Members of the Jewish police were not the only ones who served the Germans; some Jews acted



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581 Trunk, Jewish Responses to Nazi Persecution, 123.

582 Aleksander Pakentreger, “Losy Żydów m. Kalisza i powiatu Kaliskiego w okresie okupacji hitlerowskiej (od 1940 do 9 VII 1942: Martyrologia i zagłada,” Biuletyn Żydowskiego Instytutu Historycznego, nos. 2–3 (1980): 114 – 15.

583 Mordechai Bochner, ed., Sefer Chrzanow: Lebn un umkum fun a yidish shtetl (Roslyn Harbor, New York: Solomon Gross, 1989), 1ff., translated (by Jonathan Boyarin) as Chrzanow: The Life and Destruction of a Jewish Shtetl, Internet: .

584 Dean, Encyclopedia of Camps and Ghettos, 1933–1945, vol. II, Part A, 721.

585 Mandelkern, Escape from the Nazis, 41–42.

586 Czesław Bardzik, “Rejon II Obwodu AK Radzyń Podlaski (Placóka Parczew),” in Tomasz Strzembosz, ed., Armia Krajowa na środkowej i południowej Lubelszczyźnie i Podlasiu: Materiały sesji naukowej KUL, 24–25 IX 1985 r. (Lublin: Redakcja Wydawnictw KUL, 1993), 375–76.

587 Testimony of Adam Winder, Shoah Foundation Institute for Visual History and Education, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, August 15, 1995, Interview Code 5517.


588 Jekuthiel Zwillich, “The Extermination of the Jews of Zamość,” in Mordechai V. Bernstein, ed., The Zamosc Memorial Book: A Memorial Book of a Center of Jewish Life Destroyed by the Nazis (Mahwah, New Jersey: Jacob Solomon Berger, 2004), 559–70. See also Dean, Encyclopedia of Camps and Ghettos, 1933–1945, vol. II, Part A, 736, 737.

589 Robert Kuwałek, “Zagłada sztetl: Zydzi w Izbict pod okupacją nazistowską,” in Weronika Litwin, Monika Szabłowska-Zaremba, and Sławomir Jacek Żurek, eds., Żydzi w Zamościu i na Zamojszczyźnie: Historia—kultura—literatura (Lublin: Towarzystwo Naukowe Katolickiego Uniwersytetu Lubelskiego Jana Pawła II, 2012), 255–77, here at 273.

590 Dean, Encyclopedia of Camps and Ghettos, 1933–1945, vol. II, Part A, 641.

591 Dean, Encyclopedia of Camps and Ghettos, 1933–1945, vol. II, Part A, 651, 663, 721; Robert Kuwałek, “Zagłada sztetl: Zydzi w Izbict pod okupacją nazistowską,” in Litwin, Szabłowska-Zaremba, and Żurek, Żydzi w Zamościu i na Zamojszczyźnie, 274 n.64.

592 Keins, A Journey Through the Valley of Perdition, 130–31.

593 S. Winograd,” “The Days of Destruction,” in E. Steinman, ed., Brisk de-Lita (Jerusalem: The Encyclopedia of the Jewish Diaspora, 1958), vol. 2, 575ff., translated as Brest Lit(owsk), Internet: .

594 Entry for “Zamosc,” Encyclopedia of Jewish Communities in Poland, vol. 7, Internet: , a translation of Pinkas hakehillot Polin, vol. 7 (Jerusalem: Yad Vashem, 1999), 203–12.

595 Testimony of Salomon Podchlebnik, Archive of the Jewish Historical Institute (Warsaw), record group 301, number 10.

596 Jekuthiel Zwillich, “The Extermination of the Jews of Zamość,” in Bernstein, ed., The Zamosc Memorial Book, 570.

597 Meir Peker, “In the Bielsk Ghetto & Camps,” in Haim Rabin, ed. Bielsk-Podliask: Book in the Holy Memory of the Bielsk Podliask Jews Whose Lives Were Taken During the Holocaust Between 1939 and 1941 (Tel Aviv: Bielsk Immigrants’ Association of Israel and the United States of America, 1975), 29–30, 33.

598 Jakob Breitowicz, Through Hell To Life (New York: Shengold, 1983), 43, 45–46, 48, 60.

599 Trunk, Judenrat, 502.

600 Arnon Rubin, The Rise and Fall of Jewish Communities in Poland and Their Relics Today, volume II: District Lublin (Tel Aviv: Tel-Aviv University Press, 2007), 187.

601 M. and Z. Rajak, Memorial Book of Gluboke (Canton, New York, 1994), 40, 77; translation of Khurbn Glubok…Koziany (Buenos Aires: Former Residents’ Association in Argentina, 1956), 71.

602 Sandra Brand, I Dared To Live (New York: Shengold Publishers, 1978), 50.

603 Wendy Lower, The Diary of Samuel Golfard and the Holocaust in Galicia (Lanham, Maryland: AltaMira Press/Rowman & Littlefield, 2011), 55.

604 Testimony of Motel Kaufman, Jewish Historical Institute (Warsaw) archive, record group 301, number 2182.

605 Testimony of Teofil (Tovye) Grol as cited in Regina Grol, Saving the Tremors of Past Lives: A Cross-Generational Holocaust Memoir (Boston: Academic Studies Press, 2014), 120.

606 Dean, Encyclopedia of Camps and Ghettos, 1933–1945, vol. II, Part B, 1339.

607 Bauer, Rethinking the Holocaust, 154.

608 Ajzensztajn, Ruch podziemny w ghettach i obozach, 89.

609 Entry for “Brest,” Encyclopedia of Jewish Communities in Poland, vol. 5, Internet: , a translation of Shmuel Spector, ed., Pinkas hakehillot Polin, vol. 5 (Jerusalem: Yad Vashem, 1990), 226–37.

610 Shlomo Kogan, “The Long Walk,” in Leo W. Schwarz, ed., The Root and the Bough: The Epic of an Enduring People (New York and Toronto: Rinehart & Company, 1949), 101, 106.

611 Dean, Encyclopedia of Camps and Ghettos, 1933–1945, vol. II, Part B, 1396.

612 Goldberg, The Undefeated, 112.

613 Krystyna Modrzewska, “Pamiętnik z okresu okupacji,” Biuletyn Żydowskiego Instytutu Historycznego, no. 31 (1959): 60, 63.

614 Marian Małowist, “Assimilationists and Neophytes at the Time of War-Operations and in the Closed Jewish Ghetto,” in Kermish, To Live With Honor and Die With Honor!…, 630. See also Dembowski, Christians in the Warsaw Ghetto, 95.

615 Rubin, The Rise and Fall of Jewish Communities in Poland and Their Relics Today, volume II: District Lublin, 198, 200.

616 Joe Rosenblum with David Kohn, Defy the Darkness: A Tale of Courage in the Shadow of Mengele (Westport, Connecticut, and London: Praeger, 2001), 18–29, 108.

617 Gitel Donath, My Bones Don’t Rest in Auschwitz: A Lonely Battle to Survive German Tyranny (Montreal: Kaplan Publishing, 1999), 115–17.

618 Gabriel N. Finder and Alexander V. Prusin, “Jewish Collaborators on Trial in Poland, 1944–1956,” in Polin: Studies in Polish Jewry, vol. 20 (2008): 139, n56.

619 The Diary of Dawid Rubinowicz (Edmonds, Washington: Creative Options, 1982), 73, 75.

620 Dean, Encyclopedia of Camps and Ghettos, 1933–1945, vol. II, Part A, 203.

621 Dean, Encyclopedia of Camps and Ghettos, 1933–1945, vol. II, Part A, 202.

622 Rachel (Roza) Majerfeld, Nightmare Days (Tel Aviv: I.L. Peretz, 1988), 25–31.

623 Joseph Goldstein, “Extracts from a Ghetto Diary,” in The Staszów Book, Internet: , translated from Elhanan Erlich, ed., Sefer Staszow (Tel Aviv: Former Residents of Staszów in Israel and in the Diaspora, 1962), xxv ff. These prejudicial references are nowhere to be found in Sara Bender’s detailed study of Staszów, although its primary focus is Golstein’s diary. See Sara Bender, “The Jews of Staszów, 1939–1943: History Through a Diarist’s Eyes: A comparative Discussion,” Yad Vashem Studies, vol. 43, no. 1 (2015): 133–69.

624 Sara Bender, “The Jews of Staszów, 1939–1943: History Through a Diarist’s Eyes: A comparative Discussion,” Yad Vashem Studies, vol. 43, no. 1 (2015): 133–69, here at 151.

625 Shatyn, A Private War, 195.

626 Uri Lichter, In the Eye of the Storm: A Memoir of Survival Through the Holocaust (New York: Holocaust Library, 1987), 38–39, 61, 89.

627 Jacob Sloan, ed., The Journal of Emmanuel Ringelblum (New York: Schocken, 1974), 339–41. This edition is a significantly truncated version of Ringelblum’s diary.

628 Survivor Stories: Solomon Radasky, Internet: .

629 Pogonowski, Jews in Poland, 115.

630 Ainsztein, Jewish Resistance in Nazi-Occupied Eastern Europe, 583.

631 Cited in Levin, Walls Around, 151.

632 Katsh, Scroll of Agony, 324.

633 Ibid., 325–27.

634 Ibid., 329–31.

635 Ibid., 332–33.

636 Ibid., 333–34.

637 Meed, On Both Sides of the Wall, 26–28.

638 Landau, Caged, 133–34.

639 Ibid., 204–205.

640 Cyprys, A Jump For Life, 49–50, 54–57.

641 Testimony of Izrael Lichtensztajn in Markowska, Archiwum Ringelbluma, 175–77.

642 Goldberg, Running Through Fire, 34–35.

643 Perechodnik, Am I a Murderer?, 104.

644 Katzenelson, The Song of the Murdered Jewish People, 23–24.

645 Makower, Pamiętnik z getta warszawskiego, 62.

646 Cited in Levin, Walls Around, 149–51.

647 Cited in Levin, Walls Around, 153–56.

648 Dean, Encyclopedia of Camps and Ghettos, 1933–1945, vol. II, Part A, 459.

649 Goldstein, The Stars Bear Witness, 178–79.

650 Landau, Caged, 189–91.

651 Many sources confirm the participation of the remnants of the Jewish police, who then numbered probably no more than one hundred men. Some of them were killed in action. See Ainsztein, Jewish Resistance in Nazi-Occupied Eastern Europe, 624; Landau, Caged, 221; Engelking and Leociak, Getto warszawskie, First edition, 218; Władysław Bartoszewski, “The Martyrdom and Struggle of the Jews in Warsaw under German Occupation 1939–43,” in Władysław Bartoszewski and Antony Polonsky, eds., The Jews in Warsaw: A History (Oxford: Basil Blackwell, in association with the Institute for Polish-Jewish Studies, 1991), 338–39; Najberg, Ostatni powstańcy getta, 45; Moshe Arens, “The Warsaw Ghetto Uprising: A Reappraisal,” Yad Vashem Studies, vol. 33 (2005): 101–42, especially 114.

652 Alpert, A Spark of Life, 34.

653 David Mittelberg, Between Two Worlds: The Testimony & the Testament (Jerusalem and New York: Devora, 2004), 31–32.

654 Zofia Rozenstrauch, “Historia czterech miesięcy,” Przełom, no. 1 (1947), cited in Engelking and Leociak, Getto warszawskie, Second edition, 804.

655 Najberg, Ostatni powstańcy getta, 61; Engelking and Leociak, Getto warszawskie, Second edition, 804, based on the testimony of Stella Fidelseid, Jewish Historical Institute (Warsaw) archive, record group 301, number 4873.

656 Paulsson, Secret City, 91; Engelking and Leociak, Getto warszawskie, Second edition, 828. The Jewish “musers” were housed on Zamenhof Street and worked with a special 137-member German police unit tasked with locating hidden Jews.

657 Estelle Glaser Laughlin, Transcending Darkness: A Girl’s Journey Out of the Holocaust (Lubbock, Texas: Texas Tech University Press, 2012), 42.

658 Dan Porat, the Boy: A Holocaust Story (New York: Hill and Wang, 2010), 95.

659 Wiszniewicz, And Yet I Still Have Dreams, 70.

660 Chaim Lazar Litai, Muranowska 7: The Warsaw Ghetto Rising (Tel Aviv: Massada–P.E.C. Press, 1966), 269.

661 Landau, Caged, 235.

662 Jack Klajman with Ed Klajman, Out of the Ghetto (London and Portland, Oregon: Vallentine Mitchell, 2000), 71.

663 Donald L. Niewyk, ed., Fresh Wounds: Early Narratives of Holocaust Survival (Chapel Hill: The University of North Carolina Press, 1998), 129.

664 Halina Birenbaum, Nadzieja umiera ostatnia (Warsaw: Czytelnik, 1988), 72.

665 Mittelberg, Between Two Worlds, 33.

666 Miriam Flajszman, “From the Last Days of the Warsaw Ghetto,” in A. Sh. Stein and G. Weissman, eds., Pinkas Sochaczew (Jerusalem, Former Residents of Sochaczew in Israel, 1962), 510 ff., translated as Memorial Book of Sochaczew, Internet: .

667 Engelking and Leociak, Getto warszawskie, Second edition, 806–7. See also Kobi Ben-Simhon, “World of our (god)fathers,” Ha’aretz, October 21, 2004; Cezary Gmyz, “Zdrada przy Miłej,” Wprost, May 1, 2005.

668 Najberg, Ostatni powstańcy getta, 89, 110, 115, 120, 132 (Tyszler), 142–43 (Tyszler).

669 Testimony of Dawid Białogód (Stanisław Nowakowski), dated November 7, 1957, Jewish Historical Institute (Warsaw) archive, record group 301, number 5003.

670 Stefan Ernest, O wojnie wielich Niemiec z Żydami w Warszawie, 1939–1943 (Warsaw: Czytelnik, 2003), 74. See also p. 287 on the use of Jewish policemen.

671 Najberg, Ostatni powstańcy getta, 68.

672 Najberg, Ostatni powstańcy getta, 137.

673 Landau, Caged, 325, 329–30.

674 Trunk, Jewish Responses to Nazi Persecution, 308–10.

675 Trunk, Judenrat, 513.

676 Testimony of Diana Grinbaum, Jewish Historical Institute (Warsaw) archive, record group 301, number 1501.

677 Dov Shuval, ed., The Szczebrzeszyn Memorial Book (Mahwah, New Jersey: Jacob Solomon Berger, 2005), 104.

678 Zygmunt Klukowski, Dziennik z lat okupacji Zamojszczyzny (1939–) (Lublin: Lubelska Spółdzielnia Wydawnicza, 1958), 294 (entry for October 31, 1942).

679 Simkha Hampel and Yisokhar Minski, “The Megillah of Suffering,” in L. Losh, ed., Sefer yizkor le-kehilat Radomsk ve-ha-seviva (Tel Aviv: Former Residents of Radomsk, 1967), 361–62; translated as Memorial Book of the Community of Radomsk and Vicinity, Internet: .


680 Dean, Encyclopedia of Camps and Ghettos, 1933–1945, vol. II, Part A, 390.

681 Joachim Schoenfeld, Holocaust Memoirs: Jews in the Lwów Ghetto, the Janowski Concentration Camp, and as Deportees in Siberia (Hoboken, New Jersey: Ktav Publishing House, 1985), 80–82. For another damning account from Lwów see Grynberg and Kotowska, Życie i zagłada Żydów polskich 1939–1945, 283. The Jewish police from Lwów were also employed outside the ghetto. For example, the concentration of 512 Jews in a school on Sobieski Street on March 25, 1942, was accomplished by 10 German, 20 Ukrainian, and 40 Jewish policemen. See Hilberg, The Destruction of the European Jews, vol. 2, 506. The Jewish police from Lwów also took part in the liquidation of ghettos in outlying communities. In Stryj and Rawa Ruska, they helped the German and Ukrainian police round up Jews for deportation to Bełżec, and were particularly adept at discovering and destroying hideouts. See Grynberg and Kotowska, Życie i zagłada Żydów polskich 1939–1945, 356; Hilberg, The Destruction of the European Jews, vol. 2, 506. In Busk, in addition to the SS, Wehrmacht, SD, German gendarmes, armed local Volksdeutsche, and Ukrainian police, the Germans brought in over a dozen Jewish policemen from Lwów. The terrorized Polish population, appalled by what was happening, locked itself up in their homes. See A. Shayari, ed., Busk: In Memory of Our Community (Haifa: The Busker Organization in Israel, 1965), xlvi.

682 Yones, Smoke in the Sand, 118–25.

683 Yones, Smoke in the Sand, 164–65.

684 Yones, Smoke in the Sand, 171–72.

685 Testimony of Abraham Schuss, dated November 9, 1945, Jewish Historical Institute (Warsaw) archive, record group 301, number 1153.

686 Yones, Smoke in the Sand, 208.

687 Testimony of Jakub Lang, December 21, 1945, Jewish Historical Institute (Warsaw) archive, record group 301, number 1340.

688 Ada Kessler-Pawlak, Nie chcę nocy: Dziewczyna i kanibale, 2nd expanded edition (Warsaw: CB, 2002), 52–53, 99.

689 Jones, Żydzi Lwowa w okresie okupacji 1939–1945, 190 (Rywka Kuper), 227–28.

690 Drix, Witness to Annihilation, 38.

691 Drix, Witness to Annihilation, 169.

692 Drix, Witness to Annihilation, 171–72.

693 Kaplan, I Never Left Janowska …, 126.

694 William Ungar and David Chanoff, Destined to Live (Lanham, Maryland: University Press of America, 2000), 171–72, 253, 276, 277.

695 Edwin Langberg with Julia M. Langberg, Sara’s Blessing (Lumberton, New Jersey: Emethas Publishers, 2003), 70.

696 Dean, Encyclopedia of Camps and Ghettos, 1933–1945, vol. II, Part A, 750, 752, 755, 759, 763, 765, 771, 775, 778, 785, 791–92, 796, 815, 819, 822, 825, 827, 830, 835, 838, 840, 844, 850, 854. See also the testimony of Sydonia Ebner, dated July 19, 1947, Jewish Historical Institute Achive, record group 301, number 3371 (Jewish policemen in Stryj uncovered Jews hidden in bunkers). Immediately after the war Jews from Sambor identified twelve Jewish survivors as collaborators: Herman (Henryk) Stahl, Aleksander Berger (Zamieński), Bruno Szeps/Feiner, Chaim Lainer, Izak Enner, Treibicz, Hamerschmid, Bronisław Begleiter (deceased), Dolek Frei, Dr. Fenster, Izko Lewental, Helka Cailer (the mistress of the head of the Gestapo). See Jewish Historical Institute (Warsaw) achive, record group 301, number 2199.

697 Yitzhak Arad, In the Shadow of the Red Banner: Soviet Jews in the War against Nazi Germany (Jerusalem and New York: Gefen, in association with Yad Vashem, The International Institute for Holocaust Reseach, 2010), 258.

698 Dean, Encyclopedia of Camps and Ghettos, 1933–1945, vol. II, Part A, 763.

699 Joseph Adler, “Chapters of Annihilation,” in Y. Eshel, ed., Memorial Book of the Martyrs of Bolechow, Internet: , translation of Sefer ha-zikaron le-kedoshei Bolechow (Israel: Association of Former Residents of Bolechow in Israel, 1957), 120ff., 305ff.

700 Testimony of Anzel Daches, Majer Gdański, Laja Goldman, Mojżesz Klajman, Chana Kohn, Jakub Libman, and Izrael Szerman, dated October 13, 1947, Jewish Historical Institute (Warsaw) achive, record group 301, number 2932.

701 Dean, Encyclopedia of Camps and Ghettos, 1933–1945, vol. II, Part A, 270.

702 Trunk, Judenrat, 563; Katz, Gone to Pitchipoï, 87.

703 Zelkowicz, In Those Terrible Days, 305–6.

704 Zelkowicz, In Those Terrible Days, 297.

705 Zelkowicz, In Those Terrible Days, 305–6.

706 Michael Moshe Checinski, Running the Gauntlet of Anti-Semitism: From Polish Counterintelligence to the German/American Marshall Center (Jerusalem and New York: Devora, 2004), 38.

707 Rhoda G. Lewin, ed., Witnesses to the Holocaust: An Oral History (Boston: Twayne, 1990), 75.

708 Henryk Grynberg, Drohobycz, Drohobycz and Other Stories: True Tales from the Holocaust and Life After (New York: Penguin Books, 2002), 28–30.

709 Arūnas Bubnys, “Kauno ir Vilniaus getų žydų policija (1941–1944 m.)” [The Jewish Police in the Kaunas and Vilnius Ghettos (1941–1944)], Genocidas ir rezistencija, no. 1 (17), 2005; Monika Tomkiewicz, Zbrodnia w Ponarach 1941–1944 (Warsaw: Instytut Pamięci Narodowej–Komisja Ścigania Zbrodni przeciwko Narodowi Polskiemu, 2008), 189.

710 Daniel Blatman, En direct du ghetto: La presse clandestine juive dans le ghetto de Varsovie (1940–1943) (Paris: Cerf; Jerusalem: Yad Vashem, 2007), 423. Among the victims was the father of Mikail Brantsovsky, whose hideout was betrayed by a Jewish policeman. See Biographies: Fania Brantsovskaya, Internet: .

711 Margolis, A Partisan from Vilna, 358.

712 Mendel Balberyszski, Stronger Than Iron: The Destructon of Vilna Jewry 1941–1945: An Eyewitness Account (Jerusalem and New York: Gefen, 2010), 10.

713 Balberyszski, Stronger Than Iron, 201–2.

714 James M. Glass, Jewish Resistance during the Holocaust: Moral Uses of Violence and Will (Houndmills, Basingstoke, Hampshire and New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2004), 50.

715 Dina Porat, The Fall of a Sparrow: The Life and Times of Abba Kovner (Stanford, California: Stanford University Press, 2010), 139.

716 Kazimierz Sakowicz, Ponary Diary, 1941–1943: A Bystander’s Account of a Mass Murder (New Haven and Yale: Yale University Press, 2005), 122–23, 127–28, 144.

717 The Words to Remember It, 97.

718 M. Gelbart, ed., Sefer Zikaron le-kehilat Oshmana (Tel Aviv: Oshmaner Organization and the Oshmaner Society in the U.S.A., 1969), 25–31, English translation on Internet: , 115; Rich Cohen, The Avengers (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 2000), 70–73.

719 Trunk, Judenrat, 514; Arad, Ghetto in Flames, 342.

720 Kruk, The Last Days of the Jerusalem of Lithuania, 411.

721 Nathan Cohen, “The Last Days of the Vilna Ghetto—Pages from a Diary,” Yad Vashem Studies, vol. 31 (2003): 36, 42; Margolis, A Partisan from Vilna, 331.

722 “Life Story of Perella née Esterowicz (Pearl Good),” Internet: .

723 Trunk, Judenrat, 514.

724 Ephraim F. Sten, 1111 Days In My Life Plus Four (Takoma Park, Maryland: Dryad Press, in association with the University of Wisconsin, 2006), 26–27.

725 Dean, Encyclopedia of Camps and Ghettos, 1933–1945, vol. 2, Part A, 593.

726 Dean, Encyclopedia of Camps and Ghettos, 1933–1945, vol. 2, Part A, 580.

727 Dean, Encyclopedia of Camps and Ghettos, 1933–1945, vol. 2, Part A, 156.

728 Dean, Encyclopedia of Camps and Ghettos, 1933–1945, vol. 2, Part A, 152, 154, 158; Trunk, Judenrat, 514.

729 Account of Marian Auerhahn (Głuszecki) in Krzysztof Kocjan, Zagłada Żydów olkuskich (Olkusz: Olkuskie Stowarzyszenie Kulturalne “Brama”, 2002).

730 Mary Fulbrook, A Small Town Near Auschwitz: Ordinary Nazis and the Holocaust (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2012), 291.

731 Bochner, Sefer Chrzanow, 80ff., 99ff.

732 Testimony of Rosa Felczer, Internet: .

733 Dean, Encyclopedia of Camps and Ghettos, 1933–1945, vol. 2, Part A, 151.

734 Dean, Encyclopedia of Camps and Ghettos, 1933–1945, vol. 2, Part B, 1257.

735 Dean, Encyclopedia of Camps and Ghettos, 1933–1945, vol. 2, Part B, 1269.

736 Zbigniew Romaniuk, “Brańsk and Its Environs in the Years 1939–1953: Reminiscences of Events,” in The Story of Two Shtetls, Brańsk and Ejszyszki: An Overview of Polish-Jewish Relations in Northeastern Poland during World War II, Part One (Toronto and Chicago: The Polish Educational Foundation in North America, 1998), 27, 78, 144; Hoffman, Shtetl, 224–25.

737 Trunk, Judenrat, 558.

738 Frank Blaichman, Rather Die Fighting: A Memoir of World War II (New York: Arcade, 2009), 17–18.

739 Based an account in the Jewish Historical Institute (Warsaw) archive, record group 301, number 691, cited in Marcin Janowski, “Polityka niemiecka władz okupacyjnych wobec ludności polskiej i żydowskiej w Przemyślu w latach 1939–1944,” in Kresy Południowo-Wschodnie: Rocznik Przemyskiego Centrum Kultury i Nauki Zamek, vol. 3/4, no. 1 (Przemyśl 2005–2006): 217–18.

740 Kurek, Dzieci żydowskie w klasztorach, 173.

741 Account of Teodora (Cesia) Zimmerman Miller in Hartman and Krochmal, I Remember Every Day…, 49.

742 Baruch Milch, Testament: Z Archiwum Żydowskiego Instytutu Historycznego (Warsaw: Ośrodek Karta, 2001), 108; Piotrowski, Poland’s Holocaust, 72–74.

743 Baruch Milch, Can Heaven Be Void? (Jerusalem: Yad Vashem, 2003), 76–78.

744 Chana Weinheber-Hacker, “The Annihilation of the Jews of Kolomey June, 1941 – February 1943,” in Shlomo Bickel, ed., Memorial Book of Kolomey, Internet: ; translated from Pinkes Kolomey (New York: Rausen Bros., 1957), 325–56.

745 Żaneta Margules, “Moje przeżycia w Tarnopolu podczas wojny,” Biuletyn Żydowskiego Instytutu Historycznego, no. 36 (1960): 78.

746 Aryeh Konitski, The Diary of Adam’s Father: The Diary of Aryeh Klonicki (Klonymus) and His Wife Malwina, with Letters Concerning the Fate of Their Child Adam (Jerusalem: Beit Lohamei Haghetaot/Ghetto Fighters House, 1973), 41–42.

747 Konitski, The Diary of Adam’s Father, 41.

748 Dean, Encyclopedia of Camps and Ghettos, 1933–1945, vol. II, Part A, 771.

749 Regina Hader Rock, “From Hiding Place to Hiding Place,” in M. Amihai, David Stockfish, and Shmuel Bari, eds., The Community of Rohatyn and Environs, Internet: ; translated from Kehilat Rohatyn ve-ha-seviva (Tel Aviv: Former Residents of Rohatyn in Israel, 1962), 250ff.

750 Tracy, To Speak For the Silenced, 86.

751 Tracy, To Speak For the Silenced, 88–91.

752 Abraham Weissbrod, “Death of a Shtetl,” Internet: , translation of Abraham Weissbrod, Es shtarbt a shtetl: Megiles Skalat (Munich: Central Historical Commission of the Central Committee of Liberated Jews in the U.S. Zone of Germany, 1948), 41.

753 Kurt Grübler, Journey Through the Night: Jakob Littner’s Holocaust Memoir (New York and London: Continuum, 2000), 55.

754 Trunk, Jewish Responses to Nazi Persecution, 113.

755 Schupack, The Dead Years, 56–57.

756 Dean, Encyclopedia of Camps and Ghettos, 1933–1945, vol. II, Part A, 686.

757 Schupack, The Dead Years, 105–106, 115–17.

758 Dean, Encyclopedia of Camps and Ghettos, 1933–1945, vol. II, Part A, 686.

759 Testimony of Lejb Goldberg, Jewish Historical Institute (Warsaw) archive, record group 301, number 3502. As mentioned later on in the text, Lubicz was arrested after the war but managed to escape from prison in 1946 and went abroad, never to face justice.

760 Dean, Encyclopedia of Camps and Ghettos, 1933–1945, vol. II, Part A, 401.

761 Weinstein, Quenched Steel, 90.

762 Żbikowski, Polacy i Żydzi pod okupacją niemiecką 1939–1945, 965.

763 Sara Bender, The Jews of Białystok During World War II and the Holocaust (Waltham, Massachusetts: Brandeis University Press, 2008), 201–2.

764 Bender, The Jews of Białystok During World War II and the Holocaust, 211–12.

765 Evgeny Finkel, Victims’ Politics: Jewish Behavior During the Holocaust, Doctoral Dissertation, University of Wisconsin—Madison, 2012, 268–70.

766 Account of Abram Manelis in Diatłowicki, Żydzi w walce 1939–1945, vol. 1, 274, 276.

767 Leib Reizer, In the Struggle: Memoirs from Grodno and the Forests (New York and Jerusalem: Yad Vashem and The Holocaust Survivors’ Memoirs Project, 2009), 114, 132–34.

768 Accounts of Leib Pudlowski and Zaken Liberman in Mark Tarkov and Abraham Mittleberg, eds., Belchatow Memorial Book, Internet: , a translation of Belchatow yizker-bukh (Buenos Aires: Association of Polish Jews in Argentina, 1951), 391–462.

769 Entry for “Belchatow,” Encyclopedia of Jewish Communities in Poland, vol. 1, Internet: , a translation of Pinkas hakehillot Polin, vol. 1 (Jerusalem: Yad Vashem, 1976), 70–77.

770 From a review by Michael Berkowitz of Alan Scott Haft, Harry Haft: Auschwitz Survivor, Challenger of Rocky Marciano (Syracuse, New York: Syracuse University Press, 2006), 20–22, 32–33, 39, in East European Jewish Affairs, vol. 37, no. 3 (December 2007): 400.

771 William Samelson, “Piotrków Trybunalski: My Ancestral Home,” in Eric J. Sterling, ed., Life in the Ghettos During the Holocaust (Syracuse, New York: Syracuse University Press, 2005), 5, 8–9, 12, 14.

772 Dean, Encyclopedia of Camps and Ghettos, 1933–1945, vol. II, Part A, 281.

773 Charles Kotkowsky, Remnants: Memoirs of a Survivor (Montreal: Concordia University Chair in Canadian Jewish Studies, 2000), Internet: .

774 Dean, Encyclopedia of Camps and Ghettos, 1933–1945, vol. II, Part A, 89.

775 Fanny Sołomian-Łoc, Getto i gwiazdy (Wasaw: Czytelnik, 1993), 68–69, 71, 82. This book is also available in English translation as Fanny Solomian-Loc, Woman Facing the Gallows (Amherst, Massachusetts: Wordpro, 1981).

776 Laurence Rees, Auschwitz: The Nazis and ‘The Final Solution’ (London: BBC Books, 2005), 129–31; Reicher, Country of Ash, 55. Reicher accuses Rumkowski, a former director of a Jewish orphanage, of molesting young children in the interwar period. Ibid., 47–49.

777 Rees, Auschwitz, 105.

778 Anatol Wertheim, “Żydowska partyzantka na Białorusi,” Zeszyty Historyczne, no. 86 (1988): 127.

779 Urbański, Zagłada Żydów w Dystrykcie Radomskim, 96.

780 Urbański, Zagłada Żydów w Dystrykcie Radomskim, 98.

781 Dean, Encyclopedia of Camps and Ghettos, 1933–1945, vol. II, Part A, 208.

782 Dean, Encyclopedia of Camps and Ghettos, 1933–1945, vol. II, Part A, 242.

783 Tarmon, ed., Memorial Book, 52.

784 Testimony of Nachum Knopfmacher, June 28, 1961, Yad Vashem Archives, 03/1787.

785 Dean, Encyclopedia of Camps and Ghettos, 1933–1945, vol. II, Part A, 234–35.

786 Testimony of the Brothers Avrach, in Tarmon, Memorial Book, 51.

787 Binyamin Orenstayn (Orenstein), “Czestochowa Jews in the Nazi Era (1939–1945),” Czentochov: A New Supplement to the Book “Czenstochover Yidn”, Internet: , translation of S.D. Singer, ed., Tshenstokhover: Naye tsugob-material tsum bukh “Tshenstokhover Yidn” (New York: United Relief Committee in New York, 1958), 39ff.

788 Gutenbaum and Latała, eds., The Last Eyewitnesses, vol. 2, 51–52.

789 Robin O’Neil, Rabka Police School, Internet: .

790 Warshawsky, Drohiczyn, 316.

791 Jan Radożycki, “Nasze się skończyło,” Nasz Dziennik (Warsaw), August 18, 2001.

792 Dean, Encyclopedia of Camps and Ghettos, 1933–1945, vol. II, Part B, 1344.

793 Marceli Najder, “Dziennik z bunkra,” Karta, no. 68 (2011): 54–87, here at 74.

794 “Eksterminacja ludności polskiej dokonana przez bojówki OUN-UPA w powiecie Kopyczyńce, woj. Tarnopolskie w latach 1939–1945. Część 1,” Na rubieży (Wrocław), no. 1 (20) 1997: 17; Daria Nałęcz and Hennadii Boriak, eds., Wołyń, Galicja Wschodnia, 1943–1944: Przewodnik po polskich i ukraińskich źródłach archiwalnych, vol. 1 (Warsaw: Naczelna Dyrekcja Archiwów Państwowych and Kiev: Derzhavnyi Komitet Arkhiviv Ukrainy, 2003), Polish appendix, Document 12 (page 5).

795 Peter Black, “Prosty żołnierz ‘akcji Reinhard’: Oddziały z Trawnik i eksterminacja polskich Żydów,” in Libionka, Akcja Reinhardt, 107.

796 Amnon Ajzensztadt, Endurance: Chronicles of Jewish Resistance (Oakville, Ontario: Mosaic Press, 1987), 40.

797 Institute of National Memory, Warsaw Regional Commission for the Investigation of Crimes against the Polish Nation, file no. S 5/20/Zn.

798 Testimony of Bajla Kaselberg in Markowska, Archiwum Ringelbluma, 132–33.

799 Wrobel, My Life My Way, 63.

800 Heather Laskey, Night Voices: Heard in the Shadow of Hitler and Stalin (Montreal and Kingston: McGill-Queen’s University Press, 2003), 70.

801 Nachemia Wurman with Margaret Russell, Nachemia: German and Jew in the Holocaust (Far Hills, New Jersey: New Horizon Press, 1988), 81.

802 Wiszniewicz, And Yet I Still Have Dreams, 76.

803 Jack Eisner, The Survivor (New York: William Morrow and Company, 1980), 208.

804 Trunk, Jewish Responses to Nazi Persecution, 204.

805 Mittelberg, Between Two Worlds, 48–58.

806 Schupack, The Dead Years, 126. For additional confirmation of the exploits of Bubi, who went around the camp with a whip, beating everybody who he did not like, preferably old people, see Jerzy Kwiatkowski, 485 dni na Majdanku (Lublin: Wydawnictwo Lubelskie, 1968), 55.

807 Donat, The Holocaust Kingdom, 193.

808 Moshe Schliam, “Zamość Without Jews,” in Bernstein, ed., The Zamosc Memorial Book, 754.

809 Goldberg, The Undefeated, 140, 141–42. Goldberg states: “The Poles came every morning for an eight-hour working day. They were fairly decent people.” Ibid., 140.

810 Goldberg, The Undefeated, 134.

811 Record of Witness Testimony No. 327, May 27, 1946, Voices from Ravensbrück, Polish Institute of Source Research, Lund, Sweden, Internet: <http://www3.ub.lu.se/ravensbruck/interview327.pdf>.

812 Wewryk, To Sobibor and Back, 27, 32, 40, 41, 43–44, 48–49, 53.

813 Trunk, Jewish Responses to Nazi Persecution, 279–81.

814 Testimony of Icek Lichtman, Jewish Historical Institute (Warsaw) archive, record group 301, number 1204.

815 Szmajzner, Inferno em Sobibor, English translation “Extracts from the Tragedy of a Jewish Teenager” posted online at: .

816 Laurence Rees, Auschwitz: The Nazis & “The Final Solution”, BBC documentary (2005).

817 Konrad Charmatz, Nightmares: Memoirs of the Years of Horror under Nazi Rule in Europe, 1939–1945 (Syracuse, New York: Syracuse University Press, 2003), 84–88. Charmatz also describes the “sadistic” and corrupt kapos he later encountered at a labour camp for Jews on Gęsia Street in Warsaw, where he was transferred: “One of the most sadistic of all the Kapos was a little fat man, power-drunk, with bloodshot eyes. Once, while running through a labyrinthine cellar, I ran into him just as he was raping one of us slaves, a young Belgian boy with blond hair.” Ibid., 117–19. The block elders are described as “mostly criminals, sadists, homosexuals and underworld scum.” Ibid., 127. Many of the kapos the author met were homosexuals or became such in the camps. They preyed mercilessly on young men who became their servile “pipls” (or servants), and also on their enforcers who spied on the prisoners. Ibid., 117. When Charmatz arrived at a labour camp in Mühldorf, about 80 kilometres from Munich, he found that “Many of the Greek Kapos [Jews] were especially false and brutal.” Ibid., 184. Other testimonies also conform that many prisoners—Jews and Poles alike—were raped by Gestapo men and fellow prisoners. Young boys, known as piepels or bumboys, were especially vulnerable to abuse by homosexual kapos. These boys would then disappear after their kapo tired of them. See David Gilbert, as told to Tim Shortbridge and Michael D. Frounfelter, No Place to Run: A True Story (London and Portland, Oregon: Vallentine Mitchell, 2002), 76; Sam Pivnik, Survivor: Auschwitz, the Death March and My Fight for Freedom (London: Hodder and Stoughton, 2012), 130. Young men were often sexually abused by homosexual prisoners in Nazi camps.

818 David Faber, Because of Romek: A Holocaust Survivor’s Memoir (El Cajon, California: Granite Hill Press, 1997), 130–31. When one of Potok’s brothers was transferred to a satellite camp in Jawiszowice, he was quietly killed by the Jewish inmates who remembered him from Birkenau. Ibid., 149–50.

819 Rosenblum with Kohn, Defy the Darkness, 148, 224–25.

820 Memoir of Peter (Dzeider) Kleinmann, Internet: , chapter 5.

821 Kon (Konstanty R.) Piekarski, Escaping Hell: The Story of a Polish Underground Officer in Auschwitz and Buchenwald (Toronto: Dundurn Press, 1989), 35–36. Schmelling reportedly survived about a year in Auschwitz.

822 Avraham-Berl Sokol, “What I Experienced at the Zambrow Concentration Camp and Other Concentration Camps,” in I. Rubin, ed., Wysokie Mazowieckie Memorial Book (Tel Aviv: Wysikie-Mazowieckie Society, 1975), 174–83, Internet: .

823 Rosa Katz, Oral History Transcript, October 28–29, 1980, Internet: , 63–64.

824 Judith Strick Dribben, A Girl Called Judith Strick (New York: Cowles, 1970), 181.

825 Irene Shapiro, Revisiting the Shadows: Memoirs from War-torn Poland to the Statue of Liberty (Elk River, Minnesota: DeForest Press, 2004), 231–32, 236. Margaretta Czuckermann, another Hungarian Jew, also reported that prisoners were punched and tortured by the female SS guards and female Hungarian inmates, who worked for the SS. See the testimony of Margaretta Czuckermann, May 25, 1989, Holocaust Memorial Center, Farmington Hills, Michigan, Internet: .

826 Sara Zyskind, Stolen Years (Minneapolis: Lerner, 1981; reprinted by Signet, New York, 1983), 153, 156–59, 161.

827 Testimony of Ester Löwi, Jewish Historical Institute (Warsaw) archive, record group 301, number 113.

828 Record of Witness Testimony No. 277, April 25, 1946, Voices from Ravensbrück, Polish Institute of Source Research, Lund, Sweden, Internet: <http://www3.ub.lu.se/ravensbruck/interview277.pdf>.

829 Interview with Orna Birnbach (Blauner), Internet: .

830 Louis Brandsdorfer, The Bleeding Sky: My Mother’s Journey Through the Fire (CreateSpace, 2012), chapters 8 and 9.

831 Millie Werber and Eve Keller, Two Rings: A Story of Love and War (New York: PublicAffairs, 2012), 165–66.

832 Trunk, Jewish Responses to Nazi Persecution, 109.

833 Trunk, Jewish Responses to Nazi Persecution, 189.

834 Stanisława Gogołowska, W Brzezince nie umierało się samotnie (Warsaw: Książka i Wiedza, 1973), 22–23.

835 N. Glicksman, “Social Stratification in the German Concentration Camps,” in Michael Robert Marrus (ed.), The Nazi Holocaust, Part 6: The Victims of the Holocaust, vol. 2 (Westport, CT: Meckler, 1989), 947.

836 Buergenthal, A Lucky Child, 68–70.

837 Avraham Harshalom (Friedberg), “Jakob the Kapo,” Alive from the Ashes (Tel Aviv: Milo, 1990), Internet: .

838 Shavti Perelmuter, “Jewish Resistance in the Ghetto and the Camp,” in Deblin-Modzjitz Book, Internet: , translation of D. Shtokfish, ed., Sefer Deblin-Modjitz [Dęblin-Modrzyc] (Tel Aviv: Association of Former Residents of Demblin-Modzjitz, 1969), 501ff. The kapo from Warsaw identified as Greenboim may be the same as Eliezer Grinbaum or Nonek Greenbaum or Grynbaum mentioned by other Jews. He was known to call Jewish prisoners “parszywy Żyd” (“filthy Jew”). Although he was turned over to the French police in Paris, where he was spotted by some survivors after the war, he was released and fled to Palestine. See Moshe and Elie Garbarz, A Survivor (Detroit: Wayne State University Press, 1992), 83; Stefan Grajek, Po wojnie i co dalej: Żydzi w Polsce w latach 1945–1949 (Warsaw: Żydowski Instytut Historyczny, 2003), 65–66; Moshe Prywes as told to Haim Chertok, Prisoners of Hope (Hanover and London: Brandeis University Press, 1996), 60. A Jewish prisoner remembers with gratitude how her Polish “block trusty” tried to protect Jewish prisoners from being sent to the ovens. See the account of Anna (Chana) Kovitzka, posted online at: . Another inmate mentions a Polish kapo in Auschwitz who allowed Jewish inmates to hold a religious service and guarded the entrance to the barracks to watch out for the SS. See Judy Weissenberg Cohen, “‘The Kol Nidre I always remember,’” The Canadian Jewish News, September 24, 1998. Other accounts that mention kind deeds by Polish kapos and block elders in Auschwitz can be found in Niewyk, Fresh Wounds, 15, 205, 210; and Charmatz, Nightmares, 101–102. Walter Plywaski, formerly Władysław Pływacki, wrote the following about Polish kapos he and his brother, teenagers at the time, encountered in Auschwitz and Dachau (“I Remember,” Jewish Magazine, September-October 2007):

I am now 77 years old and those awful times of Shoah, the Holocaust, still live in my mind flickering like the dark red and black columns of flame and smoke I saw on my arrival at night on the selection platform of Auschwitz-Birkenau. I remember not running to say goodbye to my mother after the command was given by the SS and their hunting dogs, the Kapos, “Men right! Women left!”

I had been told about half a year earlier by my father that in Auschwitz any woman with a child was as good as dead. My father had information, both from his prewar Gentile Polish friends and by listening to a secret underground radio used in the Lodz [Łódź] ghetto by a small group of men to hear from BBC true war news. I also remember that I did not have my left arm tattooed with a number because by the summer of 1944 the holding yard for the slaughterhouse of Birkenau stopped tattooing those within it. I suspect that was since the average life expectancy there was but two weeks, the logic of it was “why waste government money on ink?” on those who will not last much longer. …

I remember being overly clever with my brother in going to a barracks where we heard that there were double or triple food rations to all underage twins. We lied that we were fraternal twins. The barracks was, of course, a holding pen for Dr. Mengele’s so-called medical experiments. One of the Polish Gentile Kapos in that barracks took me aside and told me what my brother and I were facing there. He told me that he would try to get us out as soon as he can manage, and he did just that probably on the third day there. He was a total stranger to me. He smuggled us out and we rejoined our father and the men’s camp barracks.

I remember lying awake at night in the barracks and listening through the night to the high-pitched screams from the outside. I was told by someone, probably the barracks leader Kapo, that we were hearing children under the age of eight being burned alive to save the German government’s money on Zyklon-B. …

My brother and I arrived in the main Dachau camp somewhere in January 1945. There I was separated from my brother and sent to the so-called infirmary, because I had malnutrition holes in both my lower legs. Two Polish Gentile Kapos at the infirmary told me that I was being held to become a guinea pig for malaria experiments there. They said that they will try to get me out of there, if at all possible. They began to show up at my bedside several times per day, bringing me pieces of bread, a slice of sausage or even a hard-boiled egg, such as these I hadn't seen for years. After a few days the holes in my legs began to heal and probably only within one week these two Poles put a corpse into my bed and smuggled me out into the general camp where I rejoined my brother in the quarantine barracks.



And so I remember many things which are horrifying, but I also remember many things which tell me that among groups of people, even in the most extreme situations, there are also those few “weird” individuals who for one reason or another find it possible to be humane rather than being merely human. My brother and I were helped by several other Polish Gentile prisoners in the Dachau camps. Such men truly deserve the Latin phrase “Ecce Homo”.

There are a number of Jewish testimonies describing Polish prisoners of Auschwitz very favourably. Halina Nelken, a Jewish woman from Kraków, writes of the solidarity of Polish and Jewish prisoners in the Płaszów concentration camps, and the assistance shown by Polish inmates of Auschwitz, the camp’s first inmates, to later transports of prisoners including Jews. These anonymous benefactors, who may well not have been the “norm,” were known by the name of “kochany” (“darling”). While they did not have much to offer—perhaps some scraps of food or clothing—their attitude had a great impact on the new arrivals. Nelken relates similar displays of solidarity shown to her by Polish women inmates at Ravensbrück. See Halina Nelken, And Yet, I Am Here! (Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 1999), 232, 248, 272. Sigmund Gerson and Eddie Gastfriend, two young Jews imprisoned in Auschwitz, speak of the “loving” attitude of Father Maximilian Kolbe and all the Polish priests toward the Jews in the camp. Eddie Gastfriend states: “There were many priests in Auschwitz. They wore no collars, but you knew they were priests by their manner and their attitude, especially toward Jews. They were so gentle, so loving.” See Patricia Treece, A Man for Others: Maximilian Kolbe, Saint of Auschwitz (New York: Harper & Row, 1982; reissued by Our Sunday Visitor, Hutington, Indiana, 1982), 138, 152–53. In a letter published in the New York Times on December 27, 1998, Marianne Sann wrote: “I want to, and must attest, to the fact that I was saved by Catholic fellow prisoners, at their great personal risk, in Auschwitz and again in Mauthausen.” She went on to state, “Just because the Nazis preferred to incinerate more Jews than Roman Catholic Poles does not mean that Polish non-Jewish victims do not deserve a cross of remembrance and place of honor among their fellow Jews. The Polish inmates felt the icy winds of doom just acutely as I did. … I hope the Polish Government will not be pressured to remove these symbols of respect.” Berek Latarus from Łódź recalled: “One time I stole a bread and they took me to shoot me, but a non-Jewish guy from Cracow, he was my friend, and he ran and took me away from the Germans! This non-Jew was on good terms with the S.S., he used to smuggle them cigarettes, and we called him the ‘Jewish father’ because he was sticking up for us all the time.” See Lewin, Witnesses to the Holocaust, 60. Ada Omieljanczuk, a Jewish woman, attributes her survival to Polish fellow prisoners of Auschwitz who shared their food parcels with her. See Tadeusz Andrzejewski, “Wileńscy strażnicy oświęcimskiej pamięci,” Tygodnik Wileńszczyzny (Vilnius), February 3–9, 2005. Two Jewish sisters who were imprisoned in Auschwitz recalled with gratitude the extra bread they received from a Polish prisoner. See Rena Kornreich Gelissen with Heather Dune Macadam, Rena’s Promise: A Story of Sisters in Auschwitz, Expanded Edition (Boston, Massachusetts: Beacon Press, 2015), 67. Moishe Kantorowitz credits the Polish prisoner Leon Kulowski with saving his life by arranging his transfer, with the agreement of a Polish kapo, from a hard labour task whose only exit was death, to an inside mechanic shop job and by giving some of his food to Kantorowicz. See Moishe Kantorowitz, My Mother’s Bequest: From Shershev to Auschwitz to Newfoundland (Canada: n.p., 20004), Book 4. Two Jewish survivors from Ciechanów recalled that Polish prisoners in Auschwitz who received food parcels from home gave their camp-issued portions away to Jews and other prisoners. See Noach Zabludowicz, “My Experiences in World War II,” and Moshe Kolko, “Ciechanow Jews in the Uprising in Auschwitz,” in A.W. Yassini, ed., Memorial Book for the Community of Ciechanow, Internet: , translation of Yisker-bukh fun der Tshekhanover yidisher kehile (Tel Aviv: Former Residents of Ciechanow in Israel and in the Diaspora, 1962), 337, 382. Historian Yisrael Gutman credits a Polish prisoner, who hid him and fed him without expecting any reward, with saving his life when he was imprisoned in Auschwitz for several months. See Piotr Zychowicz, in conversation with Israel Gutman, “To nie Polacy założyli obozy, tylko Niemcy,” Rzeczpospolita, May 30, 2012. Salvatore Katan, a Jewish prisoner of Auschwitz-Birkenau from Greece, was warned by a Polish inmate not to volunteer for a castration experiment in exchange for extra rations. See the testimony of Salvatore Katan, March 2, 1986, Holocaust Memorial Center, Farmington Hills, Michigan, Internet: . Salvator Moshe, a Greek Jew, credits a Polish bookkeeper with saving his life. See Salvator Moshe, Oral History Transcript, Internet: . Ben Kawer, a Polish Jew who, together with his brother, was transferred from Birkenau to the sub-camp of Buna (Auschwitz 3), befriended a Polish Christian worker living in a nearby town who, at great personal risk, managed to bring into the camp various food items on a regular basis which the brothers shared. This person even offered Ben the opportunity to escape from Buna, but Ben would not leave without his brother and only one could go. In gratitude, he later attempted to nominate this person for the Righteous Among Nations award presented by Yad Vashem, but he was unable to find any trace of this friend. See the testimony of Ben Kawer, June 28, 2005, Holocaust Memorial Center, Farmington Hills, Michigan, Internet: . A number of Poles at the camp hospital helped the Jewish doctors working there to survive. See Bartoszewski and Lewin, Righteous Among Nations, 478–79. Assistance given to Jews by Polish inmates of Auschwitz has been documented by Yad Vashem, which has recognized as “Righteous”: Stanisława Sierzputowska, Jerzy Pozimski, and Jerzy Radwanek. See Gutman and Bender, The Encyclopedia of the Righteous Among the Nations, volumes 4 and 5: Poland, Part 1, 256; Part 2, 638, 658. Jerzy Radwanek, a member of the Polish underground in Auschwitz, used his position as camp electrician to provide widespread assistance to Jewish prisoners. He came to be known by them as the “Jewish uncle” of Auschwitz. See the profile of Jerzy Radwanek under “Poland” in the web site of The Jewish Foundation for the Righteous, Internet: . Another tribute to Polish prisoners, among them doctors, in various concentration camps was authored by Zofia Hauswirt—see Wroński and Zwolakowa, Polacy Żydzi 1939–1945, 311–12. In an inhumane and poisonous environment like Auschwitz, one should not take these acts of kindness for granted A Hungarian survivor, a rabbi, recalled: “The Polish Jews discriminated terribly. They blamed us that we had the privilege of living such a good life in our own homes while they were taken into Auschwitz two years earlier than us. ‘Now we should suffer!’ they said. ‘We should work and they shouldn’t have to work.’ And they kept constantly picking on us, for no reason. We are Jews too; we didn’t send them to Auschwitz.” See William B. Helmreich, Against All Odds: Holocaust Survivors and the Successful Lives They Made in America (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1992), 176–77. (That author also mentions a perception—common among German Jews—of Polish Jews as “boors and parvenus.” One German Jew confided, “Even today, there is still a different psychology between German and Polish Jews. I don’t really relate to most of them.” Ibid.) Helen Lewis, a Czech Jew who was an inmate of Birkenau, the camp which held primarily Jews, did not have fond memories of the Jewish prisoners from Poland, “some of whom had become completely brutalized with the years they had been there, and who were more frightening and dangerous than the SS.” See Anton Gill, The Journey Back From Hell: Conversations with Concentration Camp Survivors (London: Grafton Books, 1988), 411.

839 Record of Witness Testimony No. 421, July 26, 1946, Voices from Ravensbrück, Polish Institute of Source Research, Lund, Sweden, Internet: <http://www3.ub.lu.se/ravensbruck/interview421.pdf>.

840 Record of Witness Testimony No. 47, December 12, 1945, Voices from Ravensbrück, Polish Institute of Source Research, Lund, Sweden, Internet: <http://www3.ub.lu.se/ravensbruck/interview47.pdf>.

841 Record of Witness Testimony No. 8, November 28, 1945, Voices from Ravensbrück, Polish Institute of Source Research, Lund, Sweden, Internet: <http://www3.ub.lu.se/ravensbruck/interview8.pdf>.

842 Testimony of Moshe Aharon Pszewoznik, dated January 25, 1948, Yad Vashem Archives, M1-M1E/1744 (historical questionnaire, the Central Historical Committee, Munich).

843 Dean, Encyclopedia of Camps and Ghettos, 1933–1945, vol. II, Part A, 25–26; Gabriel N. Finder and Alexander V. Prusin, “Jewish Collaborators on Trial in Poland, 1944–1956,” in Polin: Studies in Polish Jewry, vol. 20 (2008): 139–41. After the war, the Jewish Social Court referred the Klajman’s case to the Polish Regional Court in Płock, which found him guilty of brutally murdering Jews in the Płońsk ghetto, as well as in the Auschwitz and Stutthof concentration camps, where he was a kapo. Klajman as sentenced to death in 1949, but the penalty was later commuted to life imprisonment.

844 Taubenschlag (Townsend), To Be a Jew in Occupied Poland, 90–91, 113–15.

845 Frister, The Cap, or the Price of a Life, 240–43.

846 Sheldon Schwartz, ed., Never Far Away: The Auschwitz Chronicles of Anna Heilman (Calgary: University of Calgary Press, 2001), 94.

847 Blatman, En direct du ghetto, 477, 479–80.

848 Testimony of an anonymous escapee from Treblinka in Markowska, Archiwum Ringelbluma, 189.

849 Jankiel Wiernik, A Year in Treblinka: An Inmate Who Escaped Tells the Day-to-Day Facts of One Year of His Torturous Expeience (New York: American Representation of the General Jewish Workers’ Union of Poland, 1944), 17–18.

850 Weinstein, Quenched Steel, 59–60.

851 Willenberg, Surviving Treblinka, 120–21.

852 Israel Cymlich and Oscar Strawczynski, Escaping Hell in Treblinka (New York and Jerusalem: Yad Vashem and The Holocaust Survivors’ Memoirs Project, 2007), 38.

853 Testimony of Oskar Strawczynski, in ibid., 131–32. See also the testimony of Szymon Goldberg in Rubin, The Rise and Fall of Jewish Communities in Poland and Their Relics Today, volume II: District Lublin, 380–81, which mentions Jewish kapos like Jurek, Chaskiel and Kuba, who beat and denounced Jewish inmates; and Mark S. Smith, Treblinka Survivor: The Life and Death of Hershl Sperling (Gloucestershire, United Kingdom: The History Press, 2010), 130, 133, which mentions the kapos Kuba and Paulinka (or Perla) as informers.

854 Testimony of Oskar Strawczynski, in Cymlich and Strawczynski, Escaping Hell in Treblinka, 152–54.

855 Testimony of Izrael Bramson, Jewish Historical Institute (Warsaw) archive, record group 301, number 106.

856 Testimony of Szymon Grynszpan, Jewish Historical Institute (Warsaw) archive, record group 301, number 1185.

857 Mariusz Bechta, Między Bolszewią a Niemcami: Konspiracja polityczna i wojskowa Polskiego Obozu Narodowego na Podlasiu w latach 1939–1952 (Warsaw: Instytut Pamięci Narodowej and Rytm, 2008), 414.

858 Alexander Donat, ed., The Death Camp Treblinka: A Documentary History (New York: Holocaust Library, 1979), 141–42.

859 Mieczysław Korczak, Życie na włosku—bis (Staszów: Staszowskie Towarzystwo Kulturalne, 1997).

860 David A. Hackett, ed., The Buchenwald Report (Boulder, Colorado, San Francisco, and Oxford: Westview Press, 1995), 194–95.

861 Ariel Machnes and Rina Klinov, eds., Darkness and Desolation: In Memory of the Communities of Braslaw, Dubene, Jaisi, Jod, Kislowszczizna, Okmienic, Opsa, Plusy, Rimszan, Slobodka, Zamosz, Zaracz (Tel Aviv: Association of Braslaw and Surroundings in Israel and America, and Ghetto Fighters House and Hakibbutz Hameuchad Publishing House, 1986), 591.
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