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Appendix IX

Award about the Sandford and Salkeld Disputes; 4 May, 1477.
This indentur made at Yhanwath the fourth day of May in the zher of the reygn of Kyng Edward iiiith after the conquest of Yngland xvij wytness yt wher certen wariaunce and dyscord of lang tym has beyn meved and had be twix Thomas of Sandford of Askom, squeher, his brether, frends,tenands and servants upon the ton partye & John of Salkeld of Gelber squeher late possesset, his brether, his sonns, frends, tenands and servants appon the todyr parte for the whilke wariaunce and all other mevet be twix the parteis a for sayde fro the begynnyng of the ward (a) to ye daye of the present wrytyng exceptying for a place in Mesande that stands in variance betwyx the sayd Thomas of Sandfourd and Anne the wyfe the wife of the sayd John of Salkeld and How of Salkeld hyr son for the ryght and the clame of the whylke place the parteis a forseyd are boundyn to abyd the ordenaunce dome and award of Sir Lanslet Threlkeld knyght, the sayd parteys have fundyn suffisant surte by ther several obligacons of 100£ to abyd the ordinance dome and award of us Sir Larslot Threlkeld kngt, Richerd Acton of Acton and Willm of Loncastrer of Smot bryghe gentylmen, querapon we the sayd Sir Launslot, Richard and Willm has cald a for us bothe the sayd parteis and wel consavyd and onderstand ther complantis answers and and except the whylk by us wel consavyd herd and enderstand(ed), ordanys and awards in the furme tha t after folowis that is to saye that the parteis afforsayd (one and oder of them be trew and fule frends for all materys of grevans don afor the date herof also we award the said Thomas Sandford therby to be dischargyd of al maner of payments be for to hym awardit to paye a fore the dayte of the present wrytyng to the sayd John of Salkeld or to any of his frends tenands or servants, also we award the said Thomas of Sandford to al hys frends tenands and servants or oders hym belongyng for any hurt or hurts as wel nede of men mayas as other do unto theym be the sayd John of Salkeld or any other of his parte for his maters, also we award Anne the wyfe of the sayd John of Salkeld his brether his son his tenands and servants to content and satisfy of their awne proper coste, as it plese them al the frends tenands and servants or odyr there belongyng for any hurte or hurtys done to them as well mene deed manys as oder by the sayd Thomas of Sandfourd and his partie for his maters and for so mekyl we understand diverse and gret hurtys done


unto the sayd Thomas of Sandfurd and to his parte by the sayd John of Salkeld of Golber and his parte the whylke was never as yet correctit ne amendit by the said John ne no nother on his parte ne hym belongyng, therfor we order deym and award Anne his wyfe his brether his sonnes his tenands and servants to paye or make to be payt unto the Sir Thomas of Sandfourd or his asaygnes £10 of lawful money of Yngland that is to saye 5 marks and at the Assumpton of our Lady the nexte followyng 5 marks in full contentaton and satisfaction of al hurts and grievaunce done afore. Gevyn under our Selys daye ande yere aboun sayd.

Endorsed-17 Ed. IV., 127.


Appendix No. X

Deed of 20th March 1477, between Thomas Sandford and John Wy1kinson of Butterwick. From Sandford MSS, at Lowther Castle. Contributed by Revd. F.W. Ragg, F.R. Hist.S.
Thys Indenture made att Askham ye XX day off Marce in ye zere off ye Regyne off Kyng Edward ye fourte XVII betwene Thomas Sandforth esquyer on ye tone partye and Jhone Wy1kynson son of Joh Wylkynson off Buttyrwyk on yt. oy’r partye wyttnesys & records yt. ye sayde Thomas & Wyllm his son & ayre es fully agreyd & promyst to take parte & mayntene ye sayde Jhone to ye recovery off hys place in Heltondale now in ye maynst’r of Robyn Wylkynson as fer as ryght & law wyll, wherefore ye sayde Jhone & hys son Jhone or fully agreyd yt. ye sayde Thomas & Wyllm afftd. hys fadyr sall hafe ye reule and governance off ye said place & ye tenants yr. off wt, all ye profyttes & aweyllys yt. may grow by ye gryssomys yr. off duryng thayre ii lyfes and ye saide Jhone and hys ayres to have ye ferme off ye sayd p1ace and as oft as it sall be lattyn ye sayde Thomas & Wyll. sall latt itt by ye assentt of ye sayde Jhone & hys ayres. And it sall be lefull to ye sayde Jhone & hys ayres iff they wyll, to dwell on ye same place and to be att ye Reule & governance off ye sayde Thomas & Wyllm to do thame serwyce att theyre power. And ye sayde Thomas & Wyllm sall be tendyr maystr to thame as theyer to odyr off thaire awne tenands. In wyttnes hereoff bothe ye partyes aboveseyde enterchangeb1y hath sett to theyre selys ye day zere & place abofe sayde.
Appendix No. Xa

Grant of the Ledyate, Bampton, to Thomas Sanford in 1471.

From Sandford MSS. at Lowther Castle.

Copied from the Transactions of the Cumberland &

Westmorland Antiquarian and Archaeological Society

(New Series) vol. XXII p.317.
Theys indentyer bers wyttence yt. Wylham of Zate ye son of John of Yate ayer to the place of ye ledzate is agreyd yt.. Thomas of Sanforth and his son Wy1lm schall have reulle and governance and ye man rydyn of the sayd p1ace doryng yr.. both lyves, also these berres wytnes at ye sayd Willyam schall let to farme and lawfully dystren for ye farme of ye tennantte of ye placee of ye ledzatte what so ever he be. Also ye forsayd Thomas and Wyllyam schall trewly manttene and forteffy ye forsayd tenauntte as ye do any of yr.. own tennaunttes. Gyffyn and grantyd ye. yer of our Lord MCCCCLXXI


Note:Mr Ragg suggests (p.292 of Trans. Of C. & W. Ant . & Arch. Socy., (N.S.) vol XXII) that “ledzate” is an unusual form of “lidyate”, a gate across a road to prevent cattle from straying.

[Appendix XI is a blank page in the MS]

92 IV

Thomas Sandford of Askham

c.1506 – 1563


Thomas Sandford, only son of Edmund Sandford and his wife Elizabeth Warcop, who inherited Askham , was only a boy at his father’s death. In accordance with the custom of the time he was sent as a page to the house of his powerfu1 kinsman, Thomas, Lord Dacre of Gillesland (called Lord Dacre of the North to distinguish him from the family of Fiennes, Lords Dacre, who were called Lords Dacre of the South), then warden of the Marches, and while there obtained his first insight into the politics of the Border in which he afterwards took a somewhat prominent part. This was the same Lord Dacre who had the dispute with Thomas’ great grandfather concerning the right “to till” to lands in Askham in 1495. He was one of the most powerful men in the North of England at the time and had just (16th May, 1518) been created a Knight of the Garter.(a) He had commanded the left wing of the English forces at the battle of Flodden in 1513, having under him a strong contingent of horsemen from Cumberland and Westmorland, and a large force of the famous bowmen of Kendal. The old ballad says

“The loft hand wing with all his route

The lusty Lord Dacre did lead;

With him the bows of Kendal stout

With milk white coats and crosses red.”

Almost certainly several men from Askham were in his forces; Thomas Sandford was of course only a few years old at the time, and we have no record of his father being present.
Besides the Dacres Thomas claimed kin with many of the most powerful local families such as Musgrave of Edenhall, Parr of Kendal (being thus distantly related to Katherine Parr the last and most fortunate Queen of Henry VIII) and Curwen of Workington, while through Edmund Dudley of Yanwath, husband to his sister Dorothy, he was connected with that House of Dudley whose ambition culminated in the tragedy of Lady Jane Grey, (b) as well as with the powerful family of Clifford.
But of all his family connections, that which was destined to have the greatest effect on his career was his relationship to the family of Wharton of Wharton, Co. Westmorland, - as yet merely an unimportant family of country squires. We shall see later on how this relationship helped to raise the prestige and power of the House of Askham,

  1. G.E.C.’s “Complete Peerage” (2nd edit.)

  2. C. & W. Trans.


As an only son it was imperative that he should follow his father’s example and marry early, and his mother’s first care was to find him a suitable wife. Her choice fell on Grace, the orphaned third daughter and co-heir of Anthony Crackenthorpe of Howgill of the ancient Wostmorland family of Crackenthorpe of Newbigging. Her uncle, Ambrose Crackenthorpe, had died without children in 1520, and had left all his lands to the three daughters of his brother Anthony, who thus became three of the greatest local heiresses of the time. (a) One of the Trustees of the estates appointed by Ambrose was Lord Dacre, and it was probably while serving as a page at Dacre Castle that Thomas Sandford courted his future wife; his wardship and marriage had been sold by Thomas Clifford Earl of Cumberland to Christopher Dacre for l00 marks. (b) Evidently the Dacre family made a profit out of the transaction,

At her uncle’s death Grace was aged 14, so she was born in the year 1506, or thereabouts, and was therefore almost exactly the same age as Thomas Sandford. Her two sisters Margaret (aged 19 in 1520) and Cecily (aged 15) married respectively William Hutton of Hutton-in-the-Forest, Co Cumberland and Ambrose Middleton of Barnard Castle, Co. Durham, and in the division of the Crackehthorpe lands between the three sisters Grace brought to her husband the lands and castle of Howgill in the parish of Milburn, Co. Westmorland, which had come to the Crackenthorpe family through the marriage of Robert de Crackenthorpe of Newbigging with Elizabeth daughter and coheiress of Sir John Lancaster, in the reign of Henry VI, (c) Thus Thomas found himself at an early age in possession of two of the principal castles or “peles” in Westmorland, and one of the greatest estates in the county.
Signs are not wanting that Grace’s influence over her husband became considerable in later years, and she seems to have been a woman of strong character. The fortunes of the family of Sandford were profoundly affected by her, and she ranks with Idonea Lengleys as one of the most outstanding women of the family.
But the young bride’s married life started in an inauspicious manner. On May 3rd, 1525, we find Thomas Lord Dacre of the North writing to Cardinal Wolsey “Pleas it also yor grace that one Hughe Cliburn of the countie of Westmorland son to Thomas Cliburn gentilman wt odeors his

(a) See Appendix XII, p.

(b) Dodsworth.

(c) N. & B., I., 387.


brether and kynnysmen evill disponed persons cam unlawfully to the manr. place and dwelling house of a kinnysman and householde servtt of myn named Thomas Sandfurth of Ascome in the said countie being withn age, and notwithstanding the proximitie of blode whitche the said Hughe standeth unto the same Thomas Sandforthe, against the law of god right and good conscience, between the hours of nine and ten of the night friday before Purification (Feb. 2) riotiously and forseably tooke Grace Crackenthorpe wif unto the said Thomas Sandforth because she is an inheritour. And her kepes wrongfully as furdre apperith in the bill of complainte presented in afore youre grace by Elysabeth Sandforth moder unto the said Thomas. In consideration of the promises and far remedie thereof it would please youre grace not only to cause the said Grace to be returned to her said husband again according to the lawes of god but also the same Hughe and oders hys adherents so punnyshed as may stand wt the king’s lawes to the exemple of oders.” (a)

The Hugh Cliburn who did this evil deed was son of that Thomas Cliburn of Cliburn who had married Thomas’s aunt Johanna Sandford, and so was first cousin to Thomas. He knew Askham Hall well, as a deed dated 3rd May 1523 is amongst the Sandford MSS, at Lowther Castle binding him and his father Thomas Cliburn to Elizabeth Sandford, widow, (mother of Thomas Sandford) in £40 sterling that they would keep and truly perform and fulfil all such “articles, commands, condicions and aggreements specified and contened in a pair of indentures concernyng the services & wags (wages)” of the said Hugh, (b) from which it will be seen that he was attached to the household at Askham in the same way that Thomas Sandford had been attached to the household of Lord Dacre. Probably his knowledge of the house and grounds stood him in good stead in his raid, There is a curious parallel between this and the earlier similar incident in the family history when Margaret, daughter of the last Robert Sandford of Sandford was abducted in 1404.In the earlier one the mother of the abducted girl was born a Warcop, and in this case the mother of the abducted girl’s husband was a member of the same family. In each case the abduction was carried out by a relative.
What the object of the raid was it is difficult to say. Perhaps it was intended to hold her to ransom, or possibly Hugh Cliburn (did not realise that Grace was actually married to Thomas , and intended to marry her himself and

(a) R.O. MS Hy VIII vol. 34, fol. 184.

(b) C. & W. (N .S.) XXI, 194.


get her lands, as in the earlier case. Dacre’s expression “because she is an inheritour” rather gives colour to this. If this were so she must have been married about January 1525 (new style) when she and her husband would both be aged about nineteen. Whatever the cause was the quarrel seems eventually to have been made up, for in later years we find one of Grace’s granddaughters marrying into the Cliburn family.

Lord Dacre died a few months after writing the above letter, being killed, on the Borders by a fall from his horse on October 24th 1525. (a)
In due course the time came when Thomas Sandford was old enough to take his position in the county, and in 1533 we find him placed on the Commission of the Peace for Westmorland, (b) an office which in those days and in that part was no sinecure.
Far-reaching events were looming up. For some time Henry VIIIhad been casting envious eyes an the great possessions of the church, and a statute was now passed giving the First Fruits and Tenths to the king, and on January 30th, 1536 (26.H. VIII) a Commission was issued to give effect to this. Henry then ordered a Survey or Valuation to be made of all Ecclesiastical Benefices in England and Wales, so that the income from this source could be properly assessed, and amongst the Commissioners for the county of Westmorland we find the name of Thomas Sandford, (c) now aged about 27.
Two years before this, however, he had played a small part in an event which had caused considerable stir in the North. William, Lord Dacre of Gillesland, had succeeded his father (that Thomas Lord Dacre whose letter to Wolsey is given above) as Warden of the Marches, and the severity with which he executed this office had earned him many enemies, who plotted to bring about his downfall. He was accused of High Treason by Sir Ralph Fenwick and was brought before a Grand Jury assembled at Carlisle as 15th June l534, composed of all the principal landowners of the two counties, and amongst the names of those serving thereon we find that of his kinsman Thomas Sandford of Askham. (d) The results, for an accusation of this nature, was a foregone conclusion, a true bill being found

(a) G.E.C.’s “Complete Peerage” (2nd edn.)

(b) L. & P. Hy VIII; V, No. 1694.

Liber Regis.

L. & P. Hy VIII; VII, No.963 (iii).


and Dacre committed for trial. Tried by his peers at Westminster in July of the same year he was triumphantly acquitted, and it was proved that the charge against him had been trumped up by various Scots “of mean extraction” whom his energy in putting down their malpractices on the Border had led to attempt this method of getting him removed. (a)

Quickly on the heels of the confiscation of the First Fruits and Tenths followed the dissolution of the lesser Monastries — i.e. those with an income of less than £200 a year - and the discontent in the North of England at this arbitrary action broke into flame in the Pilgrimage of Grace, which caused the downfall of so many ancient families of the North. From this ill-fated revolt Thomas Sandford wisely held aloof, probably at the advice of his cousin Thomas Wharton, who in spite of strong family pressure refused to join the insurgents. (b)
In the same year (1536) we find Thomas Sandford, Sir William Musgrave and Christopher Crackenthorpe granted a Commission to make an Inquisitio Post Mortem on the lands and heir of William Musgrave of Brough; all three were kin to the deceased. (c)
Thomas Sandford was now well in the vortex of Border Politics. Besides his connection with the House of Dacre he was first cousin to Sir Thomas Wharton of Wharton, now rising into prominence. This able man was sat of Thomas Wharton of Wharton, head of an old Westmorland family, by his wife Agnes, daughter of Reginald Warcop of Smardale, and sister to Elizabeth, mother of Thomas Sandford. He was one of the “new men” with whom Henry was replacing the great nobles in many of the executive positions in the state, and about this time was appointed Deputy Warden of the Western Marches. He and his cousin seem to have been much together, and he pushed the interests of the latter wherever possible, sending him on many important missions, and taking him into his confidence.

(a) 3rd Report, Dep. Keep of Pub. Rec., App. II, p.p. 234-36.

(b)Dic. Natl. Biog., Art. Thomas Wharton.”

(c) R.O. Pat. 28 Hy. VIII, p.5 , m.l.d.


In June, 1538, Sir Thomas Clifford, Governor of Berwick, writes to Cromwell that Thomas Sandford has advised him of a plot to betray Berwick to the Scots, but no action seems to have been taken. (a) Fears were entertained of another Northern rising, and plots were seen in the smallest happennings: probably on investigat­ion the “plot” was found to have no existence. In the samne year a son and heir was born to Thomas Sandford and given the name of Thomas: he had been preceded by several daughters and his advent oust have caused great joy to his parents, who now saw the succession of the family assured.

In 1539 Thomas Sandford obtained from Richard Evenwode, the last Abbot of Shap, and the Monks of the Abbey, lands at Milburn Grange “with farm by the barn and buildings” on lease for 41 years. (b) The suppression of the larger monastries was just about to take place, and evidently (as we shall see later on) Thomas was counting on this with an eye to the lease becoming a freehold: the property marched that of his wife at Howgill, The Abbey was surrendered to the King the following year, and Evenwode retired to the Rectory of Kirkby Thore (of which parish Milburn was a chapelry): he had been presented to this living by Henry, Earl of Cumberland, in 1526, and was thus both Abbot and hector. (a) There seems to have been something more in the transaction than meets the eye. (d)
Henry was now turning his attention to Scottish affairs, where trouble was brewing. One source of annoyance was that various Border outlaws and several of the participants in the Pilgrimage of Grace had fled to Scotland, and had there been given asylum by James V, who refused to give them up. The way that this was handled by Henry is typica1 of the diplomacy of the time. He wrote a friendly letter to James, which he accompanied with a present taking the form of a gelding, in view of the Scottish King’s well-known love of horses. Sir

L.& P. Hy. VlII; XIII, No, 1252.

Deeds at Appleby Castle. (C. & W., (N.S.) XVIII)

N.&B. ii. I. 373.

The impending dissolution of the monasteries was common talk in Eng1and some years before it took place. John de Belpay, Bishop of Bayonne, writing to the French Government on the eve of Wolsey’s fall, in 1529, says:—“These Lords intend after he is dead and ruined, to impeach the state of the Church and take all its goods; which it is hardly needful for me to write in cipher for they proclaim it openly” (L.& P. Hy. VlII; IV No. 6011) The Abbot of Shap probaby made povision in good time against the coming storm.


Thomas Wharton, by virtue of his official position, was given the task: of sending this to James, and at the same time of finding out his intentions and feelings towards England, the letter and the present merely being an excuse to see how he accepted them. Wharton decided to send Thomas Sandford as envoy, and his letter to Cromwell, dated 24th December, 1539, and enclosing a copy of his instructions to Thomas, still exists., It is worth giving in full for its quaint phraseology. The letter starts:—

“Pleasith it your most honourable Lordship to be advertesed that I have resaved the Kinges Majestes letters to be sentt to the King of Scottes, with a copy of the same together with your Lordship’s letters of the daytt at London the 10th of this moneth of Decembre. And accordyng to the Kynges Hignes Commandementtes in your Lordshipes sayd letters signified I have the 24th of Decembre from Kerlesle sentt my cosyn Thomas Sandford, a nonest substanciall and wysse gentylman, the Kinges Highness servantt: to the King of Scottes, with the Kinges Highness letters & geldyng, furnyshed with fyve servanttes, and the geldyng trymmd for the most pleasour to the sayd King of Scottes, as I have thought: with a remembrance to the sayd Sandford for his procedynges there as my poore wytt cowthe gather, upon your Lordshipes most noble letters: the copy of wich remembrance herewith in lyk manner I send at this tym.”
The Instructions are as follows:­-

“Instructions geyffin by Sir Thomas Wharton, Knyght, to Thomas Sandford Esquier for his remembrance to dow in Scotland. Mayd at Kerlesle the 23rd of Decembre in the 31st yere of our Soverain Lord King Henry VIIIth.

“Furst, to delyver the King’s Majestes letters with most hertie commendation to be sayd to the King of Scottes from His Higness your Mayster his Grace’s unkell, un to His Grace. And after the letter red, if He then reyd the sam, or not, to say in gentyll and most pleasant facion that the Kings Hignes your mayster desireth most to here of his Graces good helth.
“And also with much sobryeate and suffer, if He wyll enter to any communycation as of hym self with you, then to perswayd with Hym pleasantly, as the sam communycation shall occaseon you.
“And besure that ye delaytt tym for your talkes with Hym, as ther by ye may notte and remember surly his wordes, his gestoure, and cowntenance; be holdyng Hym in the face in much of your sayd talkes,”


He is to say that the King has sent him a gelding, and would be clad to know what sort, colour stature and pace of geldings best pleases him. To say that all the King’s servants know his desire for the administration of justice to the Scotch and the preservation of peace, and that it will be a great comfort for both realms and quiet to the marches to know the love between the two kings.
He is told to ask “in most pleasant fashion” what geldings and other things from England he would like, and he is then to say “as of himself” that the delivery of English traitors “reset” in Scotland who have been sundry times asked for by the warden of the West Marches would please the King. (a)
The traitors were not given up, though a Scotch “traitor” one Alexander Bell, was handed over to James as a bribe, (b) and in this respect the mission seems to have failed. Evidently, though, the report brought back by Thomas Sandford was considered to be of considerable use for early the following year we find him appointed Assistant Deputy warden of the West Marches, with a yearly pension of £10 from the Crown, (c)
In 1514 Wharton was appointed Governor and Captain of Carlisle Castle, which was delivered to him by Sir Thomas Wentworth on October 24th. (d) On November 10th we find him writing to the Privy Council and submitting four names for the office of Deputy Captain. This was an important post, as during the absence of the Captain the Deputy Captain was in command of this the principal fortress of the North. His remarks on his nominees, given to aid the Privy Council in their choice, are worth repetition.The first name is that of Sir John Lowther of Lowther, “of eght score pounds lands and more....•.,., he is something moved with the gowte and a man in myne oppynnyon mete to have a change”, A curious reason for appointing him to a responsible post, one would think! Next comes Thomas Sandford “of a hundreth pounde land and more, of goode wytt with moch soberness and constancie,” The third name is Thomas Dacre, and the fourth Gilbert Wharton “his age above thre score yeres and the more pitie,” (e)
The following year the storm-clouds which had long been hovering over the relations between England and Scotland

  1. L. & P. Hy. VIII; XIV (ii), No. 730.

  2. ibid; XV, No. 16.

  3. ibid; XV, No. 465.

  4. B.M.; Addl. MS 32646, f.265.

  5. ibid; f. 266.


finally burst, the Duke of Norfolk raided Scotland in the East, and James V decided to invade England in retaliation. With this in view he secretly collected an army of 15,000 men under Oliver Sinclair, and set out to invade the country by way of the West Marches. The King himself sent all his personal servants into the field, and awaited the result in person at the Castle of Carlaverock, twelve miles from the border. Sir Thomas Wharton set out to meet the invading force with 1,400 Horse and foot, drawn chiefly from Cumberland and Westmorland , and at Solway Moss the two armies met on November 26th, 1542.

“Never” says Froude “in all the wars between England and Scotland had there been a defeat more complete, more sudden, or more disgraceful”. The Scottish army was completely routed, enormous numbers being slain and taken prisoner, while the English loss was trifling. The prisoners included the Earl of Cassill the Earl of Glencarne, Lord Flemwynge, Lord Maxwell (Admiral of Scotland), Lord Somerville, Lord Oliphant, Lord Grey and the Commander-in-Chief Oliver Sinclair.
Utterly broken down at the terrible tidings James rode in despairing mood from Carlaverock to Edinburgh and from Edinburgh to Falkland Palace, where news was brought to him that a daughter was born to his House, His head sank on his breast, and he only muttered “It cam’ wi’ a lass, and it’ll gang wi’ a lass” (alluding to the fact that the crown of Scotland came to the Stewart family through Marjory, daughter of King Robert the Bruce.) Eight days afterwards - nineteen days after the battle of Solway Moss - he died of a broken heart (14th December 1542) leaving an only child, the small daughter born under such tragic conditions, afterwards famous as Mary Queen of Scots.
Wharton’s official report of the victory, dated the day after the battle, may still be read. At the end he gives a list of those gentlemen who had specially distinguished themselves, amongst them appearing “my cosen Thomas Sandforth.” (a) For this victory he was raised to the peerage by Henry VIII as Lord Wharton of Wharton. His descendant, Thomas, 6th Lord Wharton (l640 - 1715) the reputed author of “Lillibulero”, and a prominent Whig, was created first Marquis of Wharton, and with the death in 1731 of his son Philip, the eccentric Duke of Wharton, the family ended.

(a) Ham. Ap. I, LXXVII, etc., L,& P. Hy VIII; XVII, No. 1128.


The next year, 1543, Wharton called out all the gentlemen of the two counties for service on the borders with their followings, according to the values of their respective estates, and at the Muster we find that Thomas Sandford was fourth in point at size of 148 battle following, bringing with him 80 horse and 20 foot. He was exceeded only by Strickland of Sizargh with 200 horse, by Sir John Lowther of Lowther with 100 horse and 40 foot and by Blenkensop of Helbeck and Brough with 120 horse, while the smaller gentry brought their 10 end 20 followers. (a)

It was not ordinary warfare for which these borderers had been called up, It was to carry on the system of border raiding which since the peace of 1525 had been stopped by the warden. The raids of the 15th century were comparatively innocuous, except in isolated cases, being confined chief1y to stealing cattle, life being rarely taken, But after the death of James IV at Flodden, when Scotland under the regency of the Duke of Albany became the tool of France to annoy England, Henry VIII and Wo1sey started a terrible policy of retaliation, They fermented and encouraged the old system of border warfare, with the terrible difference that it partook of the nature of real warfare, and acquired a deadly thoroughness, being organised by skilled soldiers employed by the Crown, and from mere looting expeditions the ‘forreys” were changed to sheer destruction and taking of life. These raids were now once more to start at the bidding of the Government.
We have the official figures of the damage done to Scotland by these raids in this very year, 1543, from July 2nd to November 17th, a period of’ four and a half months only. The tale of rapine and destruction is as follows:

Towns, castles, halls, churches etc.,cast down or burned 192

Scots slain 403

Prisoners taken 816

Cattle taken 10,386

Sheep taken 12,492

Nags and geldings taken 1,296

Goats taken 200

Bdls of corn taken 890

The border raids and reprisals continued at varying intervals for another sixty years, the last raid taking place in l601, when several hundred Scots came plundering as far as Carlisle.

(a) N. & B., “State of the Borders” I, li.

(b) N. & B.“State of the Borders” I.


The cause of the renewal of hostilities against Scotland was the dispute about the Scottish Marriage. The appointment of the Earl of Arran as Governor of Scot1and and the death of James V had encouraged Henry to propose a marriage between his son Edward and the infant Queen Mary, and the marriage contract had actually been signed at Greenwich early in this year. This was however abrogated by the efforts of Cardinal Beaton, by whom Arran was deprived of all real power and the French alliance renewed.

Thomas Sandford was now one of Wharton’s right hand men, and taking a prominent part in all his councils. In this year (l543) Wharton submits two reports signed by himself and other “expert gentlemen of the West Marches’ on the possibility of an invasion from Scotland through Cumberland and Westmorland “showing what victall and carriage is there and that no army can enter that way’. The first report states that upon the West Marches victalls cannot be had for l2,000 men, nor for above 3000 except horsemen provided for a night or two, because (1) In that country is but “bigge and haver”, for wheat is supplied thither from Newcastle, the Bishoprick of Durham, or Richmondshire, (2) There are no vessels or ovens to bake and brew, nor casks to carry beer, for all the country use “pottes and standes with wide mouthes” except three or four gentlemen” (3) The carriages are “but evil wains with weak oxen and no horse carts there”. They finish with a warning not to trust any Scotzman. The second report states what the same “expert gentlemen” think a main army can do in Scotland to annoy the King’s enemies in Scot1and who will not perform the late treaties”, and what garrisons must be kept on the borders. They suggest that Scotland be invaded with a great army “such as entered with my lord Northfolke”. The garrison of the borders should be increased by 200 horsemen, for at learning of the intention to invade the Scots “will be most cruel to do exploits afore the invasion.” If trust be given to any “Scottishman”, “let experiment be used” by appointing them to do some “annoysaunce” in Scotland before the invasion. Amongst the signatures to both reports is that of “Thomas Sandffort”, in a bold firm hand, others being those of John Lowther (let us hope that his gout was better!), Thomas Curwen, and Christopher Crackenthorpe, (a)
Meanwhile Henry was secretly intriguing with Archibald Douglas, 6th Earl of Angus, who had married Margaret, Queen Dowager of James IV and sister to Henry, and whose daughter

(a) L. & ..Hy VBIII; XVIII (ii) No, 195,


afterwards became mother of Lord Darnley. On November 5th 1543 we find Wharton writing to the Duke of Suffolk that he is sending “my cosen Thomas Sandfurth” and Alexander Appleby with the King’s “secret letter” (a) to the Earl of Angus in Scotland “considring the gret disobedynce and

lakk of all good ordre in that reallme, and rather they both ordred in thar a garell thar ridinge and journeis: and for the one to come and the other to tarie as occasion sud serve, and ather ofr them to be a help to the others.” (b) The state of anarchy to whitch Scotland had been reduced is clearly seen in this letter.
This delicate mission was successfully carried out. On their return they had an interview with the Duke of Suffolk who wrote to the Privy Council on November 10th that Thomas Sandford told him and Tunstall that Angus had said he had need of money but not of men “for their men and ours could not agree” (i.e., Scots and English; nor perhaps is it to be wondered at). He goes on to say that after leaving Angus Thomas Sandford came with one Robert Maxwell (a guide lent him by Angus) near a castle called Crawforth John, six miles from Douglas, out of which seven or eight pieces of ordnance were shot at them “which lit very near them.” Thomas Sandford said “I mervell y wold come this waye, being assured by you”, but Maxwell replied that it was only “pater shot to fray them”. Thomas’s servant however said that they were stones and he saw one alight which he would fetch if they would tarry “but they made fast awaye” – which would seem to have been the wisest thing they could have done under the circumstances. (c)

The incident throws a strong light on the state of terror in which the Southern lowlands of Scot1and were at the time, and the deserted condition of the countryside, when three solitary men riding peacefully along are fired at with cannon the moment they came in sight. One can hardly wonder, on looking at the list given above.

  1. We know the contents of this “secret letter” from a letter in the Hamilton Papers (VIII, fol.11) (from Sadleir to the Privy Council dated 6th Novr. 1543, forwarding a report from Wharton “But afore they (i.e., Angus and his friends) tolde me playnely that they were not able to doo suche things as the Kinges majeste requyred of theim, neyther to apprehende the Governour and Cardinall, ne yet to gett the yong Quene into there handes”.


  1. B.M. Addl. MS 32563, f.6.

(c) ibid., f.37. Ham. Pap., II, No. 94.


But despite his duties on the border Thomas still found time to look after his private affairs. Earlier in this year he had acted as one of the Trustees and Executors of the will of Sir Reginald Carnaby of Halton, Co. Northumberland, (a) son of ’William Carnaby of Halton by his wife Mabel, daughter of Reginald Warcop of Smardale, and thus first cousin to Thomas Sandford and Wharton. Sir Reginald had been Gentleman of the Chamber to Henry (Percy) Earl of Northumberland, and through this connection Thomas later got his third son Richard into the household of Henry Percy’s Grandson, the 8th Earl of Northumberland, to whom he eventually became Master of the Horse. Of this more anon.
In the following year Thomas increased his estates by the acquisition of the lands in Milburn which he had rented from the Abbot of Shap in 1539, together with other lands in Milburn, Dufton, and elsewhere. This property had come into the hands of one William Foord or Forthe on the dissolution of the Abbey, and in July l544 e find a licence from the King to alienate lands from this William Forthe to Thomas Sandford and Grace his wife. The lands are thus scheduled:~ The Grange and all his (i.e. Forhte’s) lands in the town of Mylborn, Mylborn Grange and Holgyll (Howgill), Westmorlaond, in the tenure of Thomas Sandforth (i.e., by virtue of his lease) also a close in Glegyll and Rose Gylles in Nubye (Newby) Westmorland , in the tenure of William Lowys, lands in Milkinthorpe, Westmorland, in the tenure of William Workman, and lands in Magna Strickland, Westmorland, in the tenure of John Robynson. (b)
In Thomas’s Inquisitio Post Mortem this licence is referred to, and a rnessuage in Dufton is included in the lands mentioned. (a)
In the same year the rectorial endowments of Barton and Askham were bought by Lancelot Lancaster and Michell Hudson from the executors of the will of Henry, Earl of Rutland, to whom they had been granted by Henry VIII on the suppression of the monastries for £320.l3.4, the receipt from the executors for the payment of this sum being amongst the deeds at Lowther Castle, (d) Then in

  1. “Hist. Westd”., H. N. S. ?? Craster; X, p.408.

  2. P..Hy VIII; XIX, p.635.

  3. Appendix XIV p.

  4. C. & W. Trans. (N.S.); XXI, p.195.


1542 the said Lancelot Lancaster and Michel Hudson sold the rectory and advowson of Askham to Thomas Sandford for £256 :2 :3. These continued with Thomas Sandford’s descendants till 1680, when Wil1iam Sandford of Askham sold the rectory to the Lowthers, the advowson following suit 135 years later.

Meanwhile, more miseries were in store for the wretched inhabitants of Scotland, who were suffering terribly for the refusal of Cardinal Beaton to permit the marriage of the infant Queen to Henry’s heir. The Earl of Hertford had landed with an army at Granton, sacked Leith and set fire to Edinburgh, burned the towns on the opposite coast of Fife, and then made his way to the South border, leaving behind him a broad belt of wasted country, slaughtered Scotsmen and smoking villages.No wonder the Earl of Huntly (who opposed Beaton’s policy remarked “Thof they likit the marriage, they were na muckle pleased with the manner of wooing.”
On the Western marches the same work of destruction was carried out and on February 14th, 1544 Wharton writes to Suffolk describing how he made a “forrey” into Scotland on the 12th inst., having first assembled “all gentlemen and rulers of men” in Carlisle Castle, and read out to them the plan of campaign. He took with him 3,000 men from Cumberland and Westmorland, and after the usual destruction of the countryside or what was left of it after previous raids he burnt Annan “which is now more surely brent than it has been.” On this occasion however discipline seems to have been absent, and the old border desire for loot gained the upper hand, the troops giving themselves up to individual plunder, and so becoming scattered over the countryside and no longer a compact force. About noon “Laird Johnson” appeared with 700 men, and so harrassed Wharton’s raiders that “through their misorder” he could not gather them together till they reached Carlisle. (a) Evidently in spite of the damage done to the wretched town of Annan the raid was not an unqualified success (only 20 Scots were taken prisoner for on February 15th Wharton again writes that if Suffolk will send for him and John Leigh, Thomas Dacre, Edward Aglionby, Thomas Sandforthe, Anthony Duckett John Musgrave, and his son Thomas Wharton (evidently the principal officers of the force, and all bearing old Cumberland and Westmorland names) he would get an explanation of the disorder and vou.l~ learn “that all men did not thar dewties.” (b) This is the last record that

(a) Ham. Pap.,II, No. 170

(b) B.M. Addl. MS. 32653. fol. 288.


we have of Thomas Sandford’s participation in border warfare. He was still a young man (he would be aged about 36) but his estates required his constant care, and we find him devoting himself to the affairs of his own county. In 1545 he was appointed Escheator of Cumberland and Westmorland, (a) a position of considerable responsibility, and which included seeing that all the dues were paid to the King on the death of a landowner holding his lands from the Crown. In the last year of Henry VIII’s reign (1546) we find him appointed High Sheriff of Cumberland and Carlisle (b) (the Sheriffwick of Westmorland was hereditary in the Clifford family), a post he again held in the third year of Phillip and Mary (1555)(c).
In this year died his brother-in-law, Ambrose Middleton of Skirwith and Barnard Castle, who appointed as one of the supervisors of his will (dated August 4th 1555) “my trustie and welbeloved frend Thomas Sandfurthe of Ascoyn, esquier,” (d) Nothing so well shows the confidence which seems to have been generally placed in his integrity and ability as the large number of positions of trust that he held for friends and neighbours. These are numerous about this time, a typical case being that where Richard Nevinson settled his lands at Newby on his son Richard, Thomas Sandford of Askham being joint trustee with Thoms Blenkiinsop of Helbeck, (e) (4 & 5 Phil. & Mary.)
In 1557 died his other brother-in-law, William Hutton of Hutton-in-the-Forest, his Inq. P. M. being held on August 28th before Sir Thomas Dacre the elder, Kt. Thomas Sandfurthe, Thomas Middleton and Anthony Barwise. (f) Thus Thomas Sandford became the only remaining husband of the three heiresses of Anthony Crackenthorpe.
Three years later died his mother Elizabeth. Her will dated at Greystoke on February 11th 1560 is amongst the Sandford MSS at Lowther. In it she wishes to be buried at “Askome” in the parish church, and bequeaths to her daughter Dorothy Dud1ey (wife of Edmund Dudley of Yanwath) her “aparell, 2 gowns, 3 kirtles, 1 velvet

  1. L. & P, Hy VIII.

  2. ibid.

  3. N. & B.

  4. Surtees Soc; CXII, p.13.

  5. N. & B.; I, 451.

  6. Surtees Soc; XCXVIII


bonethe, 2 front clothes 2 fether beds with 2 pairs of shetes, 2 pair of blanketts, 2 coverlets and 2 bolsters”. Everything else that she had, after debts, legacies and funeral expenses had been paid, she left to Thomas Sandford her son, “of Askome”, whom she made sole executor. (a)

About this time, when his retirement from Border warfare gave him more leisure, it is possible that he conceived the additions to Askham Hall carried out by his son The old pele tower, with the extensions built by Edmund Sandford and Idonea some 150 years before must have been too small for Tudor ideas of comfort and considered hardly in accordance with the dignity of the family. It is even possible that the banqueting hall was started in his life time: we know that he increased or rebuilt the outbuildings, for his wife in her will refers to “the new barn” at Askham, probably the large barn still standing behind the courtyard, and which is of about this period and in the codicil to “the news house,” (b)
In 1562 his daughter Dorothy married Alan Bellingham of Levens and Helsington, Co, Westmorland, grandson of that Alan Bellinghan whose good fellowship and fighting qualities gave rise to the couplet:—

‘Amicus Amico. Alanus

Belliger belligero Bellinghamus.”

and the head of an ancient Northumbrian family long settled in Westmor1and. She was his second wife,his first (by whom he had no children) having been Katherine, daughter of that Anthony. Duckett of Grayrigg who accompanied Thomas on the raid on Annan. (c) he was a Bencher of the Inner Circle, and King’s Counsel for the North, (d) and a man of considerable wealth and local influence. His residence, Levens Hall, near Kendal as altered by his son Sir James Bellingham in 1610, still stands: its gardens are an endless delight, and have been painted and written about more than almost any other gardens in England. One of the rooms is now in the Victoria & Albert Museum as an example of interior decoration of the period. Alan appears to have rapidly

  1. C.& W. (N.S.) XXI ??p. 195.

  2. Appendix XV, p.

  3. Foster’s Visitn. Of Westd.

  4. ibid,


become chief adviser to his wife's family, and his mother-in-law especially seems to have placed implicit faith in him. The marriage had a far reaching effect on the Sandford fortunes, and for the next three generations we shall find the Sandford and Bellingham families in constant association, - sometimes pleasant and at other times distinctly the reverse. But of this more in its proper place.
Dorothy’s dowry was 600 marks, and amongst the Sandford MSS is a document signed by Alan, dated 11th November, 1562, acknowledging the payment from his father-in-law of the last £50 in completion of this. (a) Judging from the amounts assigned to the sisters for marriage portions in their father's will (see appendix II) she seems to have been the favourite daughter.
About this time Thomas Sandford seems to have felt his end drawing near, though still a comparatively young man, and on 20thOctober 1563 made his will, and a month later, on 27th November 1563, he settled Milburn Grange on his third son Richard for 60 years. (b) His eldest son Thomas would of course inherit Askham, but why he should have passed over his second son Henry it is difficult to explain. Reading between the lines of his parents’ wills it is pretty clear that Henry had done something to merit their displeasure. This point is discussed in the early part of the chapters devoted to the Helton branch of the family (of which branch Henry was the ancestor) but it seems obvious from a number of incidents that Richard was his mother's favourite son and this may account for the action if, as there is shrewd reason to suspect, she had her husband greatly under her influence. Two days afterwards Thomas Sandford confirmed his will, died, and was laid with his ancestors in the Sandford chapel at Askham Church.
A fall abstract of his Inquisition Post Mortem is given in Appendix XIII, and from this the extent of his lands can be obtained.
His will was proved at Brougham on February 7th, 1564 (new style) and is now at Carlisle District Probate Registry. It is of considerable interest, and a very full digest is given in appendix XIII: A few extracts

  1. C. & W. (N.S.); XXI, p. 197.

  2. Appendix XIV, p.


may however be conveniently given here.

He wishes to be buried in the parish church of Askham "in ye accustomed place of buriall of oder my ancestors there". He leaves to his eldest son Thomas "My golde cheyne, (a) my best silver salts, sex of my best silver spoones, my hoole iij drawygtes of ox wt all maner of wanes plowes and odder implementes & ffurneture thereunto apperteynge” and also “so mytche of my husholde stuffe as my welbelovyd wyffe affter my deathe shall thinke meyte & assine unto him by hir discression”. And he wills that the gold chain, silver salt-cellars, and silver spoons "be and remayne as heire looms to ye heires of my house for ever. Reqwyerynge my said son to be dewtiffull to my saide dearely belovyd wyffe his mother & good naturall & freyndelye unto his bretheren & sisters.” To his second son Henry he leaves 20 marks. To his fourth son Edmund he leaves £40 in the hands of Mr. Pennington of London, to be paid to him when he has completed his apprenticeship with the said Mr Pennington, and a further £60 to be paid out of the general estate. (Note the bad treatment of Henry).
To his daughters Anne Sandford and Eleanor Sandford he leaves £100 apiece for a marriage portion, and to his daughter Mary, wife of Henry Kirkby the £100 which he stands bound to pay for her dowry.
To his third son Richard leaves Beckfoot Mill, all his lands in Measand, and tenements in "Mikill Asby" (b) Barton, and Barton Skewes during his mother's life, and though the tenants are to render up all the lord’s services to his elder brother Thomas.
And after his (Richard’s) mother's death (when these revert to Thomas) he leaves to Richard all his manor and Lordship of Little Asby for life, thus breaking up the estate which had been held as one complete whole by his ancestors since 1373.
To his wife he leaves “in recompence of all hir feoffment joynture, dowre or thirdes of my landes” the said manner of Little Asby the tythe corn and “shaves” of Askham (the demesne excepted. The herbage abnd of Lownthwaite, and one thrid of all his other lands for life. And he stipulates also that "My wyffe shall have convenyente chambers, lodgings and hawses at my manor and dwellinge house of Ascome."

  1. This was the sign of a gentleman. We read that Wolsey’s gentlemen marched out of London “in black velvet coats with gold chains round their necks”.

  2. Great Asby.


Then he leaves all the residue of his lands and manors, and the reversion of all manors and lands left to his wife and his son Richard, to his son Thomas and his heirs male, failing these to his son Henry and his heirs male, failing these to his son Richard and his heirs, and failing these to his right heirs for ever.. He thus created an entail which stood his descendants in good stead later on. To his godson Thomas Bellingham (eldest son of his daughter Dorothy) and his grandson Alan Sandford (son of the second son Henry), he leaves "to eyther of them i meare & i ffoale, & also to eyther of them as to by them a saddell". Alan Sandford was at this time less than three years old, and Thomas Bellingham less than five (they were baptised at Kendal on May 17th,1561, and June 5th 1559 respectively) so evidently the idea was that the foals would be big enough to ride about the time they were old enough to ride them.

After various legacies to retainers and 13/4 to "Sir" Thomas Hodgson "Chapplan" (he was vicar of Askham) he leaves all the rest of his goods to his wife and appoints her sole executrix.
An inventory of his personal goods is attached, from which we learn that their value was £549.17.4.(approx., £8, 000 in modern money). He owed £8 for servants wages, and his funeral expenses came to a £29.3. 8.
His widow does not seem to have taken advantage of her husband's stipulation that she should have "convenyente chambers" at Askham Hall, for she removed to Satterow Park, on the Helton property of her late husband. The eldest son had married about this time (to his kinswoman Anne Hutton of Hutton John) and probably the old lady would not take second place in the house she had ruled so long: so Satterow became the dower house. Here she lived for two years, dying in 1566. Her will at Carlisle (given in full in Appendix XV) is a most interesting document, being full of detailed personal gifts, and shows the character of the strong-minded old lady very clearly. It is dated at Satterow Park on February 5th, 1565(old style; 1566 new style) and was approved at Carlisle on May 12th in the same year.
“Seke in body” she wills that “my bodye be buryed in ye parishe churche of Askham under ye same stone that my late husbande Thomas Sandfurthe was buryed and as nye unto mye saide husband as convenientlye maye be”. She leaves to her son Thomas “a greate brass panne called a skellett that ys at Askham” and she wills that it shall “remayne & continue at ye same house at Askham for ever for an


heireloom”. She also leaves him a quantity of grain and timber (the later which is “oke”, probably to continue the additions to Askham hall with) and “husbandrye geare” providing that he carries out the provisions of his father’s will, otherwise all the legacies to be void “the bequest of the sayde skellett onlye excepted.” To her son-in-law Alan Bellingham she leaves a damask gown and to his wife Dorothy her daughter “a gylted spone, a ringe of golde with a turkye (turquoise) stone sett in yt, a black sattan kirtle & a pare of fyne lynnen shetes”. To her son Henry and his heirs for ever she leaves two tenements in Bampton and a tenement in Nether Bampton: also “a black cloth gowen with a yarde of velvett “. to Agnes, wife of her son Henry she leaves “a garnish of pewder vessell” – i.e. a set of twelve – also “ a black cloth gowne fringed with sylke, a new bussell kirtle with a yarde of velvett” and to their son Alan she leaves “two old byalls of gold & a black velvett capp with a fether.”
She confirms her husband’s legacy to her son Edmund, and leaves him £50 in addition.
To her daughter Anne Sandford she leaves £100 together with “a goblett of silver and a chist which is in ye garner at Askham with all suche shetes & lynnen geare as is in ye same chist at ye present, and a brass pott & a ponnett which was her grandmothers.”
To her daughter Mary and her husband Henry Kirkby, and to each of the children of her daughter Dorothy Bellingham, and to various retainers and friends she leaves personal legacies, many of considerable interest, full details of which will be found in Appendix XV. All the rest of her possessions she leaves to her third son Richard, whom she makes sole executor, and she also appoints her son-in-law Alan Bellingham as supervisor.
To the will is attached a codicil, undated (also given in full in Appendix XV) wherein numerous other quaint legacies are made, chiefly to tenants and pensioners. At the end of this she wills that “there shall be none in mourning gownes to morne for me but onlye fower pore wedowes” whose names she gives, and further that “there shal be bno assemblye bidden to my buryalle save onely myne owne cheldren and my nabores the parisheonirs of Askham.”
So Grace Crackenthorp was laid to rest in Askham Church, “as nye as may be” to her beloved husband Thomas Sandford and there side by side they sleep today.
With the death of Thomas Sandford and his wife Grace


starts a new chapter in the history of the family. Hitherto there has been but one family, the representation of Sandford of Sandford, both in blood and position, having been completely merged in the line of Askham. But with the descent of the Howgill, Milburn, and Little Asby properties to the third son Richard, three entirely separate branches now emerge.
Of the four sons of Thomas and Grace, the eldest, Thomas, succeeded to Askham and continued the Askham branch; the second son Henry (practically cut out of his father’s will and left some small property at Bampton by his mother) removed to ??, and his son Alan (mentioned in the wills above) eventually settled in Helton, where he founded the Helton branch. The third son Richard constituted his castle at Howgill his chief residence, and founded the family of Sandford of Howgill, his grandson being created a baronet. Each of these branches will be dealt with separately in the following pages.
The fourth son Edmund was apprenticed (see his father’s will) to a merchant in London named Pennington. He does not appear to have married. He is referred to by his great nephew Edmund Sandford (grandson of his brother Thomas) in his delightful work “A Cursory Relation of All the Antiquities & familyes in Cumbrland” (written about 1675, when the writer was nearly eighty) already quoted in these pages. (a) Discussing the family of Pennington of Muncaster (afterwards Earls of Muncaster) with which, and its branch Pennington of Helton ?? the Sandfords were connected, he says “And upon the hill above, stands Muncastle The Ancient St. ?aite? of the Penningtons: but no Kt. of late, from whence came the Alderman Penningtons of London: and I thinke the quondam famous Captaine Peningto: (b) for I had an uncle of my own name Edm. Sandford, prentice to his cosen Pettington at London which must needs by one of this house 100 year ago.”
From this it seems fairly evident that the “Mr. Penyngton of London" of Thomas Sandford’s will was Robert Pennington Citizen and merchant of London, whose will was proved ??? 26th April 1657 and who was descended from the Muncaster family. He was father of Sir Isaac

  1. Pub. In “Carlisle ?/ast” Series, by C. &...A. Socy

  2. Admiral Penington??, floreat 1566-1646.


Pennington (knighted by the Speaker of the House of Commons) Lord Mayor of London in 1643, Lieutenant of the Tower and a Commissioner for the trial of Charles I (though he refused to sign the warrant for his execution) sentenced to death by Charles II but died of ill-usage in the Tower in 1661. His (Sir Isaac’s) son Isaac Pennington was the famous actor, and his daughter Judith Pennington has come down to us through her passages with Samuel Pepys as retailed in his diary for October and November 1665.

Of the five daughters of Thomas and Grace, Dorothy, as we have seen, married Alan Bellingham of Levens and Kelsington. Her husband’s monumental brass in Kendal church (he died May 7th, 1577, aged 61, so he was a good deal older than his wife) which bears the arms of Bellingham and Sandford, tells us that by her he had 7 sons and 8 daughters, of whom 5 sons and 7 daughters, together with his wife survived him. Of the sons, the eldest, Thomas, died unmarried, and the second son, Sir James Bellingham, succeeded to his father’s lands. The other sons died unmarried (a) The Grace Bellingham mentioned in Grace Sandford s will as her god—-daughter was the second daughter. She was twice married, her first husband being Edmund Cliburn of Cliburn, Co. Westmorland, eldest son and heir of that Richard Cliburn who enlarged and repaired Cliburn Hall and whose quaint inscription over the entrance:—

“Richard Clebur: thus they me cawl

Wch in my time bealded ys Hal1

The Year of our Lorde God - who 1yst

for to neam~ 1567.”

can still be read. the marriage taking place at Kendal on 1st September1576.Thus was healed the breach with the Cliburn family caused by the abduction of her grandmother. Her second husband was Gerard, son of Richard Lowther. She was a somewhat eccentric lady, and carried her shroud about with her wherever she went for the last seven years of her life. (b) She was buried at Catterick Bridde in 1594, aged 36. Marian Bellyngham, also mentioned in Grace Sandford’s will, married Sir Francis Duckett of Grayrigg, adn Agnes married Richard Sa1keld of Thremby.

(a) Foster’s Visitation of Westmd..

(b) Contributed by Revd. F. W. Ragg, F.R. Hist. S.

  1. Foster’s Visitation of Westmd..


Of the other daughters of Thomas Sandford and Grace, Mary married Henry Kirkby, of the Kirkby Ireleth family, and Margaret married as his second wife Henry Crackenthorpe of Newbigging (a distant cousin of Grace) but died without issue. Her husband married for his fourth wife (1575) Winifred, sister to Sir Christopher Pickering, (a) and had a daughter Anne, who married 1st John Pennington of Seaton and 2nd Sir Richard Sandford of Howgill (b) (son to Richard Sandford, third son of Thomas and Grace). In 1571. Henry Crackenthorpe brought an action in chancery against Richard Sandford of Howgill, his brother-in-law, claiming from him certain title deeds which he (Henry’s) father Christopher Crackenthorpe had given to Thomas Sandford of Askham for safe custody at the marriage of Henry with Thomas’s daughter Margaret. (c) this is the only mention we have of Margaret, who evidently died soon after her marriage. Anne Sandford is probably the Anne Sandford who married .. Porter (the Christian name is illegible) at Askham on 7th November 1566 (d) A George Porter was one of the witnesses (all relatives of the Sandford family) to the settlement of her sister-in-law Anne Sandford (nee Hutton) wife of her brother Thomas on her (Ann nee Hutton’s) son in 1576, and the will of Alan Bellingham mentions “my brother Porter” in 1577. “George” was a family name of the ?ery Hall branch of the Cumberland family of Alwardby.

E1eanor Sandford married her first cousin John Middleton, 3rd son of Ambrose Middleton of Shirwith & Cecily Crackenthorpe, sister to Grace, by whom she had 3 sons & 4 daughters: (e) she is not mentioned in her mother’s will; she died after 1570 when a daughter of hers was baptised at Askham. Her husband married as his second wife Anne (Hutton) widow of his brother-in-law Thomas Sandford of Askham: of him more anon.
One likes to think of Thomas Sandford returning home after a “forrey” into Scotland with Wharton, riding into the village of Askham (much the same in general appearance then as it is today) at the head of his 80 mounted retainers, all leather clad and with steel caps, and welcomed at the door

of Askham Hall by his wife Grace and his nine children.We may be sure that the “greate skellett” in the kitchen was kept busy on the occasion.

(a) Inq. P.M., Xofer Crackenthorpe, l624; Cha., Ser., ii, 404/124

(b) Bette & Pullman Co.ln; Y. .Reg. Test. XXXIII, 497; Y. .L. Pudsey, 1630.

(c) Cha Pro., Eliz., B. & A., C. 13,/18.

  1. Askham P. R.

  2. Foster’s Visitation of Durham.


What tales would be told over the peat fires of Askham that night to admiring and breathless audiences of wives, sweethearts and sisters! They were stirring times in the North when bluff king Hal ruled England!



Inquisititio Post Mortem of Ambrose Crackenthorpe, 11th June 12 H VIII (1520).

Chan. Ser. ii. 35/79

(Short digest and extracts are only)
John Crackenthorpe, his father, was seized of the manner of Cromefield, Co. Westmorland, and by deed dated 13th August 1478 enfeoffed the said Ambrose and Isabella his wife, of the premises. Isabella survives. (other property stated) and by deed 11th April 1520 Ambrose enfeoffed Thomas Lord Dacre of Gillesland, Christopher Dacre, Kt., and Anne, wife of Humphrey Conyngsby, Kt., to carry out provisions of his will dated 12th April 1520, viz, to give Isabella, his wife, reasonable dower, and the rest of his estate to Margaret, aged 19, Cecily, aged 15, and Grace, aged 14, his consag, and heirs, and daughters of Anthony Crackenthorpe his brother. And Ambrose died 13th April 1520.


Will of Thomas Sandford of Askham, dated 29 November 5 Eliz., proved Brougham 7 February 1563(o.s.). At Carlisle District P. R. ?? (imperfect).

I, Thomas Sandfurth elder of Askome, Westmorland, sqwyer,... being nowe in good & perfyte mynde.... doo mayke.... this last wyll.... ffyrst I beqwethe my soule into ye handes & mercy of ye blissed trenytie... my bodye to be buried & inhumate in ye p.ishe churche of Askome afforeseid in ye accustomed place of buriall of oder my anncestors there or els where it shall please God to call uppon ye same...also I will... to Thomas Sandfurthe my son and heire apparunte my golde cheyne my best silver salts sex of my best silver spoones all my hoole iij drawygtes of oxen wt. all maner of waynes plowes and odder implementes & ffurneture thereunto appertaynynge... and also... so mytche of my husholde stuffe as my welbelovyd wyffe affter my deathe shall thinke meyte to assine unto him by hir descression. And I will it ye seid cheyne salte and spoones be & remayne as heireloomes to ye heires of my house for ever Reqwyering my seid son to be dewtifful to my seid dearely belovyd wyffe his mother & good naturall & ffreyndeley unto his brethren & sisters.... Also I will.... to my son Henry Sandfurth twentye markes beinge the laste ffull & hoole paym’nt of CC markes payed unto him sence his marriage whiche CC markes I will shalbe unto him in ffull considderacyon & contentacyon


of all & singular his childres parte & porcyon of my goodes after my deathe. Also I will give and bequethe unto my son Edmunde Sandfurth forte poundes beinge in ye handes of Mr Penyngton of London his master whiche some of XL£ the seid Mr. Penyngton stondeth bounden by his bill obligatorie to contente & pay unto me when my seid son Edmunde shall have accomplissed &. ffinyshed his yeares of service & apprenticeshippe wt. him whiche obligacyon & bill obligatorie of ye seid Mr. Pennyngton I will yt my seid son Edmunde shall have whereby he may ye better demande call for & recover the seid XL£ and over this I will .... to my seid son Edmunde three score powndes to be payed unto him by my executors at suche tyme & when as he shall have fynshed ended & accomlisshed the terme of his seid service or apprentisshippe wt. ye seid Mr. Pennyngtcn his Mr. in ffull considderacyon & contentacyon unto hym for his childes parte & porcyon of all my goodes after my deathe. Also I will... to eyther of my dawghters Anne Sandfurthe & Elyener Sandfurthe one hundrethe powndes to be payed unto theme by my executors ffor there m’ ffull considderacyon to eyther of them of all there childes parte or porcyon of all my goods after my deathe. Also I will yt that some of one hundrethe powndes whiche I stonde bounde to pay unto my son in lawe Henry Kirkbye in m’riage wt. my dowghter Mary Sandfurthe be unto hir a ffull considderacyon & contentacyon of all hir childes parte & porcyon at all my goods.......Also I will... to my son Recharde Sandfurthe in considderacyon of all his childes partes & porcyon of all my goods .. . .my watter corne milne called the Bekfoote milne of ye yerely rente & ... of XLs all my landes & tenements wt. ye app’tenn’es in Meassande in ye countie of Westmorlande of ye yerely rente and ....of XXVIIIs, iii tenements wt. ye app’tenn’es in Mikill Asseby and in ye holdinge of Joh’is Rolandson one oder in ye holding of Nicholas Rolandson & one oder in ye holdinge of Nicholas Robertson of ye yerely rente & service amongst theme of XXs and ten’te wt. ye app’tences in Berton in ye holding of Joh’is Dawson of ye rent & service of VIIs VIIId one ten’te called Cawdell in Banton Skewes in ye holdinge of Joh’is Denyson... one oder ten’te there in ye holdinge of Willm. Whyteheade oder there in ye holdinge of Willm Yate .... to have holds & enjoye the sd. milne landes, ten’tes & fermeholdes my seid son Reccherde during ye lyffe naturall of my ... wyffe his mother provyded yt duringe ye seid terme all ye seid tenants shall doo unto my heirs all suche service as they nowe doo unto me, And after the deathe of my wyffe I will unto my seid son Recharde all my manor & Lordschippe of Littilassebye duringe his lyfe. Also I will to my wyffe in recompence of all hir ffeoffemt. joynture dowre or thirdes of my landes...


all my seid manor of Littill Asseby ye tythe corne & shayes of Ascome (ye demayne excepted) and ye full IIIrd. parte of all odder my manor landes ten’ tes with lease for terme of yeares in ye herbage of Lownthwaite....duringe hir llyffe naturall. Also I will yt my wyffe shell have ...convenyente chambers lodgings and howses at my maner & dwellinge house of Ascome. Also the residewe of all my manors landes ten’tes and reversion of all ye seid manors landes & ten’tes geven to my wyffe and my son Recherde I will & beqwethe to my seid son & heir a parente Thomas Sandfurthe & to ye heirs males of his bodey lawfully begotten & by defalte of suche issue to my son Henry Sandfurthe & to ye heires males of his bodey....& in defaltr of such issue to my son Retcherde Sandfurthe & to ye heires males of his body..... & in defalte of suche issue to my son Edmunde Sandfurthe & to ye heires males of hic body...& for defalte of suche issue to my right heirs for ever. Also I geve to my godson Thomas Bellingham & to Allan Sandfurth son of my son Henry to eyther of theme 1 meare & 1 ffole & also to eyther of them Xs to by theme a saddell. Also I geve & beqweathe unto my servants Edmunde Sandfurthe Johi’s Sandfurthe Thomas Pristcoson & Thomas Wilkenson every one of them XXs And I will that the seid Thomas Pristcoson shal have & enjoye duringe hys lyffe suche ten’te & fermyinge as he now hathe of me. Also I geve to Sir Thomas Rogeson Chapplen XIIIs IIId. Also the residewe of all my goods not willed.... I geve to my wyffe and doo make hir my onely executrix. Also I doo ordein the right wirshipefull Thomas Wharton, Knyght, Allan Bel1ingham sqwyer my son in lawe Thomas Middlelton sqweer & Joh’is Middelton gentilman my cusens to be the supervisors of this my last will & tes ‘t and for there paynes I doo geve unto every of them fyve poundes. Signed the XXth day of October in ye fyfte yeare of .... Elasabethe ... in ye presence of Allan Bellinggam sqwyer son in lawe, Thomas Sandefurthe & Recherde my sonnes & Joh’is Middleton my cusen.

Thomas Sandforth..

This will was redde & aggreed unto by ye seid Thos. Sandfurthe ye XXIX day of November Ao. Eliz.Vth in ye presence of Thomas Sandfurthe younger, Thomas Middleton sqwer, Richerde Sandfurthe, Anthony Middelton, Joh’is Middelton, Thomas Pristcoson, Joh’is Sandfurthe, Will. Thomson & oders,
Endorsed:-Testamentum et Inventorum Thom. Sandfurth Armiger probatum apud Browholm septime die mensis ffebrarie 1563. Anthon. Thwatts.

The .... is a probated ??? 1563 Regni Elizabethe.. septo coram ... Anthonie Thwatte ....officiale Carliolen...


Then follows an inventory of his goods, totalling as follows:-

At Ascome


At Howgill


somme totale


Dettes owinge to servants wages

III £.

Buriall expenses etc.




Inquisitio Post Mortem of Thomas Sandford.

Chancery Series II, Vol. 140 No, 195.

Abstract translated from original Latin

Taken at Shapp 26 Septr., 6 Elizab., (l564) by Allen Bellingham and other Commissioners. The jury Henry Crackenthropp, Esq,, Geo. Salkelde, Tho. Hilton, Edwd. Byrkbek, Miles Skayffe, Robt. Skayffe, Robert Berton, Reginald Dobson, Henry Browham, John Herteley, John Baynebrigge Christof. Baynebrigge, gentlemnen, stated on oath that Tho. Sandfurthe died sized in demesne as of fee of the manor and rectory of Ascome and the tythes of grain and hay and the advowson of the Vicarage; also of a moiety of the manor of Hilton Flecham with a park there called Setteroo parke, of a moiety of the tithes and grain and hay of Hilton Flecham parcel of the rectory of Ascom; also of the manor of Little Assebye and 3 messuages in Grt. Assebye occupied by John Rolandson, Nicholas Rolandson, and Nicholas Roberton; also of a moiety of the manor Knype and 3 messuages in Banton called Measande, and one messuage in Banton called Cawdell and six messuages called Banton Skewes, and five messuages in Banton called Butterwykke, and one water grain mill there called Bekfoot milne; and also of one messuage in Barton.

And they also say that long before the death of Thomas Sandfurthe a certain William Foorthe alias Foorde Esq., was seized in his demesne as of fee and in the manor of grange of Milnebarne called Milnebarne Grang, and one messuage in Dufton, lately belonging to the monastery of Shapp, and the said William by his charter shown to the jurors dated 7th July 36 Henry VIII (l544) by licence of the King dated 6th July 36th Hy. VIII gave and granted to


the seid Thomas Sandfurthe and Grace his wife Milburne Grange and the messuage in Dufton, to them and the heirs and assigns of Thomas for ever, by virtue of which charter Thos. and Grace became seized of the premises, to wit, Thomas in his demesne as of free tenement. And being thus seized Thomas Sandfurthe before his death by an indenture dated 27 November 6 Elizabeth (1563) shown to the jurors, sold granted and demised at farm to Richard Sandford his younger son Milburne grange, to have and to hold immediately after the death of Grace his mother for 60

years, rendering therefore to the said Thomas his heirs and assigns yearly at the feast of Martin in winter (11th Novr,) 5s. as in the said writing more fully appears.

And afterwards the said Thomas died, and the said Grace who is still alive held herself within the said manor of Grange and the messuage in .Dufton by right of increase ( legem accressent.)
And on 20th October 5 Elizabeth (1563) Thomas Sandfurthe made his will, amongst other things the following “To my son Richard Sandfurthe in consideration of all his child’s portion my water corn mill called Beckfoot mill, all my lands and tenements in Measande, 3 tenements in Mikill Asby, one tenement in Barton, one tentement called Cawdell in Banton Skewes, another tenement there held by Wm. Whitehead, and another tenement there in the holding of William Yates, to hold to Richard for the life of my wife his mother, provided all the said tenants shall do unto my heirs all the services they now do, And after the death of my wife I give unto my son Richard my manor of Little Asby to hold after the death of my said wife during her life.” Grace for her jointure was to have the manor of Little Asby, the tythe corn and sheaves of Askham (except from the demesne) the full third of all his other lands, and his lease of the herbage of Lownethwayte, & was to have lodging at Askham Hall, The residue of his manors etc, & the reversion of the manors granted to Grace & Richard after 6o years were to go to Thonas & his heirs, remainder in case of failure in turn to the younger brothers of Thomas -Henry, Richard and Edmund and their heirs, and last to the testator’s right heirs.
The manors of Ascom, Milton,Knype and Little Asseby and the tenements in Banton were held of Henry Earl of Cumberland by military service: Ascom val. £20 yearly, Saterhoo Park £6. 13. 4, the rest of the moiety of Helton £16.2. 2. The moiety of Knype £3 7. 4. Little Asby £13, the other tenements above 59s and butterwick over and above the mill £3.5.8d, all held of the Earl of Cumberland by military service., The rectory of Ascome and Milburn Grange


were held of the Queen in chief by military service, the messuage in Great Asby held of Anthony Knype but by what service the jurors are ignorant, the messuage in Barton held of Thomas Lord Dacre as of his manor of Barton by suit of court.
And Thomas Sandfurthe died January 4th, 6 Eliz. (1564) and Thomas Sandturthe is his son and next heir and is aged 26 years and more.


Delivered into Court 14th October in the said year (1564) by the hand of John Middeton, gent.
(Note:— the above is only an abstract of the original, which is considerably fuller, the extract from Thomas’s will being given word for word, and the rents of every piece of his property scheduled)

Will of Grace Sandford dated February 5th l565/6, proved at Carlisle with a codicil May 12th, 1566. At Carlisle District P.T.

(Complete Transcript)

In the name off God Amen the Fyfte day of Februarie in the year of oure lorde god a thousand fyve hundert threscore & fyve I Grace Sandfurthe of Satrapark in ye countie off Westm’rland, wedowe, seke in bodye neverthelesse hole and perfytt off remembrance lawde & prayse be given to God make this my last will & Testament in mannr, and forme following. ffirst I com’ende mye soule into the hands of Almyghty God my maker trustinge faythefullye throughe ye deathe & passion of his Sonne Jesus Chryste to be one off the inherytoures of the hevenlye kingdome. And I will that my bodye be buryed in the p’ishe church of Askham under ye same stone that my late husbande Thomas Sandfurthe was buryed and as nye unto mye saide husbande as convenientlye maye be at the discression of mye executor. Item I gyve and bequethe to my sonne Thomas Sandfurthe a greate brasse panne called a skellett that ys at Askham whiche I will shall remayne & continewe at ye same house at Askham for ever for an heirelome. Item I gyve and bequethe to mye saide sonne Thomas Sandfurthe all that.,,,, & nyne busshells of sede otes and a skeppe of bigge whiche he dothe owe unto me. Also two skeppe of wheate & two skeppe of bigge which he dothe lykewise owe unto me. And also all suche lyme as I have in the lyme house at Askhame afforesaide contayninge bye estimacon .... quarters. And also suche husbandrye geare as I have remayeninge within in the woode house at Askhame


afforesayd. And also all suche mye oke tymber as lyethe in the garthe before the new barne at Askham, afforesayde contayninge by estimacon .... And also two great arkes at Askham. And also two great arkes ffor lyme being in the kilne at Askham. And also two presses ffor cloth whiche are in the newe house lofte at that mye saide sonne Thomas Sandfurthe do not at any tyme hereafter infringe nor breake nor otherwise attempt to breake mye saide Husbande hys fathers laste will and testament nor the trewe meaninge thereoff in anye pointe or artycle.... or othorwise theise my bequestes unto hyme before bequeathed shall be voide the bequest off the sayde skellet only excepted. Item I gyve and bequethe to mye sonne in law Alan Bellingham a damaske gowne faced with... Item I gyve & bequethe to mye dowghter Doryty Bellingham a gylted spone a ringe off golde with a turkye stone sett in ytt... a black sattan kirtle & a pare off fyne lynnen shetes. Item I gyve & bequethe to my sonne Henry Sandfurthe and to his heires for ever two tenem’ts in Bampton in ye countie of Westm’rland afforesaid with their appurtences now in the tenure & occupacon of Thomas Howgarth & Anthonye Boweman being of ye yearlye rent off XVIIIs and also all yt mye parte & porcon of a ten’ te in Nether Bampton in the saide countye nowe in the occupacon of Xpofer Bradlawye & Robert Bradlaye being of ye yearly rente of VIIs IXd or thereabouts. And also I gyve and bequethe to my said sonne Henry Sandfurth a blacke cloth gowen with a yarde of velvett. Item I gyve and bequethe to my daughter in law Agnes Sandfurth wife to my saide sonne Henrye Sandfurthe a garnish of pewder vessell a black cloth gowne fringed with sylke a newe bussell kirtle with a yarde of velvett. Item I geve & bequethe to Alan Sandfurth sonne of the said Henrye two olde byalls of golde & a black velvett capp with a fether. Item I gyve & bequethe to my sonne in lawe Henrye Kirkebie a black meare & a foole and thre pounds in golde. Item I gyve & bequith to my daughter Marye Kirkebie a garnish of pewder vessel .... a great .... whioh is in the garner at Askham a fartingale of mockadew & as much as will be a toist .... bedde which is in a chist at Askham. Item whereas I am charged by mye said husbands last will & testament to paye unto mye sonne Edmond Sandfurth ye some of thre score pounds immediately after the years of his app’ntyshipp be expired & ended I will that mye Sonne Richard Sandfurth paye to mye said sonne Edmonde ye saide some of threscore pounds at ye time afforesaid according to mye said husbands last will. Item I gyve & bequeth to mye said sonne Edmcnd fyfty pounds beside ye saide some of threscore pounds which said some of fifty pounds I will yt my said sonne Richard paye unto my seid same Edzaond at ye time afforesaid yff me said sonne ....(illegible).... Item I gyve & bequeth unto mye dowghter Anne Sandfurthe ye some of one hundeth


pounds, which some I will be paid to my dowgter by mye said sonne Richarde furthe of my goods & chattels. Also I gyve & bequethe to my said daughter Anne a goblett of silver & a chist which is in ye garner at Askham with all such. shetes & lynnen geare as is in ye samee chist at ye present & a brasse pott & a poanett which was hir grandmother’s. Item I gyve & bequeth to Thomas Bellingham sone to my saide sonne Alan Bellingham two olde byalls of golde & a lytle velvett cappe. Item I gyve to Henrye Bellingham sonne of the said Alan Bellingham two old byalls of golde. Item I gyve and bequethe to my goddaughter Grace Bellingham a frountcloth with a .... of golde upon it, a gowne of black grogaram a kirtle of crymsyn taffety, a pare of gloves of crymsin sattan, a paire of lynnen sleves wrought with silk & a litle golde ring with a stone in it, a pair of blewe beades with .... of sylver. Item I gyve to Agnes Bellingham a gowne of changable grogaram, a kirtle of white ...., a tablett, a crosse & a slose (?) of golde, a lytle sylver salts and a braselett with thre peice of gold. Item I gyve to Maryon Bellingham a gowne of tawnys damask. Item I gyve to my goddaughters Grace Myddelton & Barbary Myddelton eyther of theme a lytle gold ring & eyther a crusadowe of gold in remembrance. Item I gyve to my servant Thomas Pristcosin a fether bedde with bowster & pillow and all the clothes pertayeninge the same. Also I gyve & bequethe to the said Thomas a young hors at Arnetsyde, six yowes, thre & twenty shillings in money which I have assygned to be payd to the said Thomas when as yt shall please mye sonne Richard to appoint him to receyve ytt. Item I gyve to Jannett Baxter mye maide servant a black morning gowen, a kerchieffe, & a nekerchiffe., Item I gyve to Agnes Nicholson my mayde servant two ..., a matteras with clothes & blanketts, a bowster, a coverlett for the same a brasse pott, a bowle, a lytle penne. Item I gyve to the said Agnes .... clothes at ye discression of my executor. Item I give to Edmond Sandfurth my servant a meale arcke at Askham .... Also I gyve to Dorytie Sandfurth wife to ye said Edmonde Sandfurth a gowen and a sylk hatt, Item I gyve to my servant WilI’m Langhorne Xiiis iiiid. Item I gyve to Thomas Wilkinson’s wyfe of Howgill a knitt petecote. Item I gyve to John Tynkler a matteras a paire of shetes & a paire of blanketts & a coverlett and also I gyve to his sonne a cow with calfe. Item 1 gyve to Mychel Tynkler whye six lambes. Item I gyve to..... . . my Servant a grene cote. Item I gyve to my servants ... Joan Collinson.......(illegible)......of lynnen cloth to make theme dubletts. Item I gyve to John Robbinson a whie stirke. Item I gyve & bequeth to good Mr. Knotte of London one piece of golde in a token of remembrance. Item I gyve to my cosin Anne Hutton of the forrest a paire of fyne gloves in remembrance.


Item I give to Marye Warryn & Anne Warryn a paire of knifes & a paire of beads in rememnberance and I will that Anne Warryn have the choise of theme. Item I gyve to Elizabethe Briggs a paire of swebe gloves in rememberance. The residewe of all ny goods umbequethed and my funerall expencyes discharged I gyve to mye verye welbeloved sonne Rychard Sandfurth whom I maike onelye executor of this mye last will and testament. Supervisors of this mye saide last will. & testament I constitut and maike mye saide sonne in lawe Alan Bellingham desieringe hym to se thys mie saide laste will & testament welfl & trewlye to be performed in everye parte and behalfe. Witnesses:- Alan Bellingham esquier, Richard Sandfurth, Willm. Clytherowe, Edmund Sandfurth, Thomas Pristcosin, Thomas Winter, Robt. Buntyn.

Endorsed:- Testamentam et inventarum Gracei Sandfurth vid defuncti nuper relicto Thomac Sandfurth de Ascom armiger defuncti .......probatum ....... apud ,.,... XII die mensis MA an. dm. 1566.

The following codicil is attached:-
Bequestes bequethed bie me the saide Grace Sandfurthe since the making of my saide will and contayened in this codicil to my saide will annexed as hereafter followithe.
Ffurst I geve to my god daughter Margarett Hutton a vertingaille of burges satten, twoo olde selver spones & as muche grogoran as wilbe her a gowne. Item I geve to Dame Collinson of Stainbank grene a frock & a nickerchyffe. Item I geve to my son Thomas Sandforthe fyve bords in the newe house to be hym a chest and a great iron spet to be as an heire loome at Askham for ever. Item I geve to Allys Custon of Skerwithe a kerchiffe. Item I geve to Hewghe Walker VIs VIIId. Item I geve to one hundrethe and eight tenants, that is to saye in the towne of Askham fortie & eight at A by twentie & fower, at Milburn, the granng, Blankearne, Kerkland, & Colgathe; thertie & sex every one of theme twelffe pence. Item I geve to Thomas Bradly a bushell of byg & in monye twelffe pence. Item I geve Hobson of Knype, Adam Bowman’s wyffe Janet Hucke & to her syster and to Dranblenyn’s (?) wyffe every one of theme twelffe pence. Item I geve to great Bowman’s wyff of Bampton VIlId. Item I geve to Dame Kendall of Askham fyve shillings the wich Edmunde lawe doth owe unto me of borrowed monye. Item I geve to Crestofer Thomson of Helton twoo shellings and to Margaret Thomson his dowghter an old gowne. Item it is my will that ther shalbe none in mourning gownes to morne for me but onelye fower pore wedowes wiche I will shall be John Tynkler’ wyffe , Wylliam Mounsye wyffe, old

Kershyan (?) and Willm. Neasbude (?) wyffe and I will yt.


everye one of theme have a blake gowne. Item I will that my fyve servants Edmonde Sandforthe William Langhorne, Thomas Prestcosoninge, Myghell Tynkler & Crestofor Wilson have everye one of theme a blacke coatie. Item it is my wylle that there shalbe no assemblye bidden to my buryall save onely myne owne cheldren and my nabores the parishionirs of Askham and further it is mye will that I be buryed upon the morrow after my departure whensoever yt shall please god to call me.

Wytnesses Rychard Sandfurthe my son and Thomas Prestcosinge.

Thomas Sandford


Appendix XVI

Connection of Sandford and Wharton

& children of Thomas Sandford and Grace (Crackenthorpe)

Reginald Warcop of Smardale























Elizabeth of Askham m.

Mabel m.

William Carnaby



Thomas Wharton

Edmund Sandford


of Helton

1st Baron



Wharton of Wharton

Thomas Sandford

Sir Reginald Carnaby

d. 1568

of Askham


of Helton Kt. d. 1543



da. & coh. Of

Anthony Crackenthorpe of Howgill









































Thomas Sandford



Edmund Sandford






of Askham



apprenticed to







of Conishead

of Howgill

Mr Pennington





John Middleton








her 1st cousin

Anne Hutton


Anne Warriner

of Halsington

of Newbiggin

of Farlam & Skirwith

[when widowed,


& Levins


**m. 2nd

m. John Middleton




Anne (Hutton)

see **]





widow of





Thos Sandford





of Askham

of Helton

of Howgill

1   2   3   4   5   6   7   8   9   10

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