For individual work of students in preparation for practical classes
Pathology of the visual and olfactory analyzers. Syndromes of the oculomotor nerves affection.
Topicality: Thistopicisbothimportantandhardpartofneurologyforlearning. Pathology of the cranial nerves is met in numerous diseases.
Anisocoria is observed in different diseases: craniocerebral trauma, hemorrhagic stroke, brain tumors, subarachnoid hemorrhages, somatic pathology, tuberculosis of the lungs, aortic aneurysm, oesophagus tumors, stomach ulcer, liver diseases etc. A pupil of the eye usually change in neurosyphilis .
The change of the pupillary test can be revealed as Argyle-Robertson’s symptom in tabes dorsalis and ‘back’ Argyle-Robertson’s symptom can be revealed in epidemic encephalitis and treatment with great doses of neuroleptic. Strabismus and diplopia are the early stage of the pathological process at the base, in the region of the brainstem. Revealing of the oculomotor abnormalities has a great significance for the early diagnostics of tuberculous and syphilitic meningitis. Pupillary reactions and the pupil state can be a possible diagnostic indicator in the state of coma. Mydriasis is observed in mushroom poisoning, botulism, hepatic coma, etc. Miosis happens in uremic coma, alcoholic intoxication, morphine medications poisoning. Therefore every doctor must be able to identify the pathological changes of the oculomotor nerves and send patients to the proper specialist in time. Taking into account it every doctor has to know the symptoms of affection of cerebral nerves.
To know anatomy and physiology of the visual and olfactory analyzers.
To be able to diagnose smell abnormality
To be able to estimate changes of the eye grounds.
To be able to differentiate different kinds of hemianopsia
To know the localization of the nuclei of the oculomotor nerves in the stembrain, their significance, methods of their examination.
To know the clinical picture of the alternating Weber's syndrome, Benedict's syndrome, Foville's syndrome, Bernar and Horner's syndrome, Argyll Robertson syndrom
To be able to identify localization of the pathological process, to make topical diagnose.
Basicknowledge, skillsandcompetences which are necessary for topic studying:
Names of the previous subjects
To know anatomy of the brainstem, lower surface of the brain, the structure of the precranial fossa, middle cranial fossa, posterior cranial fossa, the place of outlet of the cranial nerves.
To know physiological of the I, II, III, IV, VI pair of the cranial nerves