Nils finn munch-petersen address graamyrvej 9 3760 Gudhjem denmark telephone

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ADDRESS Graamyrvej 9

3760 Gudhjem

TELEPHONE (+45) 56 48 57 40

FAX (+45) 56 48 57 50


DATE OF BIRTH 10th March 1944


PROFESSION Social and Environmental Planner

EDUCATION University of Copenhagen. Mag. Scient.

in Social Anthropology, 1976

1. del in Geology 1968

1.del in Botany & Zoology 1970

PROFESSIONAL SOCIETIES: Senior Expert, Nordic Institute for Asian Studies (nias); Asia PacificTourism Association (PATA); European Society for Oceanists; Nordic Society for South Asian Studies.


Danish Excellent Excellent Excellent

English Excellent Excellent Excellent

Swedish Excellent Excellent Good

German Excellent Excellent Fair

French Good Excellent Poor

Maldivian Fair Fair Poor

Portuguese Fair Good Very poor

Thirty years experience in nature- and culture oriented tourism planning, socio-economic planning, environmental planning, regional planning, management/organisational planning, quantitative/qualitative surveys and applied research.

Experience in research, as university teacher, and as private sector employee. Extensive administrative experience, as team leader and project manager. Notable experience in tourism planning, eco-tourism planning,tourism product development, national park/protected area development, community involvement. Knowledgeable in project design, implementation, monitoring and evaluation, in the fields of: Environment, community livelihood development, community projects, water supply, sanitation, waste management, health, health/hygiene campaigns, education/training, protected area management, mountain environments, coastal management, forestry, agriculture, livestock, transport, marketing and promotion, market analysis, investment planning, art/handicraft and exhibitions/museum work.

Nils Finn Munch-Petersen Tel: (+45) 56 48 57 40

Graamyrvej 9 e-mail:

3760 Gudhjem

2014 INDIA (Tourism, Environment, Community Empowerment, Socio-Economic Survey Design)

Community Development Specialist as part of Preparation of Tourism Master Plan for Chilica Lake and its Catchment under ICZMP-ODISHA World Bank Project. Design of socio-economic survey; survey analysis & presentation. Advising on environmental issues, product development, destination profiling and product positioning on the international market.

2014 BANGLADESH (Tourism, Environment, Training, Wildlife Protection)

Eco-Tourism Planner on Strengthening Regional Cooperation for Wildlife Protection through the preparation of training modules and materials for eco-tourism. Coordination of field programmes and review of training needs.
2012-2013 SIKKIM, INDIA (Tourism, Environment, Trekking, Community Integration)

Nature- and culture based tourism institutional development specialist on the South Asia Tourism Infrastructure Development Project, Sikkim. Planning for the extension of tourism infrastructure and training facilities/curricula to support nature oriented tourism, biodiversity conservation, support of local cultures, and village/home stay facilitation. Funding: The Asian Development Bank and Government of Sikkim. Consultant to SMEC, Australia.

2011-2012 MALDIVE ISLANDS (Environmental & Social Impact – Solid Waste )

Team leader and environmental specialist on environmental- and Social Impact Study of the North Regional Waste Management Facility, Vandhoo Island, Raa Atoll. Impact assessment of waste management facility construction and operations in collaboration with the Maldives Ministry of Housing and Environment. Funding: The World Bank; consultant to Niras, Denmark.
2011 INDIA (Research – Conference Presentations)

Participant speaker at the 7th International Conference on Asian Marine Geology, Indian National Institute of Oceanography, Dona Paula, Goa; and participant speaker at the University of Mumbai Conference on Climate Change.
2011 KENYA & TANZANIA (Environment – Wetlands – Community Integration)

Wildlife and tourism management expert on the Mara River Transboundary Integrated Water Resourcs Management & Development Project; a feasibility study for integrated watershed management and preparation of investment project proposals for the Mara River Basin in Kenya and Tanzania. Funding: The World Bank; consultant to Niras, Denmark.
2010 INDIA (Research)

Research covering matrilinity and matrilocality on the atoll Maliku (Minicoy) in the Lakshadweep Archipelago, Indian Ocean. An important research element was investigating changes in social structure, livelyhoods, and production effected by outside influences. Funding: HRH Crown Prince Frederik’s Fund.
2010 SIERRA LEONE (Infrastructure - Social Impact – Gender Integration)

Senior expert social impact studies and gender integration analysis, Identification study for the Moyamba – Moyamba Junction Road and three bridges (Magbele, Mabang and Gbangbana bridges). Funding EC. Consultant to Societa Italiana di Monitoraggio/
2009 & 2010 HONDURAS & NICARAGUA (Eco-Tourism - Protected Areas)

Technical adviser to Nepenthes Nature Tours (part of the Nepentes Forest Protection Group) and local tourism authorities (Cámara Turismo de La Ceiba, Red de Comunidades Turisticas de Honduras, Cámara de Turismo Río San Juan and Fundación del Rio) on the development of nature- and culture oriented the La Ceiba forest and marine region of Honduras, and the Nicaragua Lake Islands and San Juan River area in Southern Nicaragua. Work included a visit to Northern and Central Costa Rica.Main focus on product development and community oriented tourism.
2009 ARUBA (Environment – National Park Development – Eco-Tourism)

Technical Adviser to the Arikok National Park (Parke Nacional Arikok) on the development and implementation of a management- and business plan. Planning for sustainable development and tourism. Infrastructure development. Production of information materials, control of invasive species, guide training, tour itineraries, and the establishment of linkages to schools and research institutions . Working visit to Bonaire. Funding: EC. Consultant to Asesores de Comercio Exterior, Spain.
2008 MALDIVE ISLANDS (Tourism – Supply – Resort & Island Linkages)

Team Leader & Tourism Planner: Scoping Study for (agricultural/fisheries produce) Linkages between Resorts and the Male’, Meemu and Ari Atolls. Community empowerment, gender issues, training and livelihoods improvements. Supply, market information, storage and transport. Funding: International Finance Corporation – South Asia Enterprise Development Facility (IFC SEDF). Consultant to Niras A/S.

2006-2007 INDIA (Tourism – Built Culture – Community Projects – Tour Itineraries)

Tourism Planner writing a tourism development plan for the former colonial trading post Tranquebar, on the South Indian Coromandel Coast. Work included planning for the conservation of historical buildings and the unique street grid, as well as road and drainage improvements; the establishment of tour itineraries designating Tranquebar as a hub for excursions to near-by sights and nature locations, especially the Point Calimere Ramsar site; community participation, guide training, seminars; and the production of handicrafts/beach textiles and information materials. Client/funding: The National Museum of Denmark.

2006 VIETNAM (Tourism – Marine Conservation – Community Projects - Statistics)

Eco-Tourism Specialist on Support to the Marine Protected Area Network in Vietnam, advising the authorities of Quang Nam Province on the sustainable and nature friendly development of tourism in the Cu Lao Cham island group. Community livelihood protection and development. Community participation. Transport and solid waste disposal. Design of a nature oriented tourism development plan for Quang Nam/Da Nang/Cu Lao Cham and the design of a programme for the collection of visitor statistics. Funding: Danida. Consultant to Niras A/S.

2005 THAILAND (Nature Conservation – Post Tsunami Tourism Development)

Tourism Expert on Rehabilitation of Marine Parks and Support to Sustainable Tourism in Southern Thailand. Post-tsunami rehabilitation of sustainable tourism along the Andaman Coast in collaboration with IUCN and WWF. Funding: Agence Francaise de Développement. Consultant to BRLingenérie/SECA, France.

2005 KENYA (Community Tourism – Eco-Tourism)

Team leader on mid-term review of Tourism Diversification and Sustainable Development Programme, Kenya. A project aimed at strengthening small and medium enterprises and community based organisations; product diversification; the creation of employment opportunities; and nature conservation. Funding EC, consultant to GOPA Consult, Germany.

2005 EGYPT (Marine Environment – Procurement – Planning)

Marine Environment Expert on Institutional strengthening of the South Sinai National Park and Protected Areas. Terms of Reference for: Supply contracts and technical assistance for/to the installation of mooring buoys to protect coral reefs; an electronic vessel tracking system; marine crafts for monitoring, research and enforcement; and an integrated tourism management plan for the Gulf of Aqaba. Funding EC. Consultant to TAS Europrojects, Spain.

2004-2005 TURKEY and BULGARIA (Eco-Tourism – Biodiversity – Nature Parks)

Eco-Tourism and Economic Development Specialist on Technical Assistance to the Sustainable Development of Natural resources and Biodiversity in the Strandja/Istranca Mountains. A community oriented trans-border project covering mountain-forests, villages, and the forested Black Sea coast in Eastern Bulgaria and Western Turkey. Consultant to: Montgomery-Watson, Belgium. Funding: EC/Phare.

2004 & 2005 VIETNAM (Tourism – Marine Conservation – Community Projects - Statistics)

Eco-Tourism Specialist on Support to the Marine Protected Area Network in Vietnam, advising the authorities of Quang Nam Province on the sustainable, nature- and culture friendly development of tourism in the Cu Lao Cham island group: So as to provide significant livelihood benefits to local populations compatible with environmental conservation objectives. Funding: Danida. Consultant to Niras A/S.

2003-2004 SWAZILAND (Tourism – Eco-Tourism – Statistics – Nature Conservation – Community Projects.

Technical Adviser to the Swaziland Tourism Authority on product development, the collection of tourism statistics, the conservation of nature through eco-tourism, community managed tourism projects and national parks; as well as advising on tourism planning, positioning, marketing (design of marketing tools), staff training, and project design/implementation in general. Consultant to EC/Agrisystems, U.K.
2002-2003 YEMEN (Rural Development - Eco-Tourism - Protected Area Management)

Team leader & rural development specialist on Protected Areas Management Project - PAM 1 - Jabal Bura'a Forest Area, Hodeidah Governorate, Republic of Yemen. Duties: The formulation of a Project work programme for the collection of socio-economic, botanical, zoological, geological and hydrological data; designing and implementing a socio-economic survey of project area and near project area populations along with a survey of livestock herding within the area; a description of the use and economic importance of timber/wood and non-timber/wood products; the integration of local populations in protected area management; production of maps and information materials; the arrangement of workshops and training sessions, and field training of Government of Yemen personnel. Specific duties: Writing an area management and monitoring plan, and an eco-tourism development plan. Consultant to: RWA International, U.K. and the Ministry of Tourism and Environment, Yemen. Funding: GEF/The World Bank.

2002 INDIA (Solar Energy - Rural Development)

Team leader & rural development specialist on EC mission: Final Evaluation - Development and Dissemination of Solar Energy Systems for Villages in the Himalayan Region of India (Uttaranchal, Sikkim and Ladakh). A project delivering solar electricity to villages on the basis of village based management. Duties: 1) To assess and review the effectiveness, efficiency, impact and financial viability of the Project, 2) To assess if the selection of villages has been in keeping with the Project objectives; and 3) To evaluate the sustainability, and possible continuation, of the Project. Client MWH International. Belgium. Funding: EC.

2002 ETHIOPIA, SOMALILAND and DJIBOUTI (Research/Collection of Educational Materials)

Research on the organisation and functioning of traditional markets and collection of materials so as to describe traditional markets and market functions to Danish secondary school pupils. Collection of materials for the National Museum of Denmark and Bornholms Museum. Extensive travel in Ethiopia and Somaliland. Funding Danida.

2002 DENMARK (Botany)

Work at the University of Copenhagen Botanical Institute and the Danish National Herbarium on the ethnobotany of the Maldive Islands.

2001 DENMARK (Museum Work - Classification - Description - Registration)

Work at the Danish National Museum, Copenhagen, on the description, classification and registration of Asian and African artefacts.

2001 ROMANIA (Tourism - Environment - National Parks)

Tourism plan specialist on Sustainable Management and Biological Conservation of the Ceahlau Nature Reserve - Phase II. Duties including: The preparation of a detailed tourism development plan, the preparation and production of promotional and information materials for domestic and international visitors, integration of tourism development with other Romanian destinations, and planning for park infrastructure development. Funding: Danish Ministry of Environment and Energy.

2001 DENMARK (Education - Production of Educational Materials)

Work for Danish Regional Centres on the production of educational materials covering international development issues. Funding: Amtscentre for Undervisning.

2000 - 2001 VIETNAM ( National Parks & Reserves, Eco-Tourism)

Eco-tourism Specialist on the Vietnam Forest Protection and Rural Development Project funded by the World Bank and Government of Vietnam. Duties included: The opening nature reserves for limited and controlled tourism, profiling present and potential future visitors, upgrading of accommodation facilities, plans for buffer zone utilization, the production of information and marketing materials, the establishment of visitor centers, park staff training, traditional handicraft production, guided tour itineraries and tourism planning in general. Consultant to Halcrow Rural Management (U.K.).

2000 RUSSIA (Coastal Management – Tourism)

Participant speaker at the International Conference on Integrated Coastal Management and Integration with Marine Sciences, St. Petersburg 25-30 September. Paper read: “Tourism – An Agent of Conservation or Destruction ? Tourism Planning as Part of Integrated Coastal Management.”

2000 GAMBIA and CÔTE D'IVOIRE (Tourism Planning – Environment)

Tourism expert on mission for the African Development Bank, Côte d'Ivoire. Assignment: To prepare terms of reference, budget and memorandum for a grant proposal for a tourism master plan study for the Gambia. A central issue was product diversification, i.e. to design a path from present down-market package-tourism - with notable detrimental environmental impacts - to a broader profile including Gambian nature, notably the River Gambia and the unique ornithology of the Gambia.

2000 TONGA (Tourism Planning - Product Development -Environment)

Tourism specialist to the Vava'u Islands Integrated Development Project. Duties: A full description of tourism in the Vava'u Archipelago (Northern Tonga). Primary emphasis was on the development of nature/culture experience tours, water based activities, nature oriented activities, eco-tourism, nature conservation and general community oriented product developments, including improvements in land- and sea transport and accommodation. The task further included an analysis of markets, international visitor profiles and competing destinations as related to the Vava'u beach, relaxation, sea and volcano product. Consultant to EC/EU/Agrisystems, U.K.

2000 INDONESIA (Tourism Planning - Culture - Art-Handicraft)

Consultant to The World Bank on the integration of culture, nature and tourism in Central Java (Yogyakarta, Surakarta and Semarang). Special emphasis was on the preservation of traditional material- and performing art(s) (batik, woodcarving, ceramics, music, dance and theatre), as well as the conservation and utilization of buildings and monuments. Further emphasis was on the role of tourism in the upkeep and financing of traditional arts and in environmental conservation. The study included an analysis of markets, product mix and visitors profiles both as to international- and domestic visitors.

1999 MADAGASCAR and COMOROS (Material Culture - Artefact Collection)

Visit to Madagascar and the Comoro Islands to collect toys and household utensils the National Museum of Denmark. Also collections were made for educational use in Danish schools and for an Africa feature at the Planckendael Park in Belgium. Funding Danida

1998-99 MONGOLIA (Tourism Planning – Institutional Development - Environment – Culture - Training)

Project manager and environment specialist on Tacis - Mongolia Tourism Development Plan, Ministry of Infrastructure Development, Ulaanbaatar. Project responsibilities were: 1. The preparation of a comprehensive plan for tourism development; 2. Development of a computerised data base and information system for the tourism sector 3. The preparation of a model management plan for Lake Hobskol National Park (Northern Mongolia) 4. The production of marketing and promotional materials 5. Advise on the upgrading of museums and artefact presentation; and, 6. Advise on tourist facilitation, notably the upgrading of Mongolian tourist camps. Consultant to Carl Bro A/S.

1997 MALAYSIA (Demography - Sociology - Forestry)

Socio-demographic expert as part of a multidisciplinary project team, based at Forestry Department Headquarters, Kuala Lumpur, designing a database: Mapping and Geographical Information Systems for Forests in Peninsular Malaysia. Consultant to DHV, Netherlands; Funding EU/European Commission.

1997 ROMANIA (Tourism Planning - Infrastructure Development - Environmental Conservation)

Tourism development planner on Project: Ecological Reconstruction of Ceahlau National Park (Carpatian Mountains, Moldavia). Duties included the Identification of: The international tourism potentials within the region; Options for upgrading present touristic facilities in the Alpine Carpatians - upgrading of facilities should be conditional to Park conservation. Consultant to Danagro Adviser; funded by the Danish Environmental Support Fund for Central and Eastern Europe.

1996-97 MOZAMBIQUE (Tourism Planning - Environment)

Team leader, tourism planner, and environment specialist on a multidisciplinary team writing a Tourism- and Environmental Master Plan for the coasts of Mozambique. Main duties comprised : 1) To establish rational criteria and guidelines for selected coastal zones and ensure that tourism development would not endanger the environment; 2) To ensure a legislation which curtails destructive tourism activities and the construction of environmentally unsound tourism facilities; and 3) To establish the first phase of an Action Plan for the coasts of Mozambique. The study involved extensive coastal travel in Mozambique, including the Lake Niassa Coast. Consultant to Ramboll. Work also comprised visits to RSA, Swaziland, Malawi and Mauritius. Funding EU/European Commission.

1996 VANUATU (Environment - Culture - Tourism)

Team leader on a multidisciplinary project identification- and pre-feasibility study of the island of Malekula (Northern Vanuatu). Objectives: To propose a development programme which will lead to safeguarding the special cultural and natural environments of the Island. Special tasks comprised: An analysis of the present tourism product and present tourism resource base, and an outline of future tourism potentials: strengthening the safeguarding nature and culture. Funding EU/European Commission.

1996 INDIA (Veterinary Services - Training - Extension)

Socio-economist and team leader for a multi-disciplinary team on mid-term review mission: Strengthening of Veterinary Services for Livestock Diseases Control (EU Project India ALA 89/04). Specific duties included a qualitative assessment of project efficiency at the field level. Client EU/European Commission.

1995 MALAYSIA (National Park Management - Education)

Team leader and social- and environmental planner on a project appraisal mission on the development of a nature education and research centre in Endau Rompin National Park, Johor State. Duties included a biodiversity component, an outline research component, a nature education component (aimed at schools, government personnel and the general public), project integration of local (Jakun) populations, and an outline plan for a park tourism component. Funding: DANCED (Danish Ministry of Environment and Energy).

1995 DENMARK (Tourism)

Participant in the 4th Nordic Symposium on Tourism Research. School of Business Studies, Copenhagen. Paper read: “Nature as a Tourism Resource - What is Nature ?”.

1995 MALAYSIA (Environment - Wetlands)

Community development expert and team leader on a DANCED (Danish Ministry of Environment and Energy) mission to formulate a conservation and management plan for the Tasik Bera peat swamp area (the first Malaysian Ramsar site) in central peninsular Malaysia (Pahang State). Responsibilities included: Development of an integrated Conservation and Management Plan for Tasik Bera; Promotion of education and awareness on wetlands; a strategy for the involvement of indigenous people in the planning process, safeguarding the rights of indigenous people; and a description of opportunities for sustainable ecotourism within the Area.

1995 MELANESIA (Forestry Strategy & Policy - Environment)

Regional planer and environment- & land use specialist on a multidisciplinary team to study and report on EU forestry priorities in the Pacific. The study focused on forestry strategies and possible EU activities in the field of forestry in the Pacific (Fiji, Vanuatu, Solomon Islands and Papua New Guinea). Special responsibilities were : Reporting on the political, legal institutional and socio-economic environment, supporting actors and processes within the forestry sector; land use planning; and to explore short-, mid- and long term aid possibilities for an internationally co-ordinated approach. The team further prepared concrete proposals for actions to be taken by the EU. The study included consultations with major bi- and multilateral agencies within Melanesia, as well as consultations with the UNDP (New York), the World Bank (Washington), AIDAB (Canberra), Ministry of foreign Affairs and Trade (Wellington), SPREP (Western Samoa) and the Asian Development Bank (Manila).

1995-96 DENMARK (Tourism - Regional Planning - Product Development - Tourism Surveys)

Senior researcher at the Danish Research Centre for Regional Studies, Tourism Research Unit. Tasks involved an analysis of the Bornholm Island tourism product, product development options, and the design of a major visitor survey covering Danish, Swedish and German holiday travellers.

1994 THAILAND (Forest Conservation - Socio-Economic Planning)

Team leader and socio-economist for a multidisciplinary team appraising project proposals for the Khao Nor Chuchi Lowland Rainforest Project, (Southern Thailand) and Thap Lan Forest Complex Buffer Zone Management Project (North-Eastern Thailand). The work of the mission comprised: A review of institutions involved in park and buffer zone management and recommendations for implementing organisational structure, management and distribution of responsibilities; integration of production activities with the needs of local populations, where special emphasis should be on a plan for sustainable management, involving community participation, and plans for biodiversity inventories and land use mapping. Consultant to the Danish Co-operation for Environment and Development (DANCED), Danish Ministry of the Environment, and the Government of Thailand.

1994 & 1995 INDIA (Town Planning - Socio-Economic Surveys - Tourism)

Social scientist on the Tranqebar Integrated Development Project, Nagapattinam Quaid-e-Millat District, Tamil Nadu. Responsibilities included: An assessment of socio-economic conditions and problems pertaining to local populations in and near Tranquebar town; project identification relating to infrastructure, water supply/ sanitation and health; a description of tourism options, and options for other income generating activities; and the identification of local consultants, including preparation of terms of reference for a socio-economic area survey. Consultant to Danida.

1994 BHUTAN (Land Use Planning - Surveys - Training)

Sociologist on Bhutan Land Use Planning Project on a joint Denconsult and DanEduc Consulting venture. Responsible for the preparation of socio-economic survey manuals, survey planning, recruitment, training and supervision of counterpart staff and investigators, survey data analysis and reporting on socio-economic land use issues. Funding: Danida.

1993 TIBET (PRC) (Education - Health - Water Supply - Art-Handicraft)

Sociologist on a multidisciplinary team conducting a feasibility study for Pan-Aam County Integrated Rural Development Project, Shigatse Prefecture. Responsibilities comprised a baseline socio-economic study; an assessment of social and institutional components, including: Health, village water supply, medical centre facilities, primary- and secondary education, educational facilities and cottage industries; design of a monitoring system, and the finalisation of design and costings. Consultant to Kampsax International. Funding: EC.

1993-1994 BANGLADESH (Micro Credit - Poultry - Livestock - Monitoring)

Team leader and monitoring & evaluation specialist on Technical Assistance to Smallholder Livestock Development Project, Bangladesh. An extension- and credit project aimed at marginal farmers and landless, notably female headed, households in close collaboration with the Grameen Bank. Objectives: Improvements in feed utilization, disease control, poultry breeding to improve income and nutrition among the rural poor. Responsibilities included team supervision, development of management information systems and the design and completion of a baseline survey. Client: Darudec. Funding: Danida/IFAD/UNDP.

1993 GUINEA (Water supply - Sanitation - Health Education)

Socio-economist for Nordic Consulting group (NGC) on a feasibility study on urban water supply and sanitation for the towns of Coyah, Dubreka and Gaoual. Responsibilities: An assessment of the need for improvements in technical installations, water use and sanitary facilities as related to communicable diseases endemic to the towns/districts. Funding: Danida.

1993 MONGOLIA (Tourism - Environment)

Team leader on Project Preparation for Nature Conservation in Mongolia through the development of Environmental Tourism. Head of a multidisciplinary team to prepare a project for environmentally sound, nature oriented tourism in Mongolia. Responsibilities included: Product development, sight- and activity identification, development of product- and marketing mix, service level assessment; assessment of training needs, park management needs and transport capability, as well as tourism linkages to the (nomadic) livestock sector. Funding: Danida.

1993 BRAZIL (Material Culture - Collection - Research)

Visit to Pernambuco State for the national Museum of Denmark to collect local market products of (recycled) tin-cans, and document craftsmanship and trade. Collection of artefacts and museum visits.

1993 INDIA (Training)

Organiser, teacher and chairperson at workshop for all Indian Danida agriculture project consultants on planning and supervising socio-economic surveys, environmental studies, and data analysis/reporting. Client: Danida.

1993 INDIA (Animal Husbandry)

Anthropologist as part of a multidisciplinary team reviewing the Pudukkottai Livestock Development Project, Tamil Nadu. Objectives: To review project performance in regard to the implementation plan as to achievement of targets and impact; notable emphasis was on women’s participation, curriculum development, smallstock management and the development of a viable fodder crop strategy. Consultant to Danida. Editor of review report.

1992 MALDIVE ISLANDS (Water Supply)

External consultant (home office) to Carl Bro International on the historical and socio-political background for the present water supply crisis in Male, capital of the Maldives.

1992 ZIMBABWE (Education - Training - Agriculture)

Sociologist on a multidisciplinary team carrying out a study of agricultural education in Zimbabwe. The objectives of the mission were to review agricultural educational policy for below university level training, relevance and sustainability of education, future training requirements as related to the needs of the agricultural sectors and future employment opportunities for graduates. Significant emphasis was on the training of, and empowerment of, women within the “informal agricultural sector”. Consultant to Darudec. Funding: Danida.

1992 INDIA (Environment - Agriculture)

Sociologist on a multidisciplinary Danida team appraising a soil and water conservation project in Composite Ramanathapuram District, Tamil Nadu. Responsibilities comprised: Establishing an overview of types of land ownership and rights-in-use; a description of communities within the project area, -landless labourers, -migratory patterns; and the collection of information on land values, as to make possible a definition farm households, by value of holding as reflected by the value of different types of land.

1992 MALAWI (Water Supply - Sanitation - Health - Education)

Socio-Economist on a joint AfDB/Danida review mission. Responsibilities: Assessment of service levels and health impact as related to water supply, low cost sanitation, provision of washing slabs, and health education. Editor of review report.

1992 INDIA (Socio-Economic Surveys - Training - Extension)

Short-term adviser to Orissa Training and Extension for Women in Agriculture (TEWA). Duties: To design and plan a baseline survey of populations within the project area including progress indicators for monitoring, review and evaluation purposes. Emphasis on women’s skills, and skills development among female agriculturists from small- and marginal farming households. Funding: Danida.

1992 INDIA (Socio-Economic Surveys - Livestock Management)

Short-term socio-economic consultant to Pudukkottai Livestock Development Project. Duties: To design and plan a baseline questionnaire survey covering the full population of the Project Area, with special emphasis on the livestock feed & fodder situation; livestock holdings; poultry; livestock/poultry output; present livestock management practices; and livestock breeding. Funding: Danida.

1992 INDIA (Tourism Planning - Environmental Planning)

Tourism Planner/Social and Environmental Planner on UNDP Tourism development Study - Andaman Islands. Responsibilities comprised the formulation of a project framework for environmentally safe tourism development in the Andaman Islands: A policy/strategy involving both domestic and international travellers. Funding: UNDP.

1992 PHILIPPINES (Tourism Planning - Regional Planning - Environmental Planning)

Tourism planner and pre- investment studies consultant to I. Kruger/NEDA (National Economic Development Agency of the Philippines) on a Master Plan Development Study for Western Visayas (Aklan, Antique, Capiz, Guimaras, Iloilo and Negros Occidental). Responsibilities comprised the identification of options for private sector investment in tourism, including an outline plan for product developments. Notable planning emphasis was on equitable distribution of income opportunities and on environmental conservation needs. Funding: Asian Development Bank.

1991-92 INDIA (Aquaculture - socio-economic Surveys)

Senior socio-economist on a CIC Aquaculture Group multidisciplinary team. Responsible for the design and field testing of survey questionnaires, recruitment of local survey supervisors and field staff. Objectives: A thorough description of the project area (Ganges Delta, Southern West Bengal) as to community composition, income levels, skills and ownership/rights-in-use to closed water bodies, as related to the utilization of field ponds for prawn and carp polyculture.

1991 USA (Tourism Planning - Conservation - Environment)

Participant in the “Third Global Congress Heritage Interpretation International: Quality Tourism, Interpretation, Preservation and the travel Industry”. Honolulu, Hawaii, November 3. - 8. Paper presented: “Tourism Development in the Pacific Islands and Maldive Islands”. Funding: Danish National Research Council for the Humanities.

1991 BANGLADESH (Aquaculture - Rural Sociology - Management)

Socio-economist on review mission team to the Mymensingh Aquaculture Extension Project in Northern Bangladesh. Responsibilities included an assessment of procedures used for the selection of project beneficiaries and of project approach towards target groups (small and marginal farmers and women); assessments of beneficiaries’ benefits and risks; and a description of the overall integration and management of the Project. Responsibilities further included socio-economic and baseline-study proposals for an anticipated Project Phase II. Consultant to CIC-Marine. Funding: Danida.

1991 SWEDEN (Anthropology - Oceania)

Paper read at Workshop on the Global Anthropology of Oceania, University of Lund, Sweden. “State and Nation in Kiribati: Tradition and the Impact of Visitors and Settlers”.

1991-92 INDIA (Environment - Agriculture - Surveys)

Socio-economic consultant to Karnataka Watershed Development Project, a Danida project aimed at developing appropriate land use systems, moisture conservation and reforestation in the Districts of Belgaum, Dharwad and Uttara Kannada. Responsibilities comprised the design of a socio-economic/environmental baseline study covering project areas; editing and field testing of questionnaires; and training of investigators in mapmaking, area-description and interview techniques.

1991 DENMARK (Fisheries Management - Environment)

Participant/lecturer at Nordic Institute for Asian Studies (NIAS) Workshop: Resource Management in Asian Fisheries. Paper presented: “Traditional Fisheries Management in the Maldive Islands”.

1991 DENMARK (Environment)

Participant/lecturer at NIAS Workshop: Asian Concepts of Nature. Paper presented: “Perceptions of Nature in Atoll Societies: The Maldive Islands and Kiribati”.

1991 BENIN (Health - Water Supply - Sanitation)

Short term assignment to Danida to evaluate a programme for health intervention and a health campaign to be carried out in Benin in conjunction with a water and sanitation project covering 5 towns.

1991 MALAWI (Water Supply - Sanitation - Health)

Socio-economist member of a Danida/African Development Bank review mission to Mpira-Balaka Rural (dam) Water Supply Project, Southern Malawi. Main duties comprised: Review and analysis of demographic and environmental data, a programme for upgrading health intervention and sanitation promotion, an assessment of the effects of relocation of populations from dam site, and recommendations for infrastructural improvement of settlement sites. Editor of review mission report.

1991-92 INDIA (Agriculture - Environment - Surveys)

Socio-economist short term consultant to Danida to organise a survey of populations within project areas in Tirunelveli District, Tamil Nadu. Objectives: To produce a comprehensive written and mapped description of habitations and populations for use in deciding future soil conservation strategies and inputs pertaining to specific population groups. Editor of report.

1990 KIRIBATI (Transport - Regional Planning - Markets)

Team leader on Kiribati Interisland transport Study. A study to investigate and determine the demand for interisland transport services, vessel types and ownership arrangements, the most viable and cost effective management structures, the extent to which services can be privatised, needs of services as to safety, repair and maintenance of vessels, rural urban migration and development options. The study included assessments of environmental impact, assessments of agricultural/fisheries production potential, and an evaluation of ongoing resettlement programmes in the Northern Line Islands. Consultant to Danport. Funding: Asian Development Bank.

1990 MALAWI (Environment - Land Tenure - Surveys)

Socio-economist on Danida pre-appraisal mission: Promoting Soil and Water Conservation in Karonga Agricultural development Division. Responsibilities: To establish an overview of the population within the area, describe the present land tenure system and types of land rights, identify relevant local institutions and suggest how farmers m/f can effectively participate in improving lands, and plan and execute development activities. Design of land use- and socio-economic survey.

1990 MOZAMBIQUE (Telecommunication - Surveys)

Senior socio-economist to CIC-Engineers designing a survey of utilization and maintenance of pay-phones in Maputo, including an assessment of future pay-phone needs. Funding: Danida.

1990 ZAMBIA (Telecommunication - Market Analysis - Surveys)

Socio-economist to appraise and evaluate the situation regarding pay-phone utilization and maintenance in Zambia. Assess the role of pay-phones in a development context, identify major target groups, recommend locations for pay-phones, analyse existing tariffs and prepare demand forecasts for different consumer categories. Survey design and recruitment of field investigators. Contractor: COWIconsult. Funding: Danida.

1990 MALI (Water Supply - Health - Surveys - Monitoring)

Chief socio-economist on a feasibility study for water supply and sanitation in the two towns of Sikasso and Kadiolo. Responsible for demographic data, survey of present and future population needs and demand, tariff system design, criteria for the location of spot water sources, maintenance systems, health education and monitoring of health impact. Contractor: N&R Consult. Funding: Danida.

1989-1990 MALDIVE ISLANDS (Environment - Sewage - Solid Waste)

Special consultant to the Government of the Maldives as associate to Gitec Consult and the Danish Hydraulic Institute, on a feasibility study in the capital Male pertaining to sewage, sewage disposal and solid waste. Funding: The German Development Bank (GTZ).

1989 NEPAL (Telecommunication - Market Analysis - Surveys)

Development sociologist on a Danida feasibility study for a public telephone system for Nepal Telecommunications Corporation. Responsibilities included: An evaluation of the present situation regarding public telephones; a survey of telephone uses/profile of users; analysis and description of users needs; and a market forecast for public telephones.

1989 MALAWI (Water Supply - Technology - Surveys)

Consultant to Carl Bro International to assess the community impact of the Karonga Integrated Groundwater Supply Project in Northern Malawi, describe levels of users participation, and evaluate the functionality of pump types installed. In collaboration with the University of Malawi Centre for Social Research: Design of a baseline survey to provide project monitoring components.

1989 DENMARK (Education - Environmental Impact Assessment)

Lecturer: Internal Danida Staff Training Course on Environmental Impact Assessment.

1989 CENTRAL AFRICAN REPUBLIC (Water Supply - Health)

Senior socio-economist. Responsible for design and implementation of a health education programme related to the provision of safe water to 5 towns. Funding: Danida.

1989 INDIA (Agriculture - Agroforestry - Tenure - Irrigation)

Socio-economist on Danida appraisal mission to investigate and plan for: Development of Degraded Lands in Tirunelveli and Chidambaranad Districts in the dry zone of Tamil Nadu.

1988-89 BANGLADESH (Sanitation - Policy - Marketing - Health)

Senior Consultant Responsible for writing a policy/strategy plan for low cost sanitation in Bangladesh as special socio-economic adviser to the World Bank/UNDP Low Cost Sanitation Project for 84 Municipalities (BGD/85/004). Work included the design of a new latrine concept, based on local producers and local materials, and appropriate to local (notably female) perceptions of a latrine which was “nice and easy to clean”. Also the study included a socio-economic field survey and a survey of informal sector producers, as well as the design of information materials, production of health education curricula and an investment plan.

1988 INDIA (Agriculture - Watershed management - Surveys)

Socio-economist on Danida pre-appraisal mission for Comprehensive Watershed Development in Degraded Areas, Tamil Nadu, a project aimed at improving water conservation in agriculture and agroforestry in the dry belt of Tamil Nadu, notably through the planting of shelterbelts and interbelt land development/crop improvement. Responsibilities: Demographic overview, information on land tenure systems and land values, and the design of a baseline survey.

1988 INDIA (Agriculture - Irrigation Management)

Socio-economist on Danida review mission to North Kanara Integrated Development Project, Karnataka. Responsibilities: Assessment of project community impact and levels of community participation.

1988 FINLAND (Art - Handicraft)

Lecturer. Handicraft Quality Control, Markets and marketing. World Craft Council, Seminar for Experts on African Crafts.

1988 U.K. (Reef Ecology - Human Ecology)

Contributor to the International Coral Reef Directory: Coral Reefs of the World; Maldive Islands. IUCN Monitoring Centre.

1986-88 SOUTH PACIFIC (Tourism Planning - Environment - Product development - Regional Planning - Art Handicraft)

Head of department of Research, Planning and Linkage Projects, Tourism Council for the South Pacific under the Pacific Tourism Development Programme funded by the European Economic Community (EEC).

In charge of development projects, regional planning, tourism planning, environmental planning and product development in: Cook Islands, Fiji, Kiribati, Niue, Papua New Guinea, Solomon Islands, Tonga, Tuvalu, Vanuatu and Western Samoa. Working visits to: American Samoa, Nauru and New Caledonia.

As Head of department: Team Leader, editor of reports; in charge of specific project planning for:

PACIFIC REGION (Environment - Environmental Legislation)

Nature Conservation and Nature Legislation, (a) Directory for Tourism Planning in the South Pacific.

FIJI (Historical/Archaeological sites - Environment)

Identification, Protection and development of historical and Archaeological Sites.

SOLOMON ISLANDS (Environment - Product Development)

Identification of Nature Sites and Nature Subjects of Tourist Interest; including studies of local concepts of the natural environment, and traditional usage of natural resources. Design of a nature conservation programme, as related to international tourism options, giving due consideration to traditional culture, traditional land rights, and rights-in-use of natural resources.

TONGA (Archaeological Sites - Environment)

Identification, Protection and Controlled Exposure of Archaeological Sites.

TONGA (Handicraft - Agriculture)

Improvements to the Handicraft Industry: Training and an Agricultural Programme for the Handicraft Sector.

TUVALU (Regional Planning - Product development - Environment)

Integrated Tourism Development including Protection of Nature Resources.

WESTERN SAMOA (Physical Planning - Product Development)

Design and development of a Village Owned and Managed Guest House Complex. Identification of Tourist Attractions and an outline of Protective Measures to Preserve Nature Sites and Culture.

1986 CENTRAL AFRICAN REPUBLIC (Water Supply - Surveys)

Senior Socio-economist undertaking a Danida masterplan study for water supply to 5 urban centres. Responsible for socio-economic research programme, tariff system design, a health information programme, and site selection for spot water sources.

1986 KENYA (Telecommunication - Market Analysis - Surveys)

Socio-economist on team evaluating a public telephone system in Kenya. Responsible for assessment of social and economic impact of payphones installed, so as to facilitate the location of future installations as related to specific types of demand. Funding: Danida.

1986 DENMARK (Health)

Specialist and part of multidisciplinary team undertaking a study for Frederiksberg Municipality on dental health behaviour among immigrant families.

1986 BURMA (Tourism - Environment - Physical Planning)

Tourism planner on Burma Tourism development Study (Rangoon, Mandalay and Pagan). Responsible for project integration of physical, cultural, environmental and historical/archaeological aspects. Funding: UNDP. Executing Agency : World Tourism Organisation (WTO).

1985 MALAWI (Water Supply - regional Planning - Health)

Senior socio-economist on socio-economic team undertaking initial research for a water master plan for 44 townships. Responsibilities: Demographic data, assessment of health situation, description of present tariff policies as related to income levels, assessment of present water needs and of urban and semi-urban population growth rates. Forecast of future water consumption, with breakdowns on residential, institutional, industrial and commercial consumption. Funding: African Development Bank.

    1. INDIA (Water Supply - Maintenance - Health)

Executive socio-economist (staff of 26) at the Danida Drinking Water project covering 20 districts in the Orissa coastal belt (recipient population 2.5 million).

Responsibilities: Socio-economic data collection, demography, design of a health education programme, design of a village handpump maintenance programme, training of local counterpart staff. Given charge of overall Project monitoring. As the Socio-Economic Project Unit was a self contained entirety, responsibilities also included budgeting, accounting and personnel.

1984 BANGLADESH (Health)

Study visit to the International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Dhaka. Sponsor: Danida.

1984 DENMARK (Art - Handicraft - Museums)

Consultant to the National Museum of Denmark on an exhibition of classical Orya paintings, and to Haderslev Museum on an exhibition of Indian children’s toys.

1975-83 DENMARK (Teaching - Social Anthropology - Ecology)

Lecturer at the Danish Open University (Folkeuniversitetet) on social anthropology and cultural ecology.

1983 INDIA (Agriculture - Irrigation - Surveys - Markets)

In charge of a socio-economic baseline survey of the area covered by North Kanara Integrated Development Project, a project for the construction of irrigation facilities with minor components comprising access roads and bridges. The Project also included agricultural extension and crop improvement. Responsibilities: Survey design, description of cropping patterns, description of reasons for crop preferences, irrigation patterns, community structure, village organisation and gender related issues. Also responsible for recommendations on land tenure, irrigation society regulations and workpower issues. Funding: Danida.

1980-1983 MALDIVES (Tourism - Regional Planning - Environment Physical Planning - Agriculture - Handicraft - Management)

Tourism planner and culture- environment specialist on a multidisciplinary team undertaking a tourism development master plan and feasibility study for the Maldive Islands funded by the Kuwait Fund for Arab Economic Development. Responsibilities included: demographic and manpower data, environment, agriculture, fisheries, handicraft, and four sector specific studies:

1) Protection of Environment and Wildlife Conservation, including draft environmental legislation.

2) Maldivian handicraft Study

3) Fruit and Vegetable Gardening for resort Consumption

4) Design of an Exhibition Centre for Tourism Development Purposes
1982-83 MOZAMBIQUE (Regional Planning)

Socio-economist on a multidisciplinary team for Physical Planning in Zambezia Province. Responsible for a study of the small-holder agricultural sector. Funding Danida.

1975-82 DENMARK (Education)

Teacher at the Institute of Ethnology and Anthropology, University of Copenhagen. Post graduate Courses on: Human Ecology, Fieldwork Methodology, Qualitative and Quantitative Methods, Applied research, and Media, Communication & Presentation.

1981 MALDIVES (Demography - Population Policy - Education)

Expert on mission; Basic needs Assessment for Population Assistance. Production of background paper covering: Population data, Population Policies, Development Plans, Health and Family planning, Gender Issues, Media and Education. Funding: UNFPA

1981 U.K. (Research - Material Culture)

Research at Museum of Mankind, London, on South Asian agricultural and fisheries technologies. Funding: University of Copenhagen.

1981 PAKISTAN (Research - Material Culture)

Research and collection of contemporary agricultural and household utensils in Gilgit, Hunza and Baltistan. Funding: University of Copenhagen.

1981 YEMEN AND OMAN (Technologies - Material Culture - History of Trade)

Research and extensive travel in Oman, Northern Yemen and the UAR on research grant: “Cultural Links in Material Culture as a Function of Early Maritime Trade between Southern Arabia and South Asia”. Collection of cultural materials for the Arabic reference collection at Aarhus University Museum (Moesgaard). Funding: Nordic Institute for Asian Studies.

1979 DENMARK (Research - Museums - Ethnography - Botany)

Research Grant from the Danish National Research Council for the Humanities for the classification, determination and registration of ethnographic and biological collections from the Maldives. Work at Aarhus University Museum (Moesgaard) and Institute for Systematic Botany, University of Copenhagen.

1979 MALDIVES (Population Issues - Health - Education)

Writer of UNICEF background paper on the Maldives: Culture, Demography, Population, Children, Health/Nutrition, Education, Literacy, Housing.

1979 - to date DENMARK (Media)

Programmes for Danish Radio and TV on travel and culture.

1976-78 MALDIVES (Anthropological Fieldwork - Biology)

Field-work in the Maldive Islands on a research fellowship sponsored by the Danish National Research Council for the Humanities. Visits to all atolls and 120 of the 201 inhabited islands of the Maldive archipelago; 10 months stay on the southern island of Fua Mulaku. Field research centred on atoll ecology. The work included a full collection of the utilised and non-utilised Maldivian flora, collection of marine and terrestrial fauna in collaboration with Danish and South Asian research institutions.

Anthropological field-work comprised studies of socio-political structure, economics, trade, fishing, agriculture, inter island communication, history, art and language; as well as studies of local technologies and the collection of material artefacts (now at the Aarhus University, Moesgaard Museum).

Research involved visits to museums, archives and libraries in Sri Lanka, India, Burma, Thailand, Malaysia, Oman and the United Arab Emirates.

1976 SOUTH PACIFIC (Tourism)

Tour leader in Asia and Oceania including Fiji, Australia, New Zealand, Cook Islands and French Polynesia.

1974 MALDIVES (Anthropological Field-Work)

Field-work in the Maldive Islands as first social scientist in the area.

1973-74 INDIA (Anthropological Field-Work)

Anthropological field-work in Thirumullaivasal, a coastal village in Tamil Nadu.

1972-73 DENMARK (Museums - Education)

Museum assistant at the National Museum of Denmark, Ethnographic Collection. Arrangement of public lectures, production of educational materials for schools, and general museum work.

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