Practice test 47 3 practice test 48 8

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October 1991

Passage 1
Having no language, infants cannot be told what they need to learn. Yet by the age of three they will have mastered the basic structure of their native language and will be well on their way to communicative competence. Acquiring their language is a most impressive intellectual feat. Students of how children learn language generally agree that the most remarkable aspect of this feat is the rapid acquisition of grammar. Nevertheless, the ability of children to conform to grammatical rules is only slightly more wonderful than their ability to learn words. It has been reckoned that the average high school graduate in the United States has a reading vocabulary of 80. 000 words, which includes idiomatic expressions and proper names of people and places. This vocabulary must have been learned over a period of 16 years. From the figures, it can be calculated that the average child learns at a rate of about 13 new words per day. Clearly a learning process of great complexity goes on at a rapid rate in children.

1. What is the main subject of the passage.

(A) Language acquisition in children (B) Teaching languages to children

(C) How to memorize words (D) Communicating with infants
2. The word "feat" in line 5 is closest in meaning to which of the following?

(A) Experiment (B) Idea (C) Activity (D) Accomplishment

3. The word "reckoned' in line 7 is closest in meaning to which of the following?

(A) Suspected (B) Estimated (C) Proved (D) Said

4. In line 8, the word "which" refers to

(A) their ability (B) reading vocabulary

(C) idiomatic expression (D) learning process
5. According to the passage, what is impressive about the way children learn vocabulary.

(A) They learn words before they learn grammar

(B) They learn even very long words.

(C) They learn words very quickly.

(D) They learn the most words in high school.

Passage 2
The temperature of the Sun is over 5,000 degrees Fahrenheit at the surface. but it rises to perhaps more than 16 million degrees at the center. The Sun is so much hotter than the Earth that matter can exist only as a gas, except at the core. In the core of the Sun, the pressures are so great against the gases that, despite the high temperature. there may be a small solid

core. However, no one really knows, since the center of the Sun can never be directly observed.

Solar astronomers do know that the Sun is divided into five layers or zones. Starting at the outside and going down into the Sun, the zones are the corona, chromosphere, photosphere, convection zone, and finally the core. The first three zones are the regarded as the Sun's atmosphere. But since the Sun has no solid surface, it is hard to tell where the atmosphere ends and the main body of the Sun begins.
The Sun's outermost layer begins about 10,000 miles above the visible surface and can be seen during an eclipse such as the one in February 1979. At any goes outward for millions of miles. This is the only part of the Sun that other time, the corona can be seen only when special instruments are used on cameras and telescopes to shut out the glare of the Sun's rays.
The corona is a brilliant, pearly white, filmy light about as bright as the full Moon. Its beautiful rays are a sensational sight during an eclipse. The corona's rays flash out in a brilliant fan that has wispy spike-like rays near the Sun’s north and south poles. The corona is thickest at the sun's equator.
The corona rays are made up of gases streaming outward at tremendous speeds and reaching a temperature of more than 2 million degrees Fahrenheit. The rays of gas thin out as they reach the space around the planets. By the time the Sun's corona rays reach the Earth, they are weak and invisible.

1. Matter on the Sun can exist only in the form of gas because of the Sun' S

(A) size (B) age (C) location (D) temperature

2. With what topic is the second paragraph mainly concerned?

(A) How the Sun evolved (B) The structure of the Sun

(C) Why scientists study the Sun (D) The distance of the Sun from the planets
3. All of the following are parts of the Sun's atmosphere EXCEPT the

(A) corona (B) chromosphere (C) photosphere (D) core

4. According to the passage as the corona rays reach the planets, they become

(A) hotter (B) clearer (C) thinner (D) stronger

5. The paragraphs following the passage most likely discuss which of the following?

(A) The remaining layers of the Sun (B) The evolution of the Sun to its present form

(C) The eclipse of February 1979 (D) The scientists who study astronomy
6. Where in the passage does the author compare the light of the Sun’s outermost layer to that of another astronomical body?

(A) Lines 2-3 (B) Lines 9-10

(C) Line 16 (D) Lines 22-23

Passage 3

The agricultural revolution in the nineteenth century involved two things: the invention of labor-saving machinery and. the development of scientific agriculture. Labor - saying machinery, naturally appeared, first where labor was 8carce. "In Europe," said, Thomas Jefferson, the object is to make the most of: their land, labor being abundant;. here it, is to make the most of our labor, land being abundant. It was in America, therefore, that the great advances in nineteenth - century agricultural machinery first came.

At the opening of the century, with the exception of a crude plow farmers could have carried practically all of the existing agricultural implement on their backs; by 1860, most of the machinery in use today had been designed in an early form. The most important of the early inventions was the iron plow. As early as 1790 Charies Newbold of New Jersey had been working on the of a cast – iron plow and spent his entire fortune in introducing his invention. The farmers, however, would have none of it, claiming that the iron poisoned the soil and made the weeds grow. Nevertheless, many people devoted their attention to the plow, until in 1869 James Oliver of South Bend, Indiana, turned out the first chilled-steel plow.

1. What is the main topic of the passage?

(A) The need for agricultural advances to help feed a growing population

(B) The development of safer machines demanded by the labor movement

(C) Machinery that contributed to the agricultural revolution

(D) New Jersey as a leader in the agricultural revolution
2. The word "naturally" as used in line 3 is closest in meaning to which of the following?

(A) Gradually (B) Unsurprisingly (C) Apparently (D) Safely

3. The expression "make the most of" in line 4 is closest in meaning to which of the following?

(A) Get the best yield from (B) Raise the price of

(C) Exaggerate the worth of (D) Earn a living on
4. Which of the following can be inferred from what Thomas Jefferson said?

(A) Europe was changing more quickly than America.

(B) Europe had greater need of farm machinery than America did.

(C) America was finally running out of good farmland.

(D) There was a shortage of workers on American farms.
5. It can be inferred that the word "here' in line 4 refers to

(A) Europe (B) America (C) New Jersey (D) Indiana

6. What point is the author making by stating that farmers could carry nearly all their tools On their backs?

(A) Farmers had few tools before the agricultural revolution.

(B) Americans were traditionally self - reliant.

(C) Life on the farm was extremely difficult.

(D) New tools were designed to be portable.
7. Why did farmers reject Newbold's plow?

(A) Their horses were frightened by it. (B) They preferred lighter tools.

(C) It was too expensive. (D) They thought it would ruin the land.

Passage 4
Telecommuting – substituting the computer for the trip to the job – has been hailed as a solution to all kinds of problems related to office work. For workers it promises freedom from the office, less time wasted in traffic, and help with child - care conflicts. For management, telecommuting helps keep high performers on board, minimizes tardiness and absenteeism by eliminating commutes, allows periods of solitude for high –concentration task, and provides scheduling flexibility. In some areas, such as Southern California and Seattle, Washington, local governments are encouraging companies to start telecommuting programs in order to reduce rush - hour congestion and improve air quality. But these benefits do not come easily. Making a telecommuting program work requires careful planning and an understanding of the differences between telecommuting realities and popular images.
Many workers are seduced by rosy illusions of life as a telecommuter. A computer programmer from New York City moves to the tranquil Adirondack Mountains and stays in contact with her office via computer. A manager comes in to his Office three days 8 week and works at home the other two. An accountant stays home to care for child; she hooks up her telephone modem connections and does office work between calls to the doctor.
These are powerful images, but they are a limited reflection of reality. Telecommuting workers soon learn that it is almost impossible to concentrate on work and care for a young child at the same time. Before a certain age, young children cannot recognize. much less respect, the necessary boundaries between work and family. Additional child support is necessary if the parent is to get any work done.
Management, too, must separate the myth from the reality. Although the media has paid a great deal of attention to telecommuting. in most cases it is the employee's situation, not the availability of technology, that precipitates a telecommuting arrangement.
That is partly why, despite the widespread press coverage, the number of companies with work-at-home programs or policy guidelines remains small.

1. What is the main subject of the passage.

(A) Business management policies

(B) Driving to work

(C) Extending the workplace by means of commuters

(D) Commuters for child - care purposes
2. Which of the following is NOT mentioned as a problem for office employees9.

(A) Being restricted to the office (B) Incurring expenses for lunches and clothing

(C) Taking care of sick children (D) Driving in heavy traffic
3. Which of the following is NOT mentioned as a problem for employers that is potentially solved by telecommuting?

(A) Employees' lateness for work

(B) Employees' absence from work

(C) Employees' need for time alone to work intensively

(D) Employee's' conflicts with second jobs
4. Which of the following does the author mention as a possible disadvantage of telecommuting?

(A) Small children cannot understand the boundaries of work and play.

(B) Computer technology is not advanced enough to accommodate the needs of every situation.

(C) Electrical malfunctions can destroy a project.

(D) The worker often does not have all the needed resources at home.
5. Which of the following is an example of telecommuting as described in the passage?

(A) A scientist in a laboratory developing plans for a space station

(B) A technical writer sending via computer documents created at home

(C) A computer technician repairing an office computer network

(D) A teacher directing computer-assisted learning in a private school

Passage 5
Camen Lomas Garza's eloquent etchings, lithographs, and gouache paintings depict primal images of the rural environment and communal cultural experience of Mexican descended people in the United States. In an introspective and personal language, she describes the customs, traditions, and way of life of her Texan - Mexican heritage.
By 1972, Lomas Garza had evolved her distinctive monitos, paintings of stylized figures in culturally specific social environments. She transposes images and scenes from her past, combining cultural documentation with invention in an interplay of fact and fiction. Through selection. emphasis, and creation, these monitos delineate facets of experience, expressing deeper truths.
Oral tradition is a mainstay of Chicano culture. In both urban and rural communities, a rich and varied repertoire of ballads, tales, and poetic forms is preserved in memory-and passed from generation to generation. Lomas Garza's monitos function as an oral tradition in visual form. Her unique art of storytelling employs iconographic elements to create a concentrated narration. Visual episodes within an unfolding epic tale of cultural regeneration, the monitos keep alive the customs and daily practices that give meaning and coherence to Chicano identity. Their basic aim is to delight and instruct. For those outside Chicano culture, the precise and minutely detailed monitos provide a glimpse into the rich and vibrant lifestyle of the largest Spanish speaking cultural group within United States society.
Although her art has an innocent earnestness and folkloric affinity. Lomas Garza's expression is neither naive nor instinctive. The artist is highly trained academically, but has chosen to remain independent of dominant artistic trends in order to work toward a private aesthetic response to social concerns. While her work does not posit an overt political statement. it originates from a desire to respond to the contemporary situation of Mexican Americans by expressing positive images of their culture.

1. What does the passage mainly discuss?

(A) Cultural aspects of Carmen Lomas Garza's work

(B) Carmen Lomas Garza's artistic training

(C) Political aspects of Carmen Lomas Garza's work

(D) Critical reviews of Carmen Lomas Garza's work
2. What does the passage say about the oral tradition in Chicano culture?

(A) It is very important. (B) It is no longer relevant.

(C) It is being replaced by the written word. (D) It is primarily rural.
3. The writer compares Lomas Garza's visual works to

(A) customs (B) facts and fiction

(C) storytelling (D) artistic trends
4. The author refers to Carmen Lomas Garza's work as all of the following EXCEPT

(A) instructive (B) precise (C) detailed (D) naive

5. The word "Their" in line 16 refers to which of the following?

(A) Elements (B) Monitos (C) Customs (D) Practices

6. Where' in the passage does the author discuss the effect of Garza's work on non-Chicanos?

(A) Lines 1-3 (B) Lines 10-12

(C) Lines 16-19 (D) Lines 21-23
7. What can be inferred from the passage about Carmen Lomas Garza's art training?

(A) She pursued conventional academic art studies.

(B) She was self-taught.

(C) She learned by copying dominant artistic trends.

(D) She learned by copying folk artists.

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