Musical instruments of india



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2.KATHAK- UTTAR PRADESH

  • It probably started as an oral tradition. Mime and gestures were perhaps added later on to make the recitation more effective.

  • Vaishnavite cult which swept North India in the 15th century. and the resultant bhakti movement contributed to a whole new range of lyrics and musical forms. 

  • Dance in Raslila, however, was mainly an extension of the basic mime and gestures of the Kathakars or story-tellers which blended easily with the existing traditional dance.

  • In both Hindu and Muslim courts, Kathak became highly stylised and came to be regarded as a sophisticated form of entertainment.

  • Under the Muslims there was a greater stress on nritya and bhava giving the dance graceful, expressive and sensuous dimensions.

  • The weight of the body is equally distributed along the horizontal and vertical axis.

  • full foot contact is of prime importance where only the toe or the ball of the foot are used, their function is limited.

  • no deflections and no use of sharp bends or curves of the upper or lower part of the body.

  • Torso movements emerge from the change of the shoulder line rather than through the manipulations of the backbone or upper chest and lower waist muscles.

  • Both the drummer (here the drum is either a pakhawaj, a type of mridangam, or a pair of tabla) and the dancer weave endless combinations on a repetitive melodic line.

  • A poetic line set to music is interpreted with gestures in other numbers, such as the tumri, bhajan, dadra - all lyrical musical compositions. 

  • Both in nritta (pure dance) and the abhinaya (mime) there is immense scope for improvisation of presenting variations on a theme.

  • Being the only classical dance of India having links with Muslim culture, it represents a unique synthesis of Hindu and Muslim genius in art.

  • Further, Kathak is the only form of classical dance wedded to Hindustani or the North Indian music.


3.KUCHIPUDI- ANDHRA PRADESH

  • 'At times, even though the dramatic situation did not demand, solo dancing was being presented to punctuate the presentation and to enhance the appeal. One such number is tarangam inspired by the Krishna-leela tarangini of Teerthanarayana Yogi.

  • To show the dexterity of the dancers in footwork and their control and balance over their bodies, techniques like dancing on the rim of a brass plate and with a pitcher full of water on the head was introduced.

  • Acrobatic dancing became part of the repertoire.

  • there are now two forms of Kuchipudi; the traditional musical dance-drama and the solo dance.

  • A recital of Kuchipudi begins with an invocatory number, as is done in some other classical dance styles. Earlier the invocation was limited to Ganesha Vandana. Now other gods are also invoked.

  • It is followed by nritta, that is, non-narrative and abstract dancing. A Kuchipudi recital is usually concluded with tarangam.

  • music that accompanies the dance is according to the classical school of Carnatic music and is delightfully syncopatic.

  • Orchestra- mridangam,  violin/veena & cymbal
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