March 12, 2013
Solidarity through Posters
Imagine that you are standing in the desert of a war-torn zone, and a tank is facing you with the guns pointing directly towards you. There is no way of fighting back against the tank, and the only thing that stands in the way of you and that weapon is a child throwing rocks, fighting for his land. This exact depiction can be found on several posters that have been produced internationally, sending chills down each viewer’s back. Worldwide, the Israeli-Palestinian conflict has been acknowledged by citizens from every country. While the conflict has many facets, as more of the suffering of the Palestinian people is uncovered, the more people around the world are outraged and the more they desire and need to help. This urgency to help has created several international movements from countries all around the world; mainly from the United States, Europe, Australia, and New Zealand. As these groups are formed, varying methods of supporting solidarity with the Palestinian people have been identified in many books and articles. Such actions include sending aid to Palestine or traveling to the area to participate in a non-violent protest against the Israeli occupation.
What has been drastically left out in scholarly writing on this has been the inclusion of posters, and art more generally speaking, in helping to create the solidarity movement. Posters are a valuable resource of solidarity and are unique in comparison to other methods. The Palestine Poster Project is a website that focuses on these posters and where a person can go and view thousands upon thousands of posters dating back to 1900. These works of art are a clever way to draw the attention of people walking by and to educate them about the Israeli-Palestine conflict, thereby adding to the international solidarity movement. The posters from varying countries use different methods, such as fear, powerful words, humor, crude language, and empathy to draw in attention. It is an art, and art is powerful. These posters should be seen as a source of solidarity for Palestinians in the Israeli-Palestine conflict.
While writing about the Israeli-Palestine conflict, it is hard to exclude the international movement and its attempts to help the Palestinians and their cause. Scholars have taken on the task of writing about the international solidarity movement, and the different tactics that are used to support this. Most Palestinians welcome the help, yet there are some who would rather have the United States and other countries, mainly European, stay out of the way and not create a mess of the situation.
Most scholars, in the United States especially, take the side of international help being a positive for Palestine. They also discuss the plethora of methods that the countries giving aid used to contribute assistance to Palestine and the people living there. One approach to giving international help was to create movements of interested and passionate people from the various countries. The biggest such movement was the ISM, or the International Solidarity Movement; a group of people, mainly students, from various countries who go into Palestine to try to give the residents there the support they need.1 Even without leaving their home countries, these people were able to provide some services. Supplies were sent via ships, planes, and helicopters to their destination to drop off the necessary goods to the inhabitants under occupation and a strict curfew. 2
Other writers emphasize that these international groups not only give their physical presence, but with that a sense of hope for the Palestinians. Knowing there are other people who are willing risk incarceration, beatings, and even death for the sake of the Palestinians means a great deal to the people who have to live through the occupation every single day of their lives. What is most emphasized throughout these writings about the conflict is the strong push to use non-violence. The scholars produce an almost Gandhi- or Martin Luther King Jr.-like kind of figure of the international movement and its support of non-violence in all aspects, even when met with violence from the opposition. It is a precarious situation for the Israeli soldiers who want to be successful in “winning” the conflict, but would encounter poor public relations if they killed the internationals. In that sense, the internationals also provide a sense of safety along with that of hope. 3
Another method of international involvement that the scholars touch upon is that of protests. This idea goes hand-in-hand with the non-violence concept in that the protests are generally boycotts or sit-ins. The protesters often encounter hostility and are hosed down and even shot at.4 With the internationals at their side, the Palestinians are able to stand strong and keep fighting.
Although many scholars and writers discuss the positive aspect of providing international aid to Palestine during the occupation, there are a few that talk about the drawbacks to using these methods. Some worry that aid from foreign countries will cause a dependency issue for Palestine, creating problems when those providing aid leave. Some Palestinians wish to provide their own support and relief so that when the other countries leave they will not be in total chaos, dependent upon outside help, which is no longer there. Money is a large issue that is brought up in these writings. Palestine needs to be able to create an economy of its own that can be reliant and dependent upon itself.5
Historically, there have been many instances in which a country is under distress and requires the help of other countries; Palestine while under the Israeli occupation is no exception. Scholars have written about the varying methods in which internationals have attempted to liberate the Palestinians, ranging from moral support to being there during non-violent protests. Although most scholars write about the positive outcomes of international help, there are those writers that believe Palestine would be better off if it handled this situation on its own.
Even though Palestine posters date back to 1900 and cover many topics, the time of my focus is during the second intifada; also known as the Al-Aqsa Intifada (Al-Aqsa is the name of a mosque in Jerusalem; Intifada translates to “uprising” in English). The second intifada began in 2000 with a Palestinian uprising against the Israeli occupation and lasted until about 2005; it was period of intensified violence between the two groups. Casualties amounted to approximately 3,000 Palestinians, 1,000 Israelis, and 64 foreigners.6 This uprising combined riots of the civilian population with military conflict between the Israelis and the Palestinian civilians. The Palestinians used mass protests and overall general strikes as their non-violent tactics. However, they also produced armed attacks on the Israeli soldiers, and also performed suicide bombings and assassinations. On the Israeli side of the conflict, the soldiers set up check points and enforced a strict curfew for the civilians. Their destruction was mainly targeted towards infrastructural attacks. 7
As news of these attacks spread throughout the global media, individuals and governments from various countries saw the need to intervene and attempt to help the Palestinians in their fight for freedom. People from the United States, several countries in Europe, Australia and New Zealand have dedicated their time to fighting the Israeli occupation from their home countries and in Palestine. Egypt, as an example, has offered itself on multiple occasions to be the meeting grounds for peace talks between the two and has acted as the mediator. These countries are trying to support peace between the two sides as much as they can. 8 The biggest message that these countries wish to send is one of non-violence. Stand up to the Israeli soldiers without matching their violent means. 9 The Israeli-Palestinian conflict is not the first struggle where internationals have tried to preach for nonviolent resistance. It is a long standing quest and shall continue on until it is achieved.10
Although most countries around the world support the Palestinians in their fight for freedom, it is primarily individuals and groups, not governments, who have been leading the way. However, that is now changing, as shown by the UN voting for a Palestinian statehood in 2012. 11 The United States has taken a lot of hits from supporters of Palestine. The US government has been continuously sending aid of several billion dollars each year to Israel in the form of direct aid, weapon shipments, and weapons contracts. Not only that, but the US government has also repeatedly vetoed United Nations Security Council resolutions that would hurt Israel, and it has pressured other countries to refrain from chastising Israel for its policies and actions. A slight action that was taken to gain back some popularity with the population of America was proposing a vague “Road Map to Peace” in April of 2003 in the midst of the second intifada. This proposal called for a Palestinian state and the dismantling of some Israeli settlements. However, it failed to effectively address Palestinian human rights, Israeli violence, and a large imbalance of power between two groups. None of the major issues that needed to be addressed were, and no peace could come about without those issues being brought up.12
With the United States government not doing much to help, individuals and groups decided to take it among themselves to try and bring peace through certain tactics. In order to make any real change, these groups needed to be able to gain some solidarity among their international bodies, and one form of creating that cohesiveness is through the use of art, specifically posters. Posters involving Palestine and its culture, language, country, etc., have been around for many years. While the Palestine poster dates back to 1900, the genre took off in the 1970s when a Peace Corps volunteer in Morocco named Dan Walsh started a large project, known as the Palestine Poster Project. The project involved collecting all posters that included any sort of Palestinian reference. This development turned into his thesis while at Georgetown University. In the description of his posters, Walsh followed certain guidelines in order to distinguish which ones were acceptable, and which ones were not exactly what he was looking for. Those guidelines were:
“Any poster with the word “Palestine” in it, in any language, from any source of time period;
Any poster created or published by any artist or agency claiming Palestinian nationality or Palestinian participation;
Any poster published by any source which relates directly to the social, cultural, political, military or economic history of Palestine; and/or
Any poster related to Zionism or anti-Zionism in any language, from any source, published after August 31, 1897.”13
This gives any person browsing through the Palestine Poster Project website a sense of direction and reasoning for why a poster that seems misplaced, or seems as though it does not belong, is included. By putting these posters on a website for everyone to see, it has helped gain popularity and caused interest levels to increase. People have become intrigued at looking at the thousands of posters and learning about the situation through a new medium. These posters do not just deal with the occupation or intifadas; however, several topics are included ranging from the occupation to women rights to just living on the actual land of Palestine. Multiple countries all around the world participate in producing these posters, and in fact, even more are created and developed today than ever before.14
The fact that people from several countries produce these posters in support of the liberation of Palestine is evidence that the use of art and posters is a valuable and unique way to create international solidarity. Art and iconography can be incredibly persuasive, even though the viewer might not be recognizing it at first. The incorporation of color, imagery, and the play on emotions all are cause for these posters to be considered persuasive in creating international solidarity. Different tactics play off of the emotions as they use fear, empathy, humor, and/or crude language. Any of these tactics catch the attention of a person walking by. More and more people start to notice the posters hanging around their town or city walls, and they gain knowledge about the issue in Palestine. That knowledge tends to lead to the need or desire to help out the situation. The issue would then gain salience throughout the country and the viewer would appeal to their government to take action. If people are more willing to help out the cause, they are then learning more about it. They would, therefore, spread more education about the topic to others, and what once started out as just a poster hanging on a wall turns into an entire planet wanting to help out a country in need of liberation. Never doubt the influence of art and posters on a group of people. Nina Baldwin, an artist of today that deals with mixed media and painting specifically in New Mexico, states that “Art is power. It can influence perception, opinion, and values. And the artist uses his paintbrush to focus on a moment in time…recording those things that touch the heart.”15
“Israel Targets Children”
Published in: United States
A tactic mentioned above about how a poster can gain attention and create solidarity is to play on the emotion of empathy and sympathy. There are several posters published during the second intifada from many countries that pose this idea. An example would be the poster published in the United States in 2000 titled “Israel Targets Children.”16 The title in itself already conjures up emotions of empathy, sadness, and outrage that anybody would ever target a child. The artist and producer are unknown, unfortunately. This poster captures a striking photograph of a young boy attempting to throw a rock at an Israeli tank heading right towards him. Perspective wise, this poster is very effective; it makes it seem as though the tank is heading right for the viewer, and targeting him/her as well. Not only that, but a child stands in the path of the tank and the viewer. The photograph already states a lot, but there is also text at the bottom that describes how that same boy was throwing rocks ten days after this picture was taken, was shot down by Israeli soldiers.
“David and Goliath”
Artist: Joe Sances
While looking at “Israel Targets Children” the viewer also gets the sense of a David versus Goliath feel; a big tank full of force and power against a child with rocks. Looking through the posters, there is an actual poster of that same picture with the words “David and Goliath” written in large and bold letters. “David and Goliath”17 is also the title of the poster. Self-published by the author himself, Joe Sances, who is the founder and art director of Alliance Graphics,18 takes the original poster and adds some of his own twists to it. If the viewer was not already thinking of David and Goliath, Sances’ bold title immediately gives the audience that impression. People of the world generally pull for the underdog in most situations, because they know that they are outnumbered and are being treated unfairly.
With the same image of the boy throwing rocks at a tank, Sances turns it into Palestine throwing rocks at America and our news stations. The boy’s shirt has turned into a Palestine flag, while “CNN,” “CBS,” and “NBC” are written across the tank. Although this might offend some Americans, as it looks as though we are being attacked, it also spreads knowledge that our media portrays the war very differently than the way it actually is. As the authors and editors of the book Live from Palestine stated, “…surrounded by a media that have proved the most resistant to publishing anything but the official Israeli government version of what is occurring in the occupied Palestinian territories, using the terminology provided by that government, without question.”19 The media does play a huge role in how Americans and other countries view the Israeli-Palestinian conflict. This poster, which was published in the United States, works to generate the knowledge that the media drastically exaggerates events in the Middle East, and that our country needs to pay closer attention and actually realize just who David and Goliath actually are.
“Stop the Killing”
Publisher: Amnesty International
Empathy for a situation not only grows when the classic David versus Goliath concept is portrayed, but also when pure bloodshed is displayed. On a third poster titled “Stop the Killing,”20 there is a list in red typing naming all of the Palestinians that were killed by Israeli action. Using the color red is an effective way of portraying the bloodshed and shows the aggressiveness of the situation. The main picture of the poster is a photograph of a young boy again with a school backpack on who is being aimed at by Israeli soldiers. “Stop the killing” is written at the bottom of the page in white. Amnesty International, the publisher of “Stop the Killing,” is a global movement of people coming together to fight against injustices in the world based in London. It is currently the world’s largest grassroots human rights organization and they have received a Nobel Peace Prize for their life-saving work.21
All of these images alone would attract attention, but the fact that they are intermingled with one another and do not distract one from the other makes it that much more noticeable. No one wants to see an innocent child up against a soldier that has a gun, nor do they want to see half a page filled up with lists of names of people that have been killed. Once again, this conjures up thoughts of David versus Goliath and how unfair of a fight the Palestinians are up against. These three posters are only a few from the large collection found online of the Palestine Poster Project that emulate empathy and sorrow.
These past three posters shown, all with children on them, represent a larger picture of what was going on in Palestine: children becoming a symbol of political use. Using the image of a child on posters and in the media was a tactic used by both the Palestinians and Israelis. Robbie Duschinsky stated it best in her article that a child “…is used to represent the persecuted nation, lending it a moral legitimacy in the face of criticism.”22 The exact picture that is used on “David Versus Goliath” and “Israel Targets Children” actually originated during the First Intifada (1987-1981).23 It was a symbol of hope; hope that the next generation would be more successful in repossessing their land back from Israel. This picture of a Palestinian child throwing rocks at an Israeli tank was used often because it showed to the world that there was a large inequality of power between Palestinians and Israelis while using symbolism for helplessness.
Throughout the early years of the Second Intifada, associating innocent children with victimhood was used frequently by individuals and the media. Both countries used them to present themselves as being vulnerable, innocent, and not possibly guilty of any moral crime. It appeals to the humanitarians that want to help out the children and, as a result, help Palestine overall. It calls for the world’s attention and lets everyone know that Palestine is suffering. Seeing the death of a child in a time when death and violence is common, makes the rest of the world see that the death of a child is a tragedy and an outrage.24
“Setting Aside Our Differences”
Artist: Alan Lipton, Kfir Alfia
Publisher: Protest Warrior
Although they might be the most effective, empathy and sadness are not the only ways to draw attention to a poster and to gain international support for a cause. Another way to draw in attention is by using humor or crude language. It may not attract as many followers, but there is a definite group of people that it would catch and, consequently, educate about the Israeli-Palestine conflict. One such poster that uses humor and crude language is “Setting Aside Our Differences.”25 Just by reading the title, one would not assume that this poster would fall in the humor category, however, the caption reads, “Setting aside our differences to focus on our common goals: peace, love, harmony, killing Jews, and tolerance.” On top of this caption is a drawing of a stereotypical hippie shaking the hands of a Neo-Nazi man.
“They Need to Stop Bitching”
Artist: Alan Lipton, Kfir Alfia
Publisher: Protest Warrior
The other poster that is very similar to this is titled “They Need to Stop Bitching.”26 This is by the same artists, and the viewer can tell that very easily from the layout. The caption on this second poster reads, “End the occupation from Iraq to Palestine.*” At the bottom the asterisk follows with, “*Does not include Tibet, Hong Kong, Lebanon or anyone else under Communist of Islamic subjugation. They need to stop bitching.” Each of those places listed are under similar occupational situations, but this poster indicates that they do not have it as bad as Palestine, with the “They need to stop bitching” line. The photographs that accompany this playful caption are in black and white and capture people at peace protests. Both of these posters are in black and white, and have very minimal artwork, but their use of language and humor draw people in nonetheless. If someone sees a Neo-Nazi on a poster, they are going to want to find out what the poster is all about since that is a delicate subject in this day and age. Although these are not the most brightly colored or artistic looking posters, one does not need color to be beautiful or effective. Black and white can be just as interesting, as well as effective in simplicity.
Alan Lipton and Kfir Alfia, the artists of these past two posters, are actually the founders and creators of the publishing company Protest Warrior. The two created Protest Warrior in 2003 as a conservative political activist group. The publishing company is known for their organization of counter-protests for the Iraq War. Their slogan, “Fighting the Left…Doing it Right,” is a clear indication of what they are about. The two men, it appears, are pro-war and use irony and satire to get their point across with their posters. As of 2007, however, the group appears to not be in business anymore.27
“The Occupation is Killing Us All”
Artist: Gene Fellner
Publisher: Not In My Name
Empathy and humor are both extremely effective in gaining attention from an audience and spreading education. Intense imagery along with fear and powerful language likewise plays an important role in the poster making process. One of the most powerful posters coming from the second intifada is titled “The Occupation Is Killing Us All” by Gene Fellner.28 Fellner has a degree in political science from Boston University. With a few posters on the Palestine Poster Project, Fellner also painted murals in Nicaragua during their revolution in the 1960s and 1970s.29 He was then able to transfer that creativity of a revolution into art for the Palestinians. If the colors do not grab someone’s attention right away, then the images and bizarre design of the poster most definitely will. Although the colors are not bright, they still contrast with one another to grab the attention of the viewer at first glance. The images are what really bring it together and what make it interesting. It has a very Picasso-like feel to it; it is very abstract. In some ways it almost looks like a child drew it, but the meaning behind those images and the way that they are put together tells the viewer that an adult with a mind set on freeing Palestine was the true creator of this poster. The iconography used is very symbolic. There are people looking frightened and running about, while Stars of David that are made to look like barbed wire are trapping them in the place they wish to get out of. Even the landscape that the people are running on seems to form its own form of the Star of David. There is a large eye in the corner of the picture looking over all of the chaos symbolizing the fact that the Israelis have such a hold over the Palestinians with their curfews at night and the random checkpoints. These are powerful images that would be hard to miss if one was walking down a street full of solidarity with Palestine posters.
Artist: Josina Manu
Publisher: Feygelech for a Free Palestine
Powerful images and words all do their part in creating an attractive poster to catch attention; bright colors and posters that have multiple languages would similarly attract attention. While “The Occupation Is Killing Us All,” uses intense iconography, “L’Chaim Intifada” uses the bright colors and multiple languages.30 With the use of three different languages and the colors of the Palestinian flag, it not only shows international solidarity, but also patriotism, meaning that the people of Palestine are fighting for themselves and believe that their county will succeed. It is important for a country to remain hopeful in itself. English, Hebrew, and Arabic are the three languages written on this poster in large, bold white letters in front of a red backdrop with green photograph of people and groups in the center. L’Chaim Intifada translates to “long live the intifada,” sending a powerful message. The print in English reads, “Where there is oppression may there thrive resistance.” This poster was created by Josina Manu, who is an anti-Zionist Jew who is very active in the Palestine Solidarity Movement and lives in Minneapolis, Minnesota.31 This gives the poster a richer background when one knows who the designer is and what he/she believes in.
These posters, with all of their unique ways of attracting attention, do more than just look good. There is the idea of “power of imagery.” The authors that have written about international solidarity, and the methods used to create and spread awareness of it, greatly overlooked the power of art and these posters. Elements of design include line, color, texture, shape, form, value and size.32 All of these elements work together and have been used in ways by the artist or designer to attract a large audience. One also needs to take into consideration balance, harmony, and contrast. One cannot make the posters too overwhelming so that the viewer gets dizzy looking at it, but also not too boring so that the viewer would just walk by it without even reading the information on it. Not only do these posters attract attention, but by doing so, they spread awareness of the Israeli-Palestinian conflict. If someone is walking down the street, and the buildings or fences are lined with poster upon poster, it is hard not to notice them. A person interested in helping causes and fighting for what is right will take notice, and then become a part of a group that helps the cause, such as the International Solidarity Movement. People join these aid groups and spread the word even more.33
Soon enough the cause gains salience, meaning that the conflict would become more popular and become prominent in the interests of the population. If it gains salience, then politicians have to take notice and realize that aiding the Israeli government is doing more harm than good. These posters and art creates the education that is needed in order for people to take notice and realize what exactly is happening in the Middle East. They no longer have to rely on the news and other media sources that exaggerate the issue and only share what will make the government look good. On March 20, 2013, there was a news article discussing President Barack Obama’s idea to extend United States aid to Israel to last through 2017.34 This is still a very current and present situation, and perhaps if more people took notice and gained the education, they could say something to the President or do something to gain his attention. Posters and art about the International Solidarity Movement and about the hardships that Palestinians go through on a daily basis will help the President see that his aid to the Israeli government is no longer seen as acceptable by the majority of the American people.
The Palestinian Poster Project helps spread awareness about the Israeli-Palestinian conflict, but help from Liberation Graphics, which is a similar site on the internet and works with the Palestine Poster Project, also helps the cause and spreads awareness, increasing solidarity. Their website, “Autonym/Synonym,” is “an online exhibit dedicated to opening a democratic discussion on the effects of this conflict has had on the language and art of the contemporary United States.” It is similar to the Palestinian Poster Project in that the founders collect posters dealing with the Israeli-Palestinian conflict, but differ in the fact that that is all they collect. Conversely, the Palestine Poster Project has collected all sorts of posters dealing with Palestine and Israel dating from decades ago and deals with all situations and people. 35 These two websites help to create a unique method in establishing international solidarity, and are reasons that art can be a useful and successful form of doing this.
Getting people together and informing them about international solidarity for Palestine is a difficult situation. Countries have shown their solidarity for Palestine and its inhabitants through sending aid in forms of money, food, and clothing; basically all of life’s necessities.36 These are all extremely important, but we cannot forget about the posters; they pose a unique and interesting aspect in showing international solidarity and support for Palestine. Art use in the form of posters is a fairly recent sensation. “Yet in the intervening thirty-five years, a heartbeat in terms of aesthetics and stylist maturation, it has emerged as the world’s only truly global political poster art genre.”37 For that fact alone, the posters should be considered a legitimate form of solidarity and should be written in accounts of the topic. The posters project not only thrived during the time of upheaval and chaos, it continues on today just as strong, if not stronger, and has continued onto the internet where anyone and everyone can view posters.
There are two distinct characteristics that make these art posters not only unique to the solidarity movement itself, but to the creation of posters overall. The first is that “artists from around the world continuously create posters in solidarity with Palestine, spontaneously and without direction or instruction.”38 The second unique aspect is “the Palestinians both as a people and as a liberation movement readily incorporate these internationally-generated graphics, symbols, pallets, styles, and interpretations of their revolution into their own visual culture.”39 No other form of showing solidarity sticks with a culture as much as creating and designing a piece of art for the cause. Food will be eaten, money will be spent, all of that aid will slowly disappear, volunteers come and go, but the posters will still remain long after the conflict has ended, whether it is on the internet or in the hands of the Palestinian people or any other person in the world trying to hang onto that solidarity.
Other forms of aid can almost be detrimental to the state of Palestine, increasing the need for posters to be included as a form of international solidarity. In an article written by Jeremy Wildeman, co-founder of Project Hope, he quoted Nadia Hijab in saying “Foreign aid to Palestine is desperately in need of rethinking. Wittingly or not, external aid facilitates Israel’s occupation, enables an inept Palestinian leadership to survive, and subverts much of Palestinian civil society. The extent of the dependency on aid means the Palestinian Authority (PA) must spend considerable energy begging for handouts from Arab governments, the European Union, and the United States.”40 While writing about international solidarity and help, one cannot forget about the posters and how art can spur the desire to help a country in need, whether it be using children as a symbol or red lettering to appear as blood, posters really do not do any harm, as some other forms of aid could potentially be. That is not to say that other forms of aid should be forgotten, just the fact that posters should be included amongst the other examples when scholars write about the various forms of international help and solidarity.
The problem faced here is that people tend to disregard posters as political, and write them off as propaganda, which tends to have a negative connotation. It is also difficult to show support for Palestine and against Israel in the United States and other countries because that can be turned into being anti-Semitic.41 What writers need to do is note that these posters are not mere propaganda, but an art and a form of help. Also, people of a nation should not be considered anti-Semitic when they choose to support Palestine over Israel. It is a thin line to tread across, but if done correctly, scholars would be able to inform the public of the posters and give them a positive connotation. In a Haaratz article, the author notes that, “Looking at the posters is like reading the diary of the Palestinian nationalist movement.”42 This indicates that people can have a positive reaction to the posters. The posters show an art and a way of life for the people living through the struggle; people just need to look at it in the right way, and if scholars write about the posters in a positive light, then that can be accomplished.
Through using pleasing aesthetics, color, shape, lines, etc., designers and makers of posters for international solidarity strive to attract a world-wide audience and spread education about the Israeli-Palestinian conflict. As more people learn about the horrors that are occurring in the area, they want to know more and help out the situation however they can. International groups have been set up around the world, including areas such as the United States, Europe, Australia, Egypt, and many more. These groups have helped in the form of sending aid to the Palestinian residents by giving money, food, clothing, and moral support. Volunteers and activists from all over the globe have ventured to the area to try and promote a non-violent counteract against the Israeli soldiers occupying Palestine. These methods are all forms of showing international solidarity and have all been written about by various historians and authors as ways of dealing with occupation and conflict between countries. What has been undeniably left out, however, is the use of posters and art as way to promote international solidarity. Posters are unique compared to the other methods, and should be looked at with a scholarly eye and taken into account when looking at the conflict as a whole. The Palestine Poster Project is the treasure cove of all posters dealing with Palestine and all its related topics, including the Israeli-Palestinian conflict. While looking at these thousands of posters online, a person can gain knowledge about the struggle and take action. These posters from numerous countries and artists use different tactics to gain the attention of a passerby on the street or browsing through the internet; they use empathy, humor and crude language, and fear and intense imagery. The posters are works of art and should be included when deciding what methods help promote international solidarity.
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