteogenic development.
Due to shortcomings of obtaining the BMMSCs including pain, morbidity, and low cell number upon harvest, alternate sources of MSCs have been sought. Immature dental pulp stem cells (IDPSCs) have been traced in various tissue and organs of mice including liver, spleen, and kidney showing their potent differentiation plasticity.
Leong W. et al. “Human adult dental pulp stem cells enhance poststroke functional recovery through non-neural replacement mechanisms”. (2012) Stem Cells Trans Med. 1:177-187.
Human adult dental pulp stem cells are multipotent and have the capacity to differentiate into neurons both in vitro and in vivo. Intracerebral transplantation of DPSC into an avian embryo following cerebral ischemia had significant improvement of sensorimotor function. Functional improvement is likely due to DPSC dependent paracrine effects.
Hara K. et al. “Potential characteristics of stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth compared with bone-marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells for mineralized tissue-forming cell biology”. (2011) JOE. 37:12.
The characteristics of SHED by DNA microarray, real-time PCR, and immunoflurorescence analysis was shown. Multiple gene expression profiles show that expression of 2753 genes in SHED has changed > 2.0 fold as compared to that in BMMSCs. SHED is involved in BMP-4 pathway, this study might be useful for effective cell-based tissue regeneration, including bone, pulp, and dentin.
Sakai K. et al. “Human dental pulp-derived stem cells promote locomotor recovery after complete transection of the rat spinal cord by multiple neuro-regenerative mechanisms”.(2012). The Journal of Clinical Investigations. 122:1.
Transplantation of human dental pullp stem cells into completely transecdted adult rat spinal cord resulted in marked recovery of hind limb locomotor functions. Transplantation of human bone marrow stromal cells or skin-derived fibroblasts led to substantially less recovery of locomotor function. Data shows that DPSC exhibited three major neuroregenerative activity. Data shows that tooth-derived stem cells may provide therapeutic benefits for treating spinal cord injury.