Members of the Jewish police were not the only ones who served the Germans; some Jews acted



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342 Harold Werner, Fighting Back: A Memoir of Jewish Resistance in World War II (New York: Columbia University Press, 1992), 140.

343 Account of Motel Rabinowicz in Grynberg and Kotowska, Życie i zagłada Żydów polskich 1939–1945, 130–31.

344 Statement of Chana Lind (née Reiss), in Sefer zikaron le-kehilat Mielec: Sipur hashmadat ha-kehila ha-yehudit (New York: Mielec Yizkor Book Committee, 1979), translated as Remembering Mielec: The Destruction of the Jewish Community, Internet: .

345 Interview with Leon Gągoła (Lejba Gongola), Gazeta Wyborcza (Mazowsze edition), November 20, 1995, Internet: .

346 See the following betrayals in Warsaw: Mary Berg, Warsaw Ghetto: A Diary (New York: L.B. Fischer, 1945), 155 (Warsaw); Włodzimierz Kopczuk and Jacek Wilamowski, Tajemnicze wsypy: Polsko-niemiecka wojna na tajnym froncie (Warsaw: Instytut Wydawniczy Związków Zawodowych, 1990), 77–79; Eugenia Szajn Lewin, W getcie warszawskim: Lipiec 1942–kwiecień 1943 (Poznań: a5, 1989), 52; Henryk Makower, Pamiętnik z getta warszawskiego: Październik 1940–styczeń 1943 (Wrocław: Zakład Narodowy im. Ossolińskich, 1987), 36–38.

347 Rose Toren, A New Beginning (New York: Shengold Publishers, 1997), 27–28.

348 Nechama Tec, Resilience and Courage: Women, Men, and the Holocaust (New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 2003), 237.

349 Goldberg, Running Through Fire, 88.

350 Ibid., 98.

351 Ibid., 93.

352 Ibid., 99.

353 Ibid., 130.

354 Ibid., 129.

355 Goldberg, Running Through Fire, 132–34. Zosia Goldberg describes how she was helped, during her interrogation, by a Pole who was employed by the Germans as an interpreter. Ibid., 129.

356 The Persecution of the Catholic Church in German-Occupied Poland: Reports Presented by H.E. Cardinal Hlond, Primate of Poland, to Pope Pius XII, Vatican Broadcasts and Other Reliable Evidence (London: Burns Oates, 1941), 58, 105–106, and the American edition (New York: Longmans, Green & Co., 1941).

357 Patricia Treece, A Man For Others: Maximilian Kolbe Saint of Auschwitz (In the Words of Those Who Knew Him) (New York: Harper & Row, 1982; reissued by Our Sunday Visitor, Huntington, Indiana), 128.

358 Barbara Bojarska, Zbrodnie Selbstschutzu w Łobżenicy,” Przegląd Zachodni, nos. 5–6, 1963, 147.

359 Grynberg and Kotowska, Życie i zagłada Żydów polskich 1939–1945, 462–63, 466–67; Dean, Encyclopedia of Camps and Ghettos, 1933–1945, vol. II, Part A, 42.

360 Dean, Encyclopedia of Camps and Ghettos, 1933–1945, vol. II, Part A, 45. The Jewish police caught Jews who smuggled, confiscated the goods, and the smuggler would have to pay a ranson for his or her release.

361 Ryszard Juszkiewicz, Losy Żydów mławskich w okresie II-ej wojny światowej (Mława: Towarzystwo Przyjaciół Ziemi Mławskiej, 1994), 79–80.

362 Berl Kagan, ed., Zvoliner Yizkor Bukh (New York: New York Independent Zvoliner Benevolent Society, 1982), 56 (English section).

363 Christopher R. Browning, Nazi Policy, Jewish Workers, German Killers (Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press, 2000), 93.

364 Christopher R. Browning, Remembering Survival: Inside a Nazi Slave-Labor Camp (New York and London: Norton, 2010), 48–49.

365 Schutzman, Wierzbnik-Starachowitz, 165ff. (Jerahmiel Singer), 186 (Leibish Herblum), 246 (Zvi Unger).

366 Zvi Faigenbaum, “Led Like Lambs to the Slaughter,” in Schutzman, Wierzbnik-Starachowitz, 308ff.

367 Trunk, Judenrat, 482–83; Dean, Encyclopedia of Camps and Ghettos, 1933–1945, vol. II, Part A, 37, 112. In Zduńska Wola the Judenrat selected and surrendered ten Jews to the Germans for execution. See Markowska, Archiwum Ringelbluma, 136.

368 Trunk, Judenrat, 514.

369 Dean, Encyclopedia of Camps and Ghettos, 1933–1945, vol. II, Part A, 499.

370 Gitel Hopfeld, At the Mercy of Strangers: Survival in Nazi Occupied Poland (Oakville, Ontario: Mosaic Press, 2005), 55.

371 Stanisław Stanek, “Moje wspomnienia (6),” Goniec (Mississauga), March 10–16, 2006.

372 Maria Szczepańska, “Wspomnienie z Jarosławia,” Gazeta Polska (Warsaw), February 10, 1994.

373 Barbara Mękarska-Kozłowska, Burza nad Lwowem: Reportaż z lat wojennych 1939–1945 we Lwowie. Kartki z pamiętnika (London: Polish Cultural Foundation, 1992), 311.

374 I. M. Lask, ed., The City of Zloczow (Tel Aviv: Zloczower Relief Verband of America, 1967), columns 140–41.

375 Herzog, …And Heaven Shed No Tears, 301.

376 Mariusz Bechta, Rewolucja, mit, bandytyzm: Komuniści na Podlasiu w latach 1939–1941 (Warsaw and Biała Podlaska: Rachocki and Rekonkwista, 2000), 73.

377 Michał Czajka, ed., Relacje z czasów Zagłady Inwentarz: Archiwum ŻIH IN-B, zespół 301: Nr. 4001–5000/Holocaust Survivor Testimonies Catalogue: Jewish Historical Institute Archives, Record Group 301: No. 4001–5000 (Warsaw: Żydowski Instytut Historyczny Instytut Naukowo-Badawczy, 2007), vol. 5, 52.

378 Yitzhak Arad, Ghetto in Flames: The Struggle and Destruction of the Jews in Vilna in the Holocaust (Jerusalem: Yad Vashem Martyrs’ and Heroes’ Remembrance Authority, and Anti-Defamation League of B’nai Brith New York, 1980), 292–93; Spector, Lost Jewish Worlds, 212; Herman Kruk, The Last Days of the Jerusalem of Lithuania: Chronicles from the Vilna Ghetto and the Camps, 1939–1944 (New Haven and London: YIVO Institute for Jewish Research and Yale University Press, 2002), 235–36, 610.

379 Philip Lazowski, Faith and Destiny (Barkhamsted, Connnecticut: Goulet Printery, 2006), 43.

380 Pogonowski, Jews in Poland, 99.

381 Bartoszewski and Lewinówna, Ten jest z ojczyzny mojej, 501–502.

382 Gutenbaum and Latała, eds., The Last Eyewitnesses, vol. 2, 123.

383 Testimony of Artur Ney, Jewish Historical Institute (Warsaw) archive, record group 301, number 2227. One policeman demanded 15,000 złoty just to deliver a letter,

384 Dorota Sierpacka, “Stosunki polsko-żydowskie w Łodzi podczas okupacji niemieckiej,” in Żbikowski, Polacy i Żydzi pod okupacją niemiecką 1939–1945, 699, 710, 713–15, 717, 719, 721, 728; Dorota Sierpacka, “Postawy Polaków wobec ludności żydowskiej w Kraju Warty,” in Aleksandra Namysło, ed., Zagłada Żydów na polskich terenach wcielonych do Rzeszy (Warsaw: Instytut Pamięci Narodowej–Komisja Ścigania Zbrodni przeciwko Narodowi Polskiemu, 2008), 200.

385 Testimony of Meyer Shwartz, July 12, 1991, Holocaust Memorial Center, Farmington Hills, Michigan, Internet:
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