Physiological and reproductional aspects of animal production ferenc Husvéth physiological and reproductional aspects of animal production



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PHYSIOLOGICAL and REPRODUCTIONAL ASPECTS OF ANIMAL PRODUCTION

Ferenc Husvéth

PHYSIOLOGICAL and REPRODUCTIONAL ASPECTS OF ANIMAL PRODUCTION

Ferenc Husvéth

Publication date 2011
Table of Contents

Cover Error: Reference source not found

1. NEUROENDOCRINE ADAPTATIONS IN DOMESTIC ANIMALS Error: Reference source not found

1. Hypothalamo-pituitary axis Error: Reference source not found

2. Hormones of the anterior pituitary Error: Reference source not found

3. Posterior pituitary and its hormones Error: Reference source not found

4. Thyroid as the endocrine gland for control of animal production and adaptation for cold environmental conditions Error: Reference source not found

5. Adrenal gland as the organ important in adaptation to stress and maintain homeostasis Error: Reference source not found

6. Pineal gland as the organ of the control of diurnal rhythm Error: Reference source not found

7. Leptin Error: Reference source not found

8. Self evaluation questions Error: Reference source not found

2. COMPARATIVE STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION OF THE GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT OF ANIMALS Error: Reference source not found

1. Self evaluation questions Error: Reference source not found

3. DIGESTION IN MONOGASTRIC MAMMALS Error: Reference source not found

1. Regulation of feed intake Error: Reference source not found

2. Role of the salivary glands Error: Reference source not found

3. Digestion in the monogastric stomach Error: Reference source not found

4. Physiology of the small intestine, exocrine pancreas and liver Error: Reference source not found

5. Digestive processes in the large intestine Error: Reference source not found

6. Defecation Error: Reference source not found

7. Self evaluation questions Error: Reference source not found

4. DIGESTION IN THE RUMINANT STOMACH Error: Reference source not found

1. Development of the ruminant stomach Error: Reference source not found

2. Microbial digestion in the forestomachs of ruminants Error: Reference source not found

3. Gases Error: Reference source not found

4. Forestomach motility Error: Reference source not found

5. Abomasal function Error: Reference source not found

6. Self evaluation questions Error: Reference source not found

5. PHYSIOLOGY OF AVIAN DIGESTION Error: Reference source not found

1. Anatomy of the alimentary canal Error: Reference source not found

2. Regulation of food intake Error: Reference source not found

3. Secretion and digestion Error: Reference source not found

4. Gastrointestinal cycle Error: Reference source not found

5. Rate of passage Error: Reference source not found

6. Self evaluation questions Error: Reference source not found

6. GASTROINTESTINAL ABSORPTION AND INTERMEDIARY METABOLISM OF CARBOHYDRATES Error: Reference source not found

1. Absorption in the small intestine Error: Reference source not found

2. Absorption and metabolism of carbohydrates Error: Reference source not found

3. Self evaluation questions Error: Reference source not found

7. INTESTINAL ABSORPTION AND INTERMEDIARY METABOLISM OF PROTEINS Error: Reference source not found

1. Absorption in the small intestine Error: Reference source not found

2. Protein metabolism Error: Reference source not found

3. Self evaluation questions Error: Reference source not found

8. INTESTINAL ABSORPTION AND INTERMEDIARY METABOLISM OF FATS Error: Reference source not found

1. Absorption of lipids Error: Reference source not found

2. Transport of lipids via the circulatory system Error: Reference source not found

3. Lipid metabolism Error: Reference source not found

4. Self evaluation questions Error: Reference source not found

9. GASTRIC ABSORPTION AND INTERMEDIARY METABOLISM OF SHORT CHAIN (VOLATILE) FATTY ACIDS AND AMMONIA IN RUMINANTS Error: Reference source not found

1. Absorptive surface of the forestomachs in ruminants Error: Reference source not found

2. Short chain fatty acids Error: Reference source not found

3. Ammonia Error: Reference source not found

4. Relationships between short chain fatty acids and glucose in ruminants Error: Reference source not found

5. Hypoglycemyc ketosis Error: Reference source not found

6. Self evaluation questions Error: Reference source not found

10. CONTROL AND MAND MANIPULATION OF ANIMAL GROWTH Error: Reference source not found

1. Growth hormone and growth in meat producing animals Error: Reference source not found

2. Self evaluation questions Error: Reference source not found

11. REGULATION OF REPRODUCTION IN MALE MAMMALS Error: Reference source not found

1. Endocrine control Error: Reference source not found

2. Spermatogenesis Error: Reference source not found

3. Release of spermatozoa into the lumen of seminiferous tubules Error: Reference source not found

4. Daily sperm production Error: Reference source not found

5. Testicular size Error: Reference source not found

6. Spermatozoal viability Error: Reference source not found

7. Ejaculation Error: Reference source not found

8. Reproductive behaviour Error: Reference source not found

9. Role of olfactory and vomeronasal system in reproductive behaviour Error: Reference source not found

10. Self evaluation questions Error: Reference source not found

12. REGULATION OF REPRODUCTION IN FEMALE MAMMALS Error: Reference source not found

1. Reproductive cyclicity Error: Reference source not found

2. Phases of the estrous cycle Error: Reference source not found

3. Hormonal control and follicular development Error: Reference source not found

4. Ovulation Error: Reference source not found

5. Corpus luteum Error: Reference source not found

6. PREGNANCY Error: Reference source not found

7. Fertilization Error: Reference source not found

8. Implantation and placentation Error: Reference source not found

9. Hormones of pregnancy Error: Reference source not found

10. Pregnancy diagnosis Error: Reference source not found

11. Self evaluation questions Error: Reference source not found

13. REPRODUCTION IN BIRDS (PHYSIOLOGY OF EGG PRODUCTION) Error: Reference source not found

1. Female reproductive system Error: Reference source not found

2. Egg formation and oviposition Error: Reference source not found

3. Reproduction and Photoperiods Error: Reference source not found

4. Self evaluation questions Error: Reference source not found

14. MAMMARY GLAND AND LACTATION Error: Reference source not found

1. Functional anatomy of the mammary gland Error: Reference source not found

2. PHYSIOLOGY OF LACTATION Error: Reference source not found

3. Lactation performance Error: Reference source not found

4. Composition of milk Error: Reference source not found

5. Milk secretion Error: Reference source not found

6. Milk ejection or let down Error: Reference source not found

7. Colostrum Error: Reference source not found

8. Self evaluation questions Error: Reference source not found

15. REFERENCES Error: Reference source not found


List of Figures

1.1. Fig. 1.1. The connections between the hypothalamus and hypophysis (Husveth, 2000). A: Neurosecretory products from hypothalamic nuclei are transported to the hypophysis and from there transferred to the general circulation. B: Neurosecretory products are transported from axons of hypothalamic neurosecretory cells to the adenohypophysis via a portal circulation. (1) Optic chiasma, (2) hypothalamic nuclei, (3) hypophysial stalk, (4) neurohypophysis, (5) adenohypophysis. Error: Reference source not found

1.2. Figure 1.2.: Thyroid gland of domestic animals; A) horse, B) cattle, C) pork, D) dog (Fehér, 1980) Error: Reference source not found

1.3. Figure 1.3.: Thyroid hormone response to TRH. Lactating cows were injected with TRH (25µg/100 kg body weight) and blood collected to monitor changes in T3 and T4. Secretion of both hormones was reduced in winter (Perera et al., 1985). Error: Reference source not found

1.4. Figur1.5..: Cross section of the adrenal gland from the horse Error: Reference source not found

1.5. Figure 1.6.: Concentrations (µg/ml) of adrenaline and noradrenalin in a racing horse (Marlin and Nankervis (2008) Error: Reference source not found

1.6. Figure 1.7.: Processes of stress reaction in animals Error: Reference source not found

2.1. Figure 2.1.: Gastro-intestinal tract of two carnivores.(Reece, 2004) Error: Reference source not found

2.2. Figure 2.2.: Gastro-intestinal length of the sheep and horse (Reece, 2004). Error: Reference source not found

3.1. Fig. 3.1.: Different glandular regions in the gastric mucosa in the pig. Error: Reference source not found

3.2. Figure 3.2.: Gastric glands. The histological section of a gastric gland shows the gastric pit, the entrance to the gastric gland. Within the gland area neck cells that secret, mucous, parietal cells that secrete HCl, chief cells that secrete pepsinogen, and enteroendocrine cells that secrete hormone. G cells, which secrete gastrin, are an example of enteroendocrine cells. Once released into the stomach, pepsinogen is converted to pepsin by the action of HCl and pepsin. (Akers and Denbow, 2008). Error: Reference source not found

3.3. Figure 3.3.: Cephalic phase of gastric secretion in non-ruminants. Acquired (conditioned) and natural (innate) oral stimuli acting during the” vagally” dependant phase (Ruckebusch et al., 1991) Error: Reference source not found

3.4. Figure 3.4.: Gastric phase of gastric juice secretion in non-ruminants. Distension of the stomach and ingesta directly stimulate cholinergic-mediated receptors in the oxyntic and pyloric areas and also include a” vagovagal” reflex. These short and long reflexes increase the output of gastrin by G cells, which reinforces the stimulation of the oxyntic cells. Histamine and acetylcholine share the same effect. Ruckebusch, et al., 1991) Error: Reference source not found

3.5. Figure 3.5.: Intestinal phase of gastric secretion in non-ruminants. Stimulation of oxyntic cells by gastrin and peptic cells by secretin, both from the duodenum. Inhibition of gastrin effect is brought by other endocrines (GIP, CCK, secretin) and by excessive acidity or osmolality of the chime emptied into the duodenum. (Ruckebusch et al., 1991) Error: Reference source not found

3.6. Figure 3.6.: Acinar cells of the pancreaton secrete enzymes, zymogens, and electrolytes. Proximal ductule cells produce most of the bicarbonate. At low secretion rates, bicarbonate is exchanged for chloride in the distal duct cells. (Ruckebusch, 1991) Error: Reference source not found

3.7. Figure 3.7.: Neural and hormonal events during intestinal phase of exocrine pancreatic secretion (Ruckebusch, 1991). Error: Reference source not found

4.1. Figure 4.1.: A schematic diagram of a ruminant stomach, viewed from the right side. 1) Dorsal sac of the rumen, 2) ventral sac of the rumen, 3) reticulum, 4) omasum, 5) abomasums, 6) esophagus, 7)ruminoreticular fold, 8) cranial sac of the rumen, 9) right accessory longitudinal groove, 10) longitudinal groove, 11) islet on the right longitudinal fold, 12) caudodorsal blind sac, 13) caudoventral blind sac, 14) incision (border) between cranial and caudal blind sacs, 15)dorsal-, and 16) ventral coronary pillar, 17) greater-, and 18) lesser curvature of abomasums, 19) pyloric region. Error: Reference source not found

4.2. Figure 4.2.: Mucosa layer in the rumino-reticulum in calfs. A) fed only on milk, B ) grazing calf. Error: Reference source not found

4.3. Figure 4.3.: Scanning electron micrograph of Diplodinium anisacanthum protozoa with attached bacteria (Ogimoto and Imai, 1981). (Rumen is essentially an open ecosystem with great diversity of microbes) Error: Reference source not found

4.4. Figure 4.4.: Complex food web of diverse bacterial species involved in carbohydrate fermentation. H: an electron plus a proton or electrons from reduced-pyridine nucleotides; A: carbohydrate-fermenting species; B: methanogen species; C: lactate-fermenting species, which often also ferment carbohydrates (Reece et al., 2004). Error: Reference source not found

4.5. Figure 4.5.: Transformation of nitrogenous substances in the rumen. Ammonia is produced during the microbial metabolism of diverse substrates and is a major source of the nitrogen used for the biosynthesis of microbial proteins. Error: Reference source not found

5.1. Figure 5.1.: Stomach and intestinal canal of the fowl and pigeon. a., oesophagus; b., proventriculus; c., gizzard; d. and d’., descending and ascending limbs of the duodenum; e., jejunum with the supraduodenal loop;(e’), e”., Meckels diverticulum; f., ileum; g., and g’., left and right caeca; g”., cervical part, g’’’., main part and gIV., tip of the caecum; h., colon; i., cloaca; i’. anus; k., oviduct; l., ureter; m., spleen; n., dorsal and n’., ventral lobes and n’’., splenic lobe of the pancreas. 1., left and 1’. right ductus hepatoentericus (pigeon); 1’’., ductus hepatoentericus and 1’’’., ductus cysticoentericus (fowl); 2., ventral pancreatic ducts; 2’., dorsal pancreatic duct; 3., lig. Error: Reference source not found

5.2. Figure 5.2.: Transverse section through proventriculus showing surface epithelium and glandular alveoli (Bell and Freeman, 1971) Error: Reference source not found

5.3. Figure 5.3.: Average acid output and concentration in gastric secretion collected from control and histamine stimulated conscious chickens. (Long , 1967) Error: Reference source not found

6.1. Figure 6.1.: Schematic structure of the intestinal wall with the absorptive surface (villi). Ruckebusch (1991) Error: Reference source not found

6.2. Figure 6.2.: Cumulative Percentage of Glucose and Starch Disappearance from the Intestine of 7-week-old Chicks. Glucose absorption from glucose monohydrate as the sole dietary carbohydrate source (o), starch digestion (∆), and absorption (●) in chicks fed starch as the sole carbohydrate source (Whittow, 2000). Error: Reference source not found

7.1. Fig 7.1. General mechanism for macromolecules uptake and transport by the intestine (Reece, 2004) Error: Reference source not found

7.2. Fig. 7.2. Total amount of microbial protein (MP bacteria) synthesized in the rumen expressed as the % of the requirement for milk production Error: Reference source not found

7.3. Fig 7.3. When sheep are artificially nourishes (A): by intraabomasal infusion of enriched casein (BV=1.0), urinary nitrogen excretion is almost constant regardless of the quantity of protein administered; and by (B): intraabomasal infusion of gelatine (BV=0.07), urinary nitrogen excretion increases with the quantity of protein administered. Error: Reference source not found

8.1. Fig. 8.1. A scheme for intraluminal micelle formation and fat and bile salts Error: Reference source not found

8.2. Fig. 8.2. Molecular structure of chylomicron (Lehninger et al, 2000). Error: Reference source not found

8.3. Fig.8.3. A scheme for the uptake of triglycerides from plasma chylomicrons and very-low-density lipoproteins by adipose tissue; FFA=free fatty acids; VLDL TG=very-low-density lipoprotein triglycerides; ECF=extracellular fluid (Johnson and Davenport, 1971) Error: Reference source not found

8.4. Figure 8.4:. Slices of liver showing fatty accumulation (fatty liver) in a dairy cow; (A) macroscopic (B) microscopic histology (showing large lipid vacuoles) Error: Reference source not found

9.1. Figure 9.1.: Absorptive surface for short chain fatty acids (SCFA) in the rumen Error: Reference source not found

9.2. Figure 9.2:. Absorption of acetate through the rumen wall and its effect on CO2 és HCO3- concentrations in rumen content Error: Reference source not found

9.3. Figure 9.3.: Structural formula and physical properties of lactic acid (MP=melting point, BP=boiling point, DST=density) Error: Reference source not found

9.4. Figure 9. 4. Major metabolic pathways in the ruminant liver (Reece, 2009) Error: Reference source not found

9.5. Figure 9.5.: Synthesis of the common ketone bodies (acetoacetate, β-hydroxybutyrate, acetone); Reece (2004) Error: Reference source not found

10.1. Figure 10.1.: Hypophysectomy in twin calves at age d 21(Kemény, 1974). Error: Reference source not found

10.2. Figure 10.2.: The amino acid sequence of bovine growth hormone (Wallis, 1978). Error: Reference source not found

10.3. Figure 10.3.: The plasma GH profile of four young intact rams. Secretory episodes are seen in each profile (Davis et al., 1977) Error: Reference source not found

10.4. Figure 10.4.: Live weight gains in lambs immunized against somatostatin (SRIF) (Spencer, 1986). Error: Reference source not found

10.5. Figure 10.5.: Mean serum GH response of three lambs (45 kg) administered ovine GRF-44 by intravenous injection in various doses.● ,saline; , 0.0625 µg/kg; , 0.125µg/kg;, 0.25µg/kg;, 0.5 µg/kg;, 1.0 µg/kg (Buttery et al., 1986). Error: Reference source not found

10.6. Figure 10.6.: Construction of a recombined DNA-derived human growth hormone (Goeddel et al, 1979). Error: Reference source not found

10.7. Figure 10.7.: Enhancement of bovine GH activity in dwarf mice by site directed antiserum. The growth response of hypopituitary dwarf mice to injected GH is associated with incorporation of 35-S labelled sulphate into costal cartilage (Aston et al., 1991). Error: Reference source not found

10.8. Figure 10.8.: Enhancement of total carcass protein in lambs following passive and active vaccination against region 134-154 of GH (STH); Astonet al.(1991). Error: Reference source not found

10.9. Figure 10.9.:The somatomedin hypothesis. Relationships between secretion of pituitary GH and liver IGF-I are illustrated by the solid black arrows. Dashed red arrows indicate direct effects of GH, significance of local tissue production of IGF-I, and the role of IGF-I-binding proteins (IGFBP’s) to control biological activity of IGF-I. Error: Reference source not found

10.10. Figure 10.10.: Effect of insulin and insulin-like growth factor (IGF) on protein synthesis in ovine embryonic myotub (structural compound of muscles) cultures; Hembree et al.(1991). Error: Reference source not found

11.1. Figure 11.1: Relationships between GnRH, LH and FSH in Male (Senger, 2003). GnRH causes the release of LH and FSH. Episodes of all three hormones occur between 4 and 8 times in 24 hours. The lower FSH profile, when compared to LH, is due to inhibin secretion by Sertoli cells. Also, the greater duration of the FSH episode is probably due to its longer half-life (100 min) when compared to LH (30 min). Error: Reference source not found

11.2. Figure 11.2: Scanning electron micrograph of testicular parenchyma in stallion. Senger (2003). Seminiferous tubules (ST) containing developing germ cells (GS) are surrounded by basal membrane (BM). Flagella (F) from developing spermatids can be observed protruding into the lumen of some tubules. The interstitial compartment contains Leydig cells (LC), blood vessels (BV) and connective tissue (CT). Error: Reference source not found

11.3. Figure 11.3: Interrelationships among hormones produced by Sertoli cells, Leydig cells, the hypothalamus and anterior lobe of pituitary. T = testosterone, E2 = estrogen, DHT = dihydrotestosterone (Senger, 2003). Error: Reference source not found

11.4. Figure 11.4: Comparison of the spermatozoa of farm animals and other vertebrates (Frandson et al., 2009) Error: Reference source not found

11.5. Figure 11.5: Associations of developing germ cells that represent various stages of the cycle of the seminiferous epithelium (‘gonia=spermatogonium, 1º cyte=primary spermatocyta, 2ºcyte=secondary spermatocyte, ‘Tid=immature spermatid, ‘Tid-m=mature spermatid). At any given cross-sectioned location along a seminiferous tubulus, one can observe different stages of the cycle of the seminiferous epithelium. In this example we can see three stages (I, IV, and VIII); (Senger, 2003). Error: Reference source not found

11.6. Figure 11.6.: The cycle of seminiferous epithelium is analogue to a university (Senger, 2003). Error: Reference source not found

11.7. Figure 11.7: Characteristics of copulation, site of seminal deposition and number of ejaculations to satiation and exhaustion in the ram, bull, stallion and boar (Senger, 2003). Error: Reference source not found

11.8. Figure1.8. : Flehmen response in the stallion and bull and the vomeronasal pathway (Senger. 2003) Error: Reference source not found

12.1. Figure 12.1.: Types of estrous cycles as reflected by annual estradiol E2 profiles (Senger, 2003). Error: Reference source not found

12.2. Fig 12.2.: Stages of estrous cycle (E2: estradiol); Senger (2003) Error: Reference source not found

12.3. Figure 12.3: Development of an ovarian follicle from its primordial form to a Graafian follicle (Reece, 2009) Error: Reference source not found

12.4. Figure 12.4.: Hormone patterns during estrus in mare McKinnon et al. (2011) Error: Reference source not found

12.5. Fig. 12.5:. Rrelationships between the hypothalamus, the pituitary, and the ovary during the follicular phase (Senger, 2003). AL=Anterior Lobe, E2=Estradiol, OC= Optic Ciasma, PL=posterior Lobe Error: Reference source not found

12.6. Figure 12.6: GnRH release from the hypothalamic and surge centre (Senger, 2003) Error: Reference source not found

12.7. Figure 12.7.: The “two cell,2- gonadrothropin model” (Senger 2003). Arrows indicate the stimulatory effects of E2 on physiological functions Error: Reference source not found

12.8. Figure 12.8.: Ovary of sow with mature tertiary follicles just before ovulation (Frandson et al.,2009). a) follicle just before ovulation; b) a site where a follicle has just ovulated; g) a surface vessel. Error: Reference source not found

12.9. Figure 12.9.: Preovulatory LH surge in the blood. Error: Reference source not found

12.10. Figure 12.10.: Functional corpus luteum. The corpus luteum is now a mixture of large luteal cells,LLC (formerly granulosal cells) and many small luteal cells, SCL (formerly thecal cells). In some cases, there is a remnant of the follicular antrum that forms a small cavity in the centre of the corpus luteum. (Senger 2003) Error: Reference source not found

12.11. Figure 12.11.: Typical concentrations of progesterone in the systemic circulation of mares during the estrous cycle and early pregnancy. Black bar represents estrus.(McKinnon et al., 2011) Error: Reference source not found

12.12. Figure 12.12.: Major sequence of events following deposition of spermatozoa in female tract. UTJ=uterotubular junction (Senger, 2003) Error: Reference source not found

12.13. Figure 12.13.: Conceptual version of mammalian capacitation (Senger, 2003) Error: Reference source not found

12.14. Figure 12.14.: Sequence of events from initial binding of spermatozoon to zona pellucida to fusion between plasma membranes of spermatozoon and oocyte: A, spermatozoa arrive at site of fertilization; B, initial binding of spermatozoon to zona pellucida; C, acrosome reaction; D and E, penetration of zona pellucida; F, fusion of plasma membrane of spermatozoon and oocytes; G, the cumulus matrix.(Frandson et al., 2009) Error: Reference source not found

12.15. Figure 12.15.: Schematic illustration of preattachment embryo development (Senger, 2003). Error: Reference source not found

12.16. Figure 12.16.: Transuterine migration of the equine conceptus (embryo). Each black sphere represents a “stopping spot” in which the conceptus will spend between 5 and 20 minutes. The migration of the conceptus probably distributes pregnancy factors (white lines) over a wide surface of the endometrium; (Senger, 2003). Error: Reference source not found

12.17. Figure 12.17.: Equine fetus in the placenta. The chorioallantois is the outer allantois plus the chorion. The chorion is associated intimately with the endometrium. The inner allantois is fused with the amnion. (Frandson et al., 2009) Error: Reference source not found

12.18. Figure 12.18.: Epitheliochorial type of placenta (sow, mare, ewe, and cow). 1. Endometrial capillary; 2. endometrial interstitium; 3. chorionic epithelium; 4. chorionic interstitium; 5. chorionic capillary (Senger, 2003). Error: Reference source not found

12.19. Figure 12.19.: Placental types classified by distribution of sites of exchange. A) Diffuse placenta. B) Cotyledonary placenta, C) Zonary placenta. D) Discoid placenta. (Frandson et al., 2009). Error: Reference source not found

12.20. Figure 12.20.: Placental attachment of cow, ewe, and mare. Villi from chorioallantois (black) invaginates into crypts in maternal uterine epithelium (stippled) in caruncles in the cow and the ewe and in diffuse locations in the mare (Frandson et al,2009). Error: Reference source not found

12.21. Figure 12.21.: Luteal progesterone output during the first half of gestation in the mare. CL=corpus luteum, P4=progesterone, eCG=equine chorionic gonadotropin (Senger, 2003). Error: Reference source not found

12.22. Figure 12.22.: Production of equine chorion gonadropin (eCG). Production is closely related to the weight of the endometrial cups. (Senger 2003). Endometrial cups (EC) are seen here in a U-shaped configurtion. The fetus (F) is surrounded by the amnion (not visible). The membrane indicated by arrows is the allantochorion. This specimen was removed from a mare at 50 days of gestation). Error: Reference source not found

13.1. Figure 13.1.: Structures of female chicken reproductive tract (Akers and Denbow, 2008). The ovary with multiple oocytes in various stages of development is apparent. After ovulation, the egg progresses through segments of the oviduct, infundibulum, magnum, and isthmus. In this illustration, a mature egg after albumin deposition (soft egg), but before shell formation, is shown. The mature egg is subsequently laid after passage into the cloaca Error: Reference source not found

13.2. Figure 13.2.: Plasma concentrations of progesterone, testosterone, and luteinizing hormone (LH) relative to time of ovulation. Mean ± error for six ovulations from five hens. Reece et al. (2004) Error: Reference source not found

13.3. Figure 13.3.: Diagram of a hen’s egg (Nickel et al., 1997) a-e) sphere of yolk; a)double layered yolk membrane; b) germinal disc; c) latebra; d) yellow yolk; e) white yolk; f) chalaza;g-i)egg albumen; g) inner, less viscous layer; k) double-layered shell membrane; l) air cell (chamber); m) calcium shell with pores and cuticula. Error: Reference source not found

13.4. Figure 13.4.: The role of light in avian reproduction (Etches, 1993) Error: Reference source not found

14.1. Figure 14.1.: Diversity in anatomic position, number and teat morphology among mammals (Singer (2003) Error: Reference source not found

14.2. Figure 14.2.: Duct system of the bovine mammary gland: 1.,: lobule; 2., intralobular duct; 2’., interlobular duct; 3., lactiferous ducts of various diameter; 4., lactiferous sinus; 5., gland sinus; 6., teat sinus; 7., papillary duct; 8., teat sphincter; 9., teat orifice; 10., parenchyma of gland; 11., skin. Dyce et al. (1996). Error: Reference source not found

14.3. Figure 14.3.: Transverse section of the pelvic floor and caudal quarters of the cow’s udder 1., Pelvic symphysis; 2., symphysial tendon; 3., lateral suspensory laminae; 4., mammary lymph node; 5. medial suspensory laminae; 6., branch of external pudendal vein. Dyce (1996) Error: Reference source not found

14.4. Figure 14.4.: An alveolus surrounded by blood vessels and myoepithelial cells in the mammary gland (Reece, 2004). Error: Reference source not found

14.5. Figure 14.5.: Blood circulation to and from the udder. RA=right atrium; LV=left ventricle; CA= caudal aorta; CVC=caudal vena cava; EIV=external iliac vein; EIA=external iliac artery; EPA=external pudendal artery; EPV=external pudendal vein; CMA&V=caudal mammary artery and vein; CrMA&V=cranial mammary artery and vein; SAV=subcutaneous abdominal vein. (Reece et al., 2004 Error: Reference source not found

14.6. Figure 14.6.: Proliferation index of epithelial cells of mammary ducts for heifers treated with estradiol(E2) or progesterone (P4) or a combined of the two. Estradiol clearly increased DNA synthesis (Woodvard et al., 1993) Error: Reference source not found

14.7. Figure 14.7.: Mammary Development in a heifer (Smith, 1968). A. Udder of heifer during estrus cycle. B. Udder of heifer pregnant five months. C. Udder of heifer pregnant eight months. Error: Reference source not found

14.8. Figure 14.8.: Effect of lactogenic hormones on secretion of α-lactalbuminin in bovine mammary tissue (Akers and Denbow, 2008). Panel A demonstrates a concentration dependent increase in α-Lactalbuminin in response to addition of bovine prolactin (Prl). Panel B shows the additive effect of cortisol (C ) on Prl-induced α-lactalbumin secretion. Error: Reference source not found

14.9. Figure 14.9.: The surge of prolactin accompanying parturition. Peripartal prolactin surge initiates lactation (Akers and Denbow, 2008). Error: Reference source not found

14.10. Figure 14.10.: Lactation curves for typical lactating Holstein cows (A), a Holstein production record holder (B). Akers (2002 Error: Reference source not found

14.11. Figure 14.11.: Lactation curve in sows. Diagram illustrates milk production in sows that were machine milked 4 times per day. (Ackers and Denbow, 2008) Error: Reference source not found

14.12. Figure 14.12.: Alveolus (left) showing cells partially filled with milk and (right) after the discharge of the milk (Smith, 1968) Error: Reference source not found

14.13. Figure 14.13.: Secretion of milk lipids, milk proteins and lactose by epithelial cells lining the alveoli of the mammary glands. Proteins and lactose are together in secretory vesicles that are released by exocytosis (arrows). Frandson et al. (2009). Error: Reference source not found

14.14. Figure 14.14.: The anatomy and physiology of milk ejection (Senger, 2003). The milk ejection mechanism is initiated by suckling (1). The teat contains sensory neurons and impulses from these neurons travel through afferent nerves (2) to the hypothalamus. Nerves in the paraventricular nuclei are stimulated, and the terminals in the posterior lobe of the pituitary (3) release oxytocin. Oxytocin then enters the blood and is delivered to the mammary gland (4). The target cells for oxytocin are the myoepithelial cells that surround the alveolus. Contraction of the myoepithelial cells (5) causes milk to be „squeezed” out of each individual alveolus into small ducts and then into lager ducts. The net effect of simultaneous contraction of the myoepithelial cells throughout the entire mammary gland is to deliver milk to the large ducts and the gland cistern so that it is available for removal by the neonate. Error: Reference source not found


List of Tables

1. Error: Reference source not found


Cover

PHYSIOLOGICAL and REPRODUCTIONAL ASPECTS OF ANIMAL PRODUCTION

Author:

Ferenc Husvéth



Az Agrármérnöki MSc szak tananyagfejlesztése

TÁMOP-4.1.2-08/1/A-2009-0010 projekt

Table 1. 






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