Pakistan Punjab Irrigated-Agriculture Productivity Improvement Project (pipip) Environmental and Social Assessment Directorate General Agriculture (Water Management), Agriculture Department Government of Punjab, Lahore November 2011



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i.9ESMP Implementation Budget


The cost of ESMP implementation over the project duration of six years has been estimated to be Rs. 19.2 million. This cost has been included in the overall project cost. The breakdown of this estimate is provided below.

ESMP Implementation Budget

Description

Cost (Pak Rs.)

Notes/basis

Personnel cost ESC, DESCs)

-

No additional manpower is needed.

Third party monitoring

9.0 million

1.5 m per year

Trainings

7.2 million

300,000 per training; 24 trainings

Miscellaneous expenses

3.0 million

0.5 m per year

Total (for 6 years)

19.2 million




Table 8.: Environmental and Social Guidelines – Drip Irrigation

Environmental and Social Aspect

Mitigation Measures

Responsibility

Notes

Land use, land form, and/or land take (particularly when the schemes are to be implemented in previously vacant areas)

The vacant area where orchard/cultivation farm is to be established under the scheme should be owned by the beneficiary.

WMO/OFWM




No involuntary resettlement will be allowed during the project.

WMO/OFWM




It should be ensured that the local routes are not blocked by such schemes.

WMO/OFWM; farmer




Downstream water availability

The project schemes particularly those involving expansion of cultivation area will be established ensuring no negative impacts on downstream water users.

WMO/OFWM; farmer




Soil erosion and topography

The water ponds under the schemes will be appropriately located and designed, addressing all aspects including soil erosion, soil subsidence, and seepage.

WMO/OFWM




The scheme design involving excavation of water pond should include proper disposal of the surplus soil (eg, for the embankment for the water pond itself).

WMO/OFWM; farmer




Soil and water contamination

Judicious use of the chemical inputs and use of alternate techniques (such as integrated pest management, using disease-resistant seeds, and mulching) will be promoted through awareness raising and capacity building initiatives.

WMO/OFWM; farmer







Waste disposal guidelines will be included in the design of the schemes. It will be ensured that no waste or left over construction material is left behind in the cultivation fields.

WMO/OFWM; farmer




Salt built up in soil

Soil testing will be carried out particularly in areas where groundwater is used for irrigation.

Occasional flood irrigation should be considered if salt built up is identified, particularly in areas having little or scanty rainfall, and in soils having poor drainage.



WMO/OFWM; farmer




Impacts on natural flora and fauna

If any trees are to be cut for scheme in a previously vacant area, the farmer/scheme beneficiary will carry out compensatory plantation of appropriate indigenous tree species. Trees thus planted will be at least three times the number of trees cut for establishing the scheme.

Farmer







No schemes will be located inside any wildlife protected areas (see Table 5.4 for the list of such areas)

WMO/OFWM; farmer




Safety hazards/public health

The awareness raising and capacity building initiatives will also address the safe practices to transport, store, handle, and apply the pesticides, herbicides, and fertilizers.

WMO/OFWM; farmer




The farm owners will provide necessary protective gear to the workers handling and applying pesticides and herbicides in the field.

Farmer




Water ponds to have protective fencing.

Farmer




The capacity building component will address avoidance and cure of water borne and water related diseases, particularly addressing mosquito breeding in water ponds.

WMO/OFWM; farmer




Damage to cultural heritage (particularly when the schemes are to be implemented in previously vacant areas)

It should be ensured that no schemes are approved inside or in the immediate vicinity of any cultural heritage sites listed in Table 5.7.

WMO/OFWM




The schemes should not be located in graveyards or shrine.

WMO/OFWM; farmer




The ‘chance find’52 procures will be included in the scheme agreements.

WMO/OFWM




Employment/contracting opportunities

Local labor and local contractors will be preferred to carry out the construction and operation activities.

Farmer




Sustainability of schemes

After-sales service will be ensured through contractual clauses.

WMO/OFWM




Table 8.: Environmental and Social Guidelines – Sprinkler Irrigation

Environmental and Social Aspect

Mitigation Measures

Responsibility

Notes

Land use, land form, and/or land take (particularly when the schemes are to be implemented in previously vacant areas)

The vacant area where orchard/cultivation farm is to be established under the scheme should be owned by the beneficiary.

WMO/OFWM




No involuntary resettlement will be allowed during the project.

WMO/OFWM




It should be ensured that the local routes are not blocked by such schemes.

WMO/OFWM; farmer




Downstream water availability

The project schemes particularly those involving expansion of cultivation area will be established ensuring no negative impacts on downstream water users.

WMO/OFWM; farmer




Soil erosion and topography

The water ponds under the schemes will be appropriately located and designed, addressing all aspects including soil erosion, soil subsidence, and seepage.

WMO/OFWM; farmer




The scheme design involving excavation of water pond should include proper disposal of the surplus soil (eg, for the embankment for the water pond itself).

WMO/OFWM; farmer




Soil and water contamination

Judicious use of the chemical inputs and use of alternate techniques (such as integrated pest management, using disease-resistant seeds, and mulching) will be promoted through awareness raising and capacity building initiatives.

WMO/OFWM; farmer







Waste disposal guidelines will be included in the design of the schemes. It will be ensured that no waste or left over construction material is left behind in the cultivation fields.

WMO/OFWM; farmer




Salt built up in soil

Soil testing will be carried out particularly in areas where groundwater is used for irrigation.

Occasional flood irrigation should be considered if salt built up is identified.



WMO/OFWM; farmer




Impacts on natural flora and fauna

If any trees are to be cut for scheme in a previously vacant area, the farmer/scheme beneficiary will carry out compensatory plantation of appropriate indigenous tree species. Trees thus planted will be at least three times the number of trees cut for establishing the scheme.

Farmer







No schemes will be located inside any wildlife protected areas (see Table 5.4) for the list of such areas)

WMO/OFWM; farmer




Safety hazards/public health

The awareness raising and capacity building initiatives will also address the safe practices to transport, store, handle, and apply the pesticides, herbicides, and fertilizers.

WMO/OFWM; farmer




The farm owners will provide necessary protective gear to the workers handling and applying pesticides and herbicides in the field.

Farmer




Water ponds will have protective fence around them.

Farmer




The capacity building component will address avoidance and cure of water borne and water related diseases, particularly addressing mosquito breeding in the water ponds..

WMO/OFWM; farmer




Damage to cultural heritage (particularly when the schemes are to be implemented in previously vacant areas)

It should be ensured that no schemes are approved inside or in the immediate vicinity of any cultural heritage sites listed in Table 5.7.

WMO/OFWM; farmer




The schemes should not be located in graveyards or shrine.

WMO/OFWM; farmer




The ‘chance find’53 procures will be included in the scheme agreements.

WMO/OFWM




Employment/contracting opportunities

Local labor and local contractors will be preferred to carry out the construction and operation activities.

Farmer




Sustainability of schemes

After-sales service will be ensured through contractual clauses.

WMO/OFWM




Table 8.: Environmental and Social Guidelines – Laser Land Leveling

Environmental and Social Aspect

Mitigation Measures

Responsibility

Notes

Soil and water contamination

Judicious use of the chemical inputs and use of alternate techniques (such as integrated pest management, using disease-resistant seeds, and mulching) will be promoted through awareness raising and capacity building initiatives.

WMO/OFWM; farmer




Air quality deterioration

Tractors will be properly maintained and tuned to minimize exhaust emissions, and proper fuel will be used.

Farmer




Impacts on natural flora and fauna

No schemes will be located inside any wildlife protected areas (see Table 5.4) for the list of such areas)

WMO/OFWM; farmer




Damage to cultural heritage (particularly when the schemes are to be implemented in previously vacant areas)

It should be ensured that no schemes are approved inside or in the immediate vicinity of any cultural heritage sites listed in Table 5.7.

WMO/OFWM; farmer




The schemes should not be located in graveyards or shrine.

WMO/OFWM; farmer




The ‘chance find’54 procures will be included in the scheme agreements.

WMO/OFWM




Safety hazards/public health

The awareness raising and capacity building initiatives will also address the safe practices to transport, store, handle, and apply the pesticides, herbicides, and fertilizers.

WMO/OFWM; farmer




The farm owners will provide necessary protective gear to the workers handling and applying pesticides and herbicides in the field.

Farmer




The capacity building component will address avoidance and cure of water borne and water related diseases.

WMO/OFWM; farmer




Employment/contracting opportunities

Local labor and local contractors will be preferred to carry out the leveling activities.

Farmer




Sustainability of schemes

After-sales service will be ensured through contractual clauses.

WMO/OFWM





Table 8.: Environmental and Social Guidelines – Watercourse Improvement

Environmental and Social Aspect

Mitigation Measures

Responsibility

Notes

Land use, land form, and/or land take

Land for the realigned water course should be voluntarily donated by its owner, and proper documentation should be completed for this donation.

WMO/OFWM; WUA




The donation should be appropriately recorded in the WUA register.

WUA




No involuntary resettlement will be allowed during the project.

WMO/OFWM




It should be ensured that the local routes are not blocked by such schemes.

WMO/OFWM; WUA




Soil and water contamination

Waste disposal guidelines will be included in the design of the schemes. It will be ensured that no waste or left over construction material is left behind in the cultivation fields.

WMO/OFWM; WUA




Judicious use of the chemical inputs and use of alternate techniques (such as integrated pest management, using disease-resistant seeds, and mulching) will be promoted through awareness raising and capacity building initiatives.

WMO/OFWM; WUA




Soil erosion

Earthen portion of the water course will not be left un-compacted for long durations.

Surplus soil and silt will be disposed appropriately, without having any impacts on water courses, local routes, cultivation fields, or drains.



WMO/OFWM; WUA




Conflicts

Social mobilization and capacity building will address formulation and sustainability of WUAs.

The capacity building will address conflict avoidance and resolution.



WMO/OFWM; WUA




Impacts on natural flora and fauna

Cutting of trees would be restricted to only those trees which cause restriction/hindrance in water flow or civil works. If any trees are to be cut, the WUA will carry out compensatory plantation of appropriate indigenous tree species. Trees thus planted should be at least three times the number of trees cut for establishing the scheme.

WUA







No schemes will be located inside any wildlife protected areas (see Table 5.4) for the list of such areas)

WMO/OFWM; WUA




Damage to cultural heritage

It should be ensured that no schemes are approved inside or in the immediate vicinity of any cultural heritage sites listed in Table 5.7.

WMO/OFWM; WUA




The schemes should not be located in graveyards or shrine.

WMO/OFWM; WUA




The ‘chance find’55 procures will be included in the scheme agreements.

WMO/OFWM




Safety hazards/public health

The awareness raising and capacity building initiatives will also address the safe practices to transport, store, handle, and apply the pesticides, herbicides, and fertilizers.

WMO/OFWM; WUA




The farm owners will provide necessary protective gear to the workers handling and applying pesticides and herbicides in the field.

WUA/farmers




The capacity building component will address avoidance and cure of water borne and water related diseases.

WMO/OFWM; WUA




Employment/contracting opportunities

Local labor and local contractors will be preferred to carry out the construction and operation activities.

WUA




Clogging of water courses

Social mobilization and capacity building will address formulation and sustainability of WUAs.

The capacity building will address proper maintenance and care of water courses.



WMO/OFWM; WUA




Sustainability of scheme

Social mobilization will address the sustainability of WUAs, which in turn will ensure proper operation and maintenance of water courses.

WMO/OFWM; WUA




Table 8.: Environmental and Social Training Plan

Description

Aspects to be Covered

Participants

Frequency

Environmental and social trainings

Environmental and social awareness;

Key environmental and social issues associated with project

ESA findings;

ESMP and its components;

ESMP implementation.


ESC, DESCs, Supervision Consultants; others

At the start of the project;

Afterwards as required



Awareness raising

Judicious use of fertilizers, pesticides and herbicides;

Use of alternate techniques (such as IPM, using better seeds) to reduce the application of chemical inputs;

Safe handling and application of pesticides and herbicides and use of protective gear;

Waste disposal;

Community mobilization (for WUA members)


WUA members, farmers

On-going



National Environmental Quality Standards

The National Environmental Quality Standards (NEQS), promulgated under the PEPA 1997, specify the following standards:

Maximum allowable concentration of pollutants in gaseous emissions from industrial sources,

Maximum allowable concentration of pollutants in municipal and liquid industrial effluents discharged to inland waters, sewage treatment and sea (three separate set of numbers).

Maximum allowable emissions from motor vehicles.

Ambient air quality standards.

Drinking water standards

Noise standards.

The above NEQS’s are presented in Tables A.1 to A.6 below. Only a few of these standards will be applicable to the gaseous emissions and liquid effluents discharged to the environment from the activities under the proposed project.



Table A.1: Selected NEQS for Waste Effluents

Parameter

Unit

Standards (maximum allowable limit)

Temperature increase

C

< 3

pH value (acidity/basicity)

pH

6-9

5-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) at 20 C

mg/l

80

Chemical oxygen demand (COD)

mg/l

150

Total suspended solids

mg/l

200

Total dissolved solids

mg/l

3,500

Grease and oil

mg/l

10

Phenolic compounds (as phenol)

mg/l

0.1

Chloride (as Cl)

mg/l

1,000

Fluoride (as F)

mg/l

10

Sulfate (SO4)

mg/l

600

Sulfide (S)

mg/l

1.0

Ammonia (NH3)

mg/l

40

Cadmium

mg/l

0.1

Chromium (trivalent and hexavalent)

mg/l

1.0

Copper

mg/l

1.0

Lead

mg/l

0.5

Mercury

mg/l

0.01

Selenium

mg/l

0.5

Nickel

mg/l

1.0

Silver

mg/l

1.0

Total toxic metals

mg/l

2.0

Zinc

mg/l

5

Arsenic

mg/l

1.0

Barium

mg/l

1.5

Iron

mg/l

8.0

Manganese

mg/l

1.5

Boron

mg/l

6.0

Chlorine

mg/l

1.0

Notes:

  1. The standard assumes that dilution of 1:10 on discharge is available. That is, for each cubic meter of treated effluent, the recipient water body should have 10 m3 of water for dilution of this effluent.

  2. Toxic metals include cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, mercury, selenium, nickel and silver. The effluent should meet the individual standards for these metals as well as the standard for total toxic metal concentration.

Source: Government of Pakistan (2000) (SRO 549 (I)/2000).

Table A.2: NEQS for Industrial Gaseous Emissions

mg/Nm3 unless otherwise stated

Parameter

Source of Emission

Standards
(maximum allowable limit)


Smoke

Smoke opacity not to exceed

40% or 2 Ringlemann  Scale or equivalent smoke number

Particulate matter 1

(a) Boilers and furnaces:

i. Oil fired

ii. Coal fired

iii. Cement Kilns



 

300


500

300


(b) Grinding, crushing, clinker coolers and related processes, metallurgical processes, converters, blast furnaces and cupolas

500

Hydrogen Chloride

Any

400

Chlorine

Any

150

Hydrogen fluoride

Any

150

Hydrogen sulphide

Any

10

Sulphur Oxides 2, 3

 


Sulfuric acid/Sulphonic acid plants

5,000

Other Plants except power Plants operating on oil and coal

1,700

Carbon Monoxide

Any

800

Lead

Any

50

Mercury

Any

10

Cadmium

Any

20

Arsenic

Any

20

Copper

Any

50

Antimony

Any

20

Zinc

Any

200

Oxides of Nitrogen 3

 


Nitric acid manufacturing unit

3,000

Other plants except power plants operating on oil or coal:  
i. Gas fired  
ii. Oil fired
iii. Coal fired  

400
600


1,200

Explanations:

  1. Based on the assumption that the size of the particulate is 10 micron or more.

  2. Based on 1% sulphur content in fuel oil. Higher content of sulphur will cause standards to be pro-rated.

  3. In respect of emissions of sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxides, the power plants operating on oil and coal as fuel shall in addition to NEQS specified above, comply with the standards provided separately.

Source: Government of Pakistan (2000) (SRO 549 (I)/2000).

Table A.3: National Environmental Quality Standards for Ambient Air 56

Pollutants

Time-weighted

Average

Concentration in Ambient Air

Method of Measurement

Effective from
1
st July 2010

Effective from
1
st January 2013

Sulfur Dioxide

(SO2)



Annual Average*

80 µg/m3

80 µg/m3

Ultraviolet Fluorescence


24 hours**

120 µg/m3

120 µg/m3


Oxides of

Nitrogen as

(NO)


Annual Average*

40 µg/m3

40 µg/m3

Gas Phase Chemiluminescence

24 hours**

40 µg/m3

40 µg/m3


Oxides of

Nitrogen as

(NO2)


Annual Average*

40 µg/m3

40 µg/m3

Gas Phase Chemiluminescence

24 hours**

80 µg/m3

80 µg/m3


Ozone (O3)

1 hour

180 µg/m3

130 µg/m3

Non dispersive UV
absorption

Suspended

Particulate

Matter (SPM)


Annual Average*

400 µg/m3

360 µg/m3

High Volume Sampling, (Average flow rate not less than1.1 m3/minute).

24 hours**

550 µg/m3

500 µg/m3

Respirable

Particulate

Matter. PM10


Annual Average*

200 µg/m3

120 µg/m3

β Ray absorption


24 hours**

250 µg/m3

150 µg/m3

Respirable

Particulate

Matter. PM2.5


Annual Average*

25 µg/m3

15 µg/m3

β Ray absorption


24 hours**

40 µg/m3

35 µg/m3


1 hour

25 µg/m3

15 µg/m3

Lead (Pb)


Annual Average*

1.5 µg/m3

1.0 µg/m3

ASS Method after sampling using EPM 2000 or equivalent Filter paper

24 hours**

2.0 µg/m3

1.5 µg/m3

Carbon

Monoxide (CO)



8 hours**

5 mg/m3

5 mg/m3


Non Dispersive Infra Red (NDIR)

1 hour

10 mg/m3

10 mg/m3

*Annual arithmetic mean of minimum 104 measurements in a year taken twice a week 24 hourly at uniform interval.

** 24 hourly /8 hourly values should be met 98% of the in a year. 2% of the time, it may exceed but
not on two consecutive days.

Source: Government of Pakistan (2010) (SRO 1062 (I)/2010).

Table A.4: NEQS for Motor Vehicles Exhaust and Noise 57

(i) For In-use Vehicles




Parameter

Standard (Maximum Permissible Limit)

Measuring Method

Applicability

1

Smoke

40% or 2 on the Ringlemann Scale during engine acceleration mode.

To be compared with Ringlemann Chart at a distance 6 or more. r

Immediate effect

2

Carbon

Monoxide


6%

Under idling conditions: Non-dispersive infrared detection through gas analyzer.

3

Noise

85 db (A).

Sound meter at 7.5 meters from the source.


(ii) For new Vehicles

Emission Standards for Diesel Vehicles

  1. For Passenger Cars and Light Commercial Vehicles (g/Km)

Type of Vehicle

Category/Class

Tiers

CO

HC+ NOx

PM

Measuring Method

Applicability

Passenger Cars

M 1: with reference mass (RW) upto 2500 kg. Cars with RW over 2500 kg to meet NI category standards.

Pak-II IDI

1.00

0.70

0.08

NEDC (ECE 15+ EUDCL)

i. All imported and local manufactured diesel vehicles with effect from 01-07-2012

Pak-II DI

1.00

0.90

0.10

Light Commercial Vehicles

NI-I (RW<1250 kg)

Pak-II IDI

1.00

0.70

0.08




Pak-II DI

1.00

0.90

0.10

NI-II (1250 kg< RW <1700 kg0

Pak-II IDI

1.25

1.00

0.12

Pak-II DI

1.25

1.30

0.14

NI-III (RW>1700 kg)

Pak-II IDI

1.50

1.20

0.17

Pak-II DI

1.50

1.60

0.20

Parameter

Standard (maximum permissible limit)

Measuring Method

Noise

85 db (A)

Sound meter at 7.5 meters from the source.


(b) For Heavy Duty Diesel Engines and Large Goods Vehicles (g/Kwh)

Type of Vehicle

Category / Class

Tiers

CO

HC

NOx

PM

Measuring Method

Applicability

Heavy Duty Diesel Engines

Trucks and Buses

Pak-II

4.0

1.1

7.0

0.15

ECE-R-49

All Imported and local manufactured diesel vehicles with the effect 1-7-2012

Large goods Vehicles

N2 (2000 and up

Pak-II

4.0

7.0

1.10

0.15

EDC




Parameter

Standard (maximum permissible limit)

Measuring Method

Noise

85 db (A)

Sound meter at 7.5 meters from the source.


Emission Standards for Petrol Vehicles (g/km)

Type of Vehicle

Category / Class

Tiers

CO

HC+ NOx

Measuring Method

Applicability

Passenger

M 1: With reference mass (RW) upto 2500 kg. Cars with RW over 2500 kg. to meet N1 category standards

Pak-II

2.20

0.50

NEDC (ECE 15 + EUDCL)



All imported and new models* locally manufactured petrol vehicles with effect from 1st July, 2009**

Light Commercial Vehicles

N1-I (RW<1250 kg)

Pak-II

2.20

0.50


N1-II (1250 kg>RW <1700 kg)

Pak-II


4.00


0.65


N1-III (RW>1700 kg)

Pak-II

5.00

0.80


Motor Rickshaws & motor Cycles

2.4 strokes <150 cc

Pak-II


5.50


1.50


ECER 40

2.4 strokes>150 cc

Pak-II

5.50

1.30

Parameters

Standard (maximum permissible limit)

Measuring Method

Noise

85 db (A)

Sound meter at 7.5 meters from the source

Explanations:




DI:

Direct Injection

IDI:

Indirect Injection

EUDCL:

Extra Urban Driving Cycle

NEDC:

New Urban Driving Cycle

M:

Vehicles designed and constructed for the carriage of passengers and comprising no more than eight seats in addition to the driver's seat

N:

Motor vehicles with at least four wheels designed and constructed for the carriage of goods.

*

New model means both model and engine type change

**

The existing models of petrol driven vehicles locally manufactured will immediately switch ever to Pak-II emission standards but not later than 30th June, 2012

Source: Government of Pakistan (2009) (SRO 72 (KE)/2009).

Table A.5: National Standards for Drinking Water Quality58

Properties/Parameters

Standard Values for Pakistan

Bacterial




All water intended for drinking (e.Coli or Thermotolerant Coliform bacteria)

Must not be detectable in any 100 ml samples

Treated water entering the distribution system (E.Coli or thermotolerant coliform and total coliform bacteria)

Must not be detectable in any 100 ml samples

Treated water in the distribution system (E.Coli or thermo tolerant coliform and total coliform bacteria)

Must not be detectable in any 100 ml samples

In case of large supplies, where sufficient samples are examined, must not be present in 95% of the samples taken throughout any 12- month period.



Physical




Color

≤15 TCU

Taste

Non objectionable/Accept able

Odor

Non objectionable/Accept able

Turbidity

< 5 NTU

Total hardness as CaCO3

< 500 mg/l

TDS

< 1000

pH

6.5 – 8.5

Chemical




Essential Inorganic

mg/Litre

Aluminum (Al)

≤0.2

Antimony (Sb)

≤0.005 (P)

Arsenic (As)

≤ 0.05 (P)

Barium (Ba)

0.7

Boron (B)

0.3

Cadmium (Cd)

0.01

Chloride (Cl)

<250

Chromium (Cr)

≤0.05

Copper (Cu)

2

Toxic Inorganic

mg/Litre

Cyanide (Cn)

≤0.05

Fluoride (F)*

≤1.5

Lead (Pb)

≤0.05

Manganese (Mn)

≤ 0.5

Mercury (Hg)

≤0.001

Nickel (Ni)

≤0.02

Nitrate (NO3)*

≤50

Nitrite (NO2)*

≤3 (P)

Selenium (Se)

0.01 (P)

Residual chlorine

0.2-0.5 at consumer end; 0.5-1.5 at source

Zinc (Zn)

5.0

Organic




Pesticides mg/l

PSQCA No. 4639-2004, Page No. 4 Table No. 3 Serial No. 20- 58 may be consulted.**

Phenolic compound (as phenols) mg/l

WHO standards: ≤ 0.002

Polynuclear Aromatic hydrocarbon (as PAH) g/L

WHO standards: ≤ 0.01v(by GC/MS method)

Radioactive




Alpha Emitters bq/L or pCi

0.1

Beta Emitters

1

* indicates priority health related inorganic constituents which need regular monitoring.

** PSQCA: Pakistan Standards Quality Control Authority.

Source: Government of Pakistan (2010) (SRO 1063(I)/2010).

Table A.6: National Environmental Quality Standards for Noise 59

Limit in dB(A) Leq *



Category of Area/Zone

Effective from 1st July 2010

Effective from 1st July 2012

Day time

Night time

Day time

Night time

Residential area

65

50

55

45

Commercial area

70

60

65

55

Industrial area

80

75

75

65

Silence zone

55

45

50

45

Notes:

  1. Day time hours: 6:00 a.m. to 10:00 p.m.

  2. Night time hours: 10:00 p.m. to 6:00 a.m.

  3. Silence zone::Zones that are declared as such by the competent authority. An area comprising not less than 100 m around the hospitals, educational institutions, and courts.

  4. Mixed categories of areas may be declared as one of the four above-listed categories by the competent authority.

* dB(A) Leq: Time weighted average of the level of sound in decibels on Scale A which is relatable to human hearing.

Source: Government of Pakistan (2010) (SRO 1064(I)/2010).



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