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Text 10. The English Language
English is a Germanic Language of the Indo-European Family. This broad family includes most of the European languages spoken today. The Indo-European family includes several major branches: Latin and the modern Romance languages (French etc.); the Germanic languages (English, German, Swedish etc.); the Indo-Iranian languages (Hindi, Sanskrit etc.); the Slavic languages (Russian, Polish, Czech etc.); the Baltic languages of Latvian and Lithuanian; the Celtic languages (Welsh, Irish Gaelic etc.); Greek.
English is the second most spoken language in the world. Only Mandarin (Chinese) is spoken by more people. English is now the most widespread of the world's languages. It is becoming the world's unofficial international language.
It is estimated that there are 300 million native speakers and 300 million who use English as a second language. More than 100 million people use it as a foreign language. It is the language of science, air and water transport, computing, tourism and international relations. It is listed as the official or second official language in 45 countries. This can be compared to 27 for French, 20 for Spanish and 17 for Arabic. English is often spoken in other countries where it has no official status. It plays an important role in the cultural, political and economic life of many countries. The native speakers of English live in Great Britain, in the United States of America, Australia and New Zealand.
The number of people learning English is estimated as 200,000,000 learners in Europe, 150,000,000 in South America, and more than 400,000,000 in Asia.
For English speakers, English language teaching has been a very successful business. For the last 40 years students from all over the world have rushed to England to learn English. In the 1980s people could become rich very fast if they owned a language school. In London, towns and cities like Oxford, Cambridge and Brighton people made huge profits teaching young adults and teenagers coming to England to study English.
The British Council is a United Kingdom-based organisation specialising in international educational and cultural programmes. It was founded in 1934 as the British Committee for Relations with Other Countries. Leeper, the founder of the British Council and the British government recognized the importance of cultural propaganda in promoting British interests. The British Council's sponsoring department within the United Kingdom Government is the Foreign and Commonwealth Office.
There are 70 British Council Teaching Centres in 53 countries. It taught 1,200,000 class hours to 300,000 learners in 2007. The British Council is the world's largest English language teaching organisation. In its examination centres, the British Council administers 1.5 million UK examinations to over one million candidates each year. The Council runs a number of global English language standardised tests. It is a very profitable business, as the market is constantly growing. Half of all business deals are conducted in English. Two thirds of all scientific papers are written in English. Over 70% of all post is written and addressed in English. Most international tourism and diplomacy is conducted in English.
Some 20-30 years ago a Soviet university graduate could feel himself on a safe ground with just elementary skills in English. Russian was a self sufficient language. There were a lot of scientific books, special journals in every field of science and technology. Soviet scientists were known all over the world for their works in nuclear physics, chemistry, laser optics, metallurgy, medicine. They were leaders in space, ocean, Arctic and Antarctic exploration. Their articles and reports were translated from Russian into many other languages. Russian was of great interest for other peoples. It was spoken all over the Soviet Union, it was learnt at schools and universities of Eastern Europe, in many countries of Asia, Africa and Latin America. It could be used for international communications in those countries. After the destruction of the USSR Russian was replaced by English in most of them. Even on the territory of many former Soviet Republics English is more widely used than Russian. Now it is necessary for any specialist in the Russian Federation to know English well.
The history of the English language can be traced back to the arrival of three Germanic tribes to the British Isles during the 5th Century AD. Angles, Saxons and Jutes crossed the North Sea from the continent. The inhabitants of Britain previously spoke a Celtic language. After the arrival of Germanic tribes most of the Celtic speakers were pushed into Wales, Cornwall and Scotland. Some of them migrated to the Brittany Coast of France. The Celtic Language of Breton is still spoken there today. The Angles were named from Engle, their land of origin. This name is the source of the words England and English.
An Anglo-Saxon inscription dated between 450 and 480AD is the oldest sample of the English language.
During the next few centuries four dialects of English developed: Northumbrian in Northumbria, Mercian in the Kingdom of Mercia, West Saxon in the Kingdom of Wessex, Kentish in Kent.
During the 7th and 8th Centuries, Northumbria's culture and language dominated Britain. The Viking invasions of the 9th Century brought this domination to an end. The Kingdom of Mercia was destroyed. Only Wessex remained as an independent kingdom.
By the 10th Century, the West Saxon dialect became the official language of Britain. Written Old English is mainly known from this period. It was written in an alphabet called Runic. It was borrowed from the Scandinavian languages. The Latin Alphabet was brought over from Ireland by Christian missionaries later.
At this time, the vocabulary of Old English consisted of an Anglo Saxon base with borrowed words from the Scandinavian languages (Danish and Norse) and Latin. Latin gave English words like street, kitchen, kettle, cup, cheese, wine, angel, bishop, candle.
The Vikings added many Norse words: sky, egg, cake, skin, leg, window, husband, fellow, skill, anger, flat, ugly, get, give, take, raise, call, they, their, them.
Celtic words survived in place and river names (Devon, Dover, Kent, Severn, Thames).
Old English did not sound or look like English today. Native English speakers now would have great difficulty understanding Old English. Nevertheless, about half of the most commonly used words in Modern English have Old English roots.
The best known example of Old English is the poem Beowulf. Old English was used until about 1100.
William the Conqueror, the Duke of Normandy, invaded and conquered England and the Anglo-Saxons in 1066 AD. The new overlords spoke a dialect of Old French known as Anglo-Norman. French became the language of the Norman aristocracy, the language of the Royal Court and the ruling classes. For a period there was a kind of linguistic class division, where the lower classes spoke English and the upper classes spoke French.
Because the English underclass tended the cattle and cooked for the Norman upper class, the words for most domestic animals are English (ox, cow, calf, sheep, swine, deer) while the words for the meats derived from them are French (beef, veal, mutton, pork, bacon, venison).
The Germanic form of plurals (house, housen; shoe, shoen) was resplaced by the French method of making plurals: adding an «s» (house, houses; shoe, shoes). Only a few words have retained their Germanic plurals: men, oxen, feet, teeth, children.
During the Hundred Years War with France it became evident that soldiers and their commanders in the English army spoke two different languages. What is more, the commanders spoke the language of their enemies. So the king ordered English to be spoken in his army.
In the 14th century English became dominant in Britain again, but with many French words added. This language is called Middle English. It was the language of the great poet Chaucer (1340-1400). It would still be difficult for native English speakers to understand that language today. The Middle English period came to a close around 1500 AD with the rise of Modern English.
The next wave of innovation in English came with the Renaissance. The revival of classical scholarship brought many classical Latin and Greek words into the Language. From the 16th century the British had contact with many peoples from around the world. Many new words entered the language.
Borrowed words include names of animals (giraffe, tiger, zebra), clothing (pyjama, turban), food (chocolate, orange), scientific and mathematical terms (algebra, geography), drinks (tea, coffee), sports (checkmate, golf, billiards), vehicles (chariot, car, coach), music and art (piano, theatre), weapons (pistol, trigger, rifle), political and military terms (commando, admiral, parliament), and astronomical names (Saturn, Uranus).
Many students would be surprised to learn that Shakespeare wrote in modern English. But his English has much more in common with the language today than it does with the language of Chaucer. Many familiar words and phrases were coined or first recorded by Shakespeare. He created about 2,000 words and many idioms.
The major factor in the development of Modern English was the invention of the printing press. William Caxton brought the printing press to England in 1476. Books became cheaper and as a result, literacy became more common. Publishing for the masses became a profitable business. Works in English became more common. The printing press brought standardization to English. The dialect of London, where most publishing houses were located, became the standard. Spelling and grammar were fixed. The first English dictionary was published in 1604.
Text 11. History of Moscow
The first reference to Moscow dates from 1147 as a meeting place of Yuri Dolgorukiy and Sviatoslav Olgovich. At the time it was a minor town on the western border of Vladimir-Suzdal Principality.
In 1156, Prince Yuri Dolgorukiy of Rostov fortified the town with a timber fence and a moat. It was the first Kremlin. In 1237–1238 the Mongols burned the city to the ground and killed its inhabitants.
Moscow recovered and became the capital of the independent Vladimir-Suzdal principality in 1327. Its favorable position contributed to steady expansion. Moscow developed into a prosperous principality, known as Grand Duchy of Moscow. It attracted a large number of refugees from other parts of Russia.
Under Ivan I of Moscow the city replaced Tver as a political center of Vladimir-Suzdal. It became the sole collector of taxes for the Mongol-Tatar rulers.
By paying high tribute, Ivan won an important concession from the Khan. Unlike other principalities, Moscow was not divided among his sons, but was passed intact to his eldest. Moscow's opposition against foreign domination grew.
In 1380, prince Dmitry Donskoy of Moscow led a united Russian army to an important victory over the Tatars in the Battle of Kulikovo. The battle, however, was not decisive and two years later Moscow was sacked by khan Tokhtamysh.
Ivan III, in 1480, finally broke the Russians free from Tatar control, allowing Moscow to become the center of power in Russia. Under Ivan III the city became the capital of an empire.
1547. Ivan the Terrible (Ivan IV) was crowned the first Tsar of All Russia at the age of 17. In 1552 Ivan defeated the Tartars in Kazan. St. Basil’s Cathedral was built in commemoration of that victory. Nevertheless, in 1571 the Crimean Tatars attacked and sacked Moscow, burning everything but the Kremlin.
1598. Boris Godunov (1551-1605) was elected the next tsar. Godunov built another wall around the Kremlin and Kitay Gorod.
False Dmitry I appeared in history in 1600. He claimed to be the youngest son of Ivan the Terrible, tsarevitch Dmitry Ivanovich, who had escaped an assassination attempt. It is generally believed that the real Dmitry was assassinated in Uglich in 1591. Regardless of whether they believed the tale of Dmitry, several Polish noblemen decided to support him against Tsar Boris Godunov. Some of the Russian boyars accepted Dmitry’s claim because it gave them legal reason not to pay taxes to Boris.
When the Tsar Boris heard about the pretender, he claimed that the man was just a runaway monk called Grigory Otrepyev. Dmitry attracted a number of followers, formed a small army, and gained the support of Polish magnates who gave him approximately 3500 soldiers from their private armies. He went to Russia with them in 1604. Enemies of Boris, including the southern Cossacks, joined his forces on his way to Moscow. The news of the sudden death of Tsar Boris reached the troops in April 1605. This removed the last barrier to the pretender's further progress. Russian troops began to defect to Dmitry’s side.
On 1 June boyars in Moscow imprisoned the newly-crowned tsar, Feodor II, the son of Boris I and his mother and later killed them. On 20 June Dmitry made his triumphal entry into Moscow. Tsar Ivan's widow Maria Nagaya accepted him as her son. On 21 July he was crowned tsar. The Godunov family was executed. In his correspondence, Dmitry referred to himself as the «Emperor of Russia», a century before Tsar Peter I. On 8 May 1606, Dmitry married Marina Mniszech in Moscow.
In the morning of 17 May 1606, about two weeks after the marriage, conspirators stormed the Kremlin. Dmitry tried to flee through a window but broke his leg and was killed. Vasili Shuisky took his place as Tsar Vasili IV.
The second False Dmitry first appeared on the scene around July 20, 1607.
Marina Mniszech recognized her husband in this second Dmitry. This brought him the support of the magnates of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth who had supported False Dmitry I. They decided to support the second pretender as well, supplying him with some funds and 7000 soldiers. In the spring of 1608 he advanced upon Moscow, routing the army of Tsar Vasily Shuisky. The village of Tushino, near Moscow was converted into an armed camp where Dmitry gathered his army. His force initially included 7000 Polish soldiers, 10,000 Cossacks and 10,000 other rag-tag soldiers. His forces soon exceeded 100,000 men. He was supported by the Don Cossacks, and put under his control all south-eastern Russia.
In 1609, the Swedish army started their march from Great Novgorod toward Moscow to help Tsar Vasili Shuiski. It entered Moscow in 1610 and suppressed the rebellion against the Tsar, The army left Moscow early in 1611. Then the Polish–Lithuanian army invaded Russia and entered Moscow after defeating the Russian forces in the Battle of Klushino.
By that time, the popular indignation had risen against the Polish aggressors and their Russian supporters in Moscow. In autumn 1611 prince Pozharsky was offered to assume command of the Volunteer Army gathered in Nizhny Novgorod. The prince agreed on condition that he would be assisted by Kuzma Minin, a representative of the Nizhegorod citizens.
Although the volunteer army was aimed at clearing the Polish and Lithuanian invaders out of Moscow, Pozharsky and his army marched towards Yaroslavl first. There they resided for half a year. Pozharsky hesitated. He knew about numerous traitors, different groups of nobles with their own interests in Moscow. Meanwhile, he organised a sort of a government, coined his own money and received reports from all northern Russia. In fact he was the ruler of the independent part of the country. Finally he rejected the idea of setting up a new capital in Yaroslavl, and followed the appeal of priests and Muscovites to liberate Moscow.
Finally, on 18 August 1612, a year after the start, the Volunteer Army came to Moscow, just in time to meet the Polish army. Hetman Chodkiewicz arrived with provisions to the relief of the Polish garrison barricaded within the Moscow Kremlin together with their Russian supporters. It is interesting, that the future tsar Mikhail Romanov and his mother were among them. They were the subjects of the King of Poland.
The next day Pozharsky advanced to the Arbat Gate of the city and two days later he engaged with Chodkiewicz's army in a four-day battle. The Polish army retreated and lost the provisions intended for the Polish garrison. As a result, a famine broke out among the Poles in the Kremlin and they had to surrender to Pozharsky in October.
A new tsar was elected by the Zemsky Sobor half a year later. By that time the Volunteer Army had been dismissed and there were few supporters of Pozharsky in Moscow.
Many nobles and cossacks were afraid that the new tsar could remind them their close cooperation with Poles and False Dmitry. So they elected weak and young Mikhail Romanov to take the throne in 1613. The Romanovs themselves were among the supporters of False Dmitry and the King of Poland.
The 17th century was rich in popular risings, such as the Salt Riot (1648), the Copper Riot (1662), and the Moscow Uprising of 1682. In 1671 Cossack leader Stepan Razin led an uprising in the Volga region. He was caught and brought to Moscow. He was executed on Red Square.
Kuzma Minin and Dmitriy Pozharskiy
1682. Peter I (1672-1725) becomes Tsar. He was 10 years old when his elder half-brother Feodor III died. Feodor III did not leave any children. A dispute arose between the Naryshkin and Miloslavsky families over who should inherit the throne. Peter's other half-brother, Ivan V, was next in line for the throne, but he was chronically ill. The Boyar Duma (a council of nobles) chose the 10-year-old Peter to become Tsar with his mother as regent. This arrangement was brought before the people of Moscow, as ancient tradition demanded, and was ratified. But Sophia Alekseyevna, one of Alexis' daughters from his first marriage, led a rebellion of the elite military corps - Streltsy in April–May 1682. In the conflict some of Peter's relatives and friends were murdered, and Peter saw some of these acts of political violence.
Finally Peter and Ivan were proclaimed joint Tsars. Sophia acted as regent. For seven years she ruled the country. A large hole was cut in the back of the dual-seated throne used by Ivan and Peter. Sophia would sit behind the throne and listen as Peter spoke to nobles. She gave him information and responses to questions and problems. This throne can be seen in the Kremlin museum in Moscow.
In 1689 Peter planned to take power from his half-sister Sophia. He forced Sophia to enter a convent. Peter became the sole ruler when Ivan died in 1696.
To improve the nation's position on the seas, Peter wanted more maritime outlets. His only outlet at that time was the White Sea at Arkhangelsk. The Baltic Sea was controlled by Sweden in the north. The Black Sea was controlled by the Ottoman Empire in the south.
Peter knew that Russia could not face the Ottoman Empire alone. In 1697 he traveled incognito to Europe on an 18-month journey with a large Russian delegation. But the Europeans at the time were more concerned about who would succeed the childless Spanish King Charles II than about fighting the Ottoman Sultan.
Peter's visit was cut short in 1698, when he was forced to rush home by a rebellion of the Streltsy.
The Moscow Streltsy, which had participated in Azov campaigns in 1695–1696, were left in Azov as a garrison. In 1697 the four regiments of Streltsy were sent to Velikiye Luki instead of Moscow. On their way there, they were starving and carrying their ordnance by themselves due to absence of horses. In March 1698, 175 Streltsy left their regiments and went to Moscow to file a complaint. They secretly established contact with Sophia Alekseyevna, who had been incarcerated at the Novodevichy Monastery, and hoped for her mediation. On 6 June, Streltsy removed their commanding officers and went to Moscow to punish the boyars and foreign advisers.
Peter I ordered four regiments and a cavalry unit to attack the Streltsy. On 18 June, the Streltsy were defeated not far from Moscow.
Over 1,200 of the rebels were tortured and executed. The investigation and executions continued up until 1707. The Moscow regiments, which had not participated in the uprising, were disbanded. Streltsy and their families were removed from Moscow.
The execution of the Streltsy in Red Square is the subject of the grand painting by Vasily Surikov.
Peter made a temporary peace with the Ottoman Empire that allowed him to keep the captured fort of Azov. He turned his attention to Russian maritime supremacy. He wanted to acquire control of the Baltic Sea. Peter declared war on Sweden, which was at the time led by King Charles XII. Sweden was also opposed by Denmark-Norway, Saxony, and the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth.
Peter founded the city of Saint Petersburg in Ingermanland in 1703. He forbade the building of new stone buildings outside Saint Petersburg, so that all stonemasons could participate only in the construction of the new city.
During Peter's reign the Russian Orthodox Church was reformed. The traditional leader of the Church was the Patriarch of Moscow. In 1700, when the office fell vacant, Peter refused to name a replacement. In 1721 Peter created the Holy Synod, a council of ten clergymen, to take the place of the Patriarch. Peter implemented a law that no Russian man could join a monastery before the age of 50. He felt that too many able Russian men were being wasted on clerical work.
In 1721 the Treaty of Nystad ended the Great Northern War. Russia acquired Ingria, Estonia, Livonia, and a large part of Karelia.
Moscow ceased to be Russia’s capital in 1712. Saint Petersburg became the new one.
Text 12. History of Moscow
Peter the Great wanted to modernise Russia. He always despised Moscow for its scheming boyars and archaic traditions. In 1712, he startled the country, by announcing the relocation of the capital to a swampland in the northwest. St.Petersburg became the main city of the Empire. The spurned ex-capital fell into decline. Later an outbreak of bubonic plague followed.
The abandoned Moscow and its suburbs attracted vast numbers of serfs and army deserters. The increasing population created more waste. There was human waste, horse waste, and waste from fish markets, tanneries and other industries. The foul smell was associated with the city. The plague peaked in September 1771. It was killing a thousand muscovites a day, despite the fact that three quarters of the population fled the city.
Governor Saltykov failed to control the situation. He preferred to desert his post and fled to his country estate. The police chief followed him. The newly appointed sanitary inspector of Moscow declared the state of emergency. He shut down shops, inns, taverns, factories and churches. The city was placed under quarantine. Masses of people were thrown into the streets without their regular work or trade. On the 15th September, 1771, Moscow residents revolted against the authorities. The epidemic in Moscow gradually reduced through the year. In November, it was officially declared that the epidemic was over, but deaths continued into 1772. Moscow lost about 100 thousand citizens out of total 300 thousand.
By the beginning of the 19th century, Moscow had recovered from its gloom. By this time, the city hosted Russia’s first university, museum and newspaper.
In the early 1800s Tsar Alexander I decided to resume trade with England. So he broke his treaty with France. A furious Napoleon Bonaparte set out for Moscow with the largest military force the world had ever seen. The Russian army engaged the advancing French at the Battle of Borodino, 130km from Moscow. More than 100,000 soldiers lay dead at the end of this one-day fight. Shortly after, Napoleon entered a deserted Moscow. Most of the people had left the city.
The governor, Fyodor Rostopchin, ordered to burn the city. Soon afterwards, fires destroyed most of Moscow buildings. Historians believe that retreating Russians set most of the fires, others were started by soldiers of Napoleon army. After about a month, the French troops left Moscow and began a retreat through the cold winter.
When the remnants of Napoleon's army crossed the Berezina River in November, there were only 27,000 fit soldiers. The French Army had lost more than 380,000 men dead and 100,000 captured.
Fire of Moscow
A shortage of funds, state and private, delayed reconstruction of Moscow by at least five years. The disaster allowed the authorities a unique opportunity to plan the city. In 1816–1830, city planners set up the Garden Ring, a circular highway in place of old fortifications and widened many other streets.
Reconstruction of Red Square and Kitai-gorod was handled by Joseph Bove. In February 1818, the Monument to Minin and Pozharsky was completed. It was the first public monument in Moscow. It was placed in the center of Red Square. The symmetrical Theatre Square was also designed by Bove. He had completed Bolshoi and Maly theaters by 1825. Moscow University and other public buildings were rebuilt by Domenico Giliardi and Afanasy Grigoriev.
Nicholas II was crowned Tsar of Russia in Moscow on 26(14) May 1896. Four days later, a banquet was going to be held for the people at Khodynka Field. The field was used for military training, and there were many trenches and ditches there. Thirty-eight people died there during the celebration of Alexander III’s coronation in 1883. Nobody improved or levelled the field. Instead, beer halls and restaurants were built. A giant pavilion for the new Tsar and his wife was erected. Beer would be served, and people were promised gifts. A handkerchief printed with a picture of the Tsar would be filled with a sausage, bread and sweets. A cup would also be handed out. Tables with the gifts were set up at the far end of the field. A hundred policemen were expected to keep order.
When the sun rose, there were more than half a million people. They arrived at night.
The policemen couldn’t control the crowd. People decided that there were not enough gifts for everybody. They rushed to the tables across the field. Many of them fell and were trampled and crushed by those who followed them. In fifteen minutes, everything turned into screaming madness. Khodynka Field was covered with broken, bleeding bodies of men, women, children and babies. Over 1400 people were killed. Thousands were injured.
The government tried to suppress the story. More policemen and soldiers arrived to collect the dead bodies. They put bodies into carts and wagons, hid them under canvas and tarps. A French film crew arrived to make a film about the festival. Their cameras were confiscated.
Nicholas continued the celebrations. That included his appearance at Khodynka Field. Unable to clear all the bodies by 2:00 P.M., the time the Imperial Couple were to appear, police hid them under the Imperial Pavilion. The Finance Minister, Sergei Witte said it was a festival on top of the corpses. The celebrations continued. That night Nicholas attended a ball given by the French ambassador. When Nicholas and his wife began to dance, many guests went out. After that, Nicholas II was named Bloody Nicholas.
On 8 February 1904 the Russo-Japanese War began. It was the first great war of the 20th century. It grew out of rival imperial ambitions of the Russian Empire and the Empire of Japan over Manchuria and Korea.
The defeats of the Russian Army and Navy shook Russian confidence. Throughout 1905, the Imperial Russian government was rocked by revolution. The population was against escalation of the war. The Empire was certainly capable of sending more troops, but the poor state of the economy, the embarrassing defeats of the Russian army and navy by the Japanese, and the relative unimportance of the disputed land to Russia made the war incredibly unpopular.
At the beginning of the 20th century the Russian industrial employee worked on average an 11 hour day (10 hours on Saturday). Conditions in the factories were extremely harsh and little concern was shown for the workers' health and safety. Attempts to form trade unions were resisted by the factory owners.
1904 was a particularly bad year for Russian workers. Prices of essential goods rose so quickly that real wages declined by 20 per cent. Over 110,000 workers in St. Petersburg went out on strike.
Gapon the priest decided to make a personal appeal to Nicholas II. He drew up a petition outlining the workers' sufferings and demands. That included a reduction in the working day to eight hours, an increase in wages, an improvement in working conditions and an end to the Russo-Japanese War.
When the procession of workers with religious icons, singing "God Save the Czar!" reached the Winter Palace in St Petersburg it was attacked by the police and the Cossacks. Over 100 workers were killed and 350 wounded, according to the official report. Other sources claimed more than 4,000 dead.
The incident, known as Bloody Sunday ( 9(22) January 1905), started the 1905 Revolution. Strikes took place all over the country. Many universities were closed. Students, lawyers, doctors, engineers supported the striking workers.
In June 1905 sailors on the Potemkin battleship protested against the serving of rotten meat. The captain ordered to shoot down the leaders. The firing-squad refused to carry out the order and joined with the rest of the crew in throwing the officers overboard.
Industrial workers all over Russia went on strike in October 1905. The railwaymen went on strike which paralyzed the whole Russian railway network. During the Textile Strike in Ivanovo the first Soviet was established. It began as a strike committee but developed into an elected body of the town's workers. Over the next few months Soviets of Workers Deputies were established in 50 different towns. In Moscow it was headed by Mikhail Frunze. The armed uprising in Moscow in December 1905 became the culmination of the Russian revolution. During a period of 9 days, workers led a hard struggle with the police and government troops.
The government sent loyal troops. The Semenovskii Regiment used artillery to break the barricades and to shell workers' districts. With around a thousand people dead and parts of the city in ruins, the workers surrendered. The uprisings ended in December 1905. According to figures presented in the Duma by Professor Kovalevsky, by April 1906, more than 14,000 people had been executed and 75,000 imprisoned.