Labs 6, 7, 8 Skeletal Tissue

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Labs 6, 7, 8    Skeletal Tissue

Purpose: This lab exercise is designed to familiarize the student with the composition of compact bone, the bones of the skeleton, key structures (markings) of the bones and the knee joint.

Performance Objectives:
A. Study a long and a flat bone and locate the following on each:

1)     compact bone _____________________________

2)    cancellous (spongy) bone __________________________

3)    nutrient foramen _____________________________

B. Identify the following parts of a long bone:

1)     diaphysis _____________________________

2)    epiphyses (proximal and distal) ______________________

3)    epiphyseal line _____________________________

4)    medullary cavity _____________________________

5)    articular surface _____________________________

6)    periosteum _____________________________
C. Identify the diploe (internal spongy bone) on a flat bone.

Study slides (CS and LS) of compact bone tissue and identify the following

1)    osteons _____________________________

2)    central/Haversian canals __________________________

3)    Volkman's (perforating ) canals _____________________________

4)    lamellae _____________________________

5)    lacunae _____________________________

6)    canaliculi _____________________________

7)    osteocytes _____________________________
C.     On an articulated skeleton, find samples of each bone type (p. 127):

1.      long

2.     short

3.     flat

4.     irregular

5.     sutural (p179)

6.     sesamoid

D.     Be able to identify and describe the location of the following bones and markings on articulated skeletons and disarticulated bones (also know how many of each bone are in the body)

1. frontal

 a.         sinus

                        b.         supraorbital margin



2.     parietal


3.     temporal

a.         zygomatic process

b.         mandibular fossa

c.         styloid process

           d.         mastoid process

e.         carotid canal

f. foramen lacerum

g.         jugular foramen

h.         external auditory or acoustic meatus


4.     occipital

a.         foramen magnum

b.         occipital condyles


5.     sphenoid

a.         sella turcica

b.         greater wing

c.         lesser wing

d.         sinus

e.         optic foramen (canal)

f.         orbital fissures

g. foramen lacerum (between sphenoid and temporal bone)

h. foramen rotundum

i. foramen ovale

j. foramen spinosum


6.     ethmoid

     a.         horizontal plate (know cribiform plate portion)

b.         perpendicular plate

c.         inferior and middle nasal conchae

d.         crista galli

e.         olfactory foramina

         f. sinus

7.     sutural (Wormian ) bones 


8.     sutures

a.         sagittal

b.         lambdoid

c.         coronal

d.         squamous


9.     nasal 


10.    maxilla

a.         alveolar margin

b.         alveoli (tooth sockets)

c.         palatine processes

d.         incisive foramen (fossa)

e.         inferior orbital fissure (above maxilla )

         f. maxillary sinus
11.     zygomatic (bone + process of temporal bone = zygomatic arch)

a.         temporal process (part that articulates with zygomatic process)


12.    mandible

a.         body

b.         ramus

c.         condylar process (know mandibular condyle ­ sup. portion)

d.         mandibular foramen

e.         coronoid process

f.         alveolar margin

g.         alveoli

h.         mental foramen

i.         mandibular notch
13.    lacrimal

a.         lacrimal fossa


14.    palatine

a.         horizontal plate (hard palate part)


15.    inferior nasal concha


16.    vomer
17. fontanels of fetal skull

a. frontal fontanel (anterior fontanel)

b. spenoidal fontanel (anterolateral)

c. mastoidal fontanel (posterolateral)


17.    hyoid


18.    vertebrae

a.         body

      b.         vertebral arch

c.         vertebral foramen

d.         transverse process

e. lamina

f. pedicle

g.         spinous process

h.         superior articular process

i.         inferior articular process

j.         cervical vertebrae - transverse foramen

1.     atlas

2.    axis - dens

k.         thoracic vertebrae

1.     rib (costal) facets

         l.         lumbar vertebrae

m.         sacrum

1.     sacral hiatus

2.    superior articular process

3.    ala

4.    sacral canal

n.         coccyx

            o.         intervertebral foramina

           p.         intervertebral discs


19.    sternum

                       a.         manubrium

                        b.         body

                       c.         xiphoid process

                       d.         jugular notch (sternal)

                       e.         clavicular notches

                       f.         sternal angle
20.    ribs the skeleton be able to identify the true, false and types of false ribs.                       a.         costal cartilages

             b.         head

             c.         neck

d.         body (shaft)

e.         tubercle

 f.         costal groove

g. true ribs (vertebrosternal)

h. false ribs (vertebrochondral and floating)

i. label the true and false ribs on the diagram below

Lab 7, 8, 9 Bones (cont.) and Joints


C.      Be able to identify and describe the location of the following bones and markings on articulated skeletons and disarticulated bones. Be able to tell the left from the right bone where indicated by an asterisk (*) and know how many of each bone are found in the body.


1.      clavicle

a.         sternal extremity

b.         acromial extremity

      2. scapula*

    a.         spine

  b.         acromion

        c.         glenoid cavity

           d.         medial border

         e.         lateral border

            f.         coracoid process

            g.         supraspinous fossa

             h.         infraspinous fossa

             i.         subscapular fossa


3.     humerus*

a.         head

b.         anatomical neck

c.         surgical neck

e.         lesser tubercle

f.         greater tubercle

g.         deltoid tuberosity

h.         capitulum

i.         radial fossa

j.         trochlea

k.         coronoid fossa

l.         olecranon fossa

m.        medial epicondyle

n.         lateral epicondyle

o. supracondylar ridges

4.     ulna*

a.         olecranon process
b.         coronoid process
c.         trochlear notch
d.         radial notch
e.         head
f.         styloid process

g. ulnar tuberosity


5.     radius

           a.         head
b.         radial tuberosity
c.         styloid process
d.         ulnar notch


6.     carpals

a. scaphoid (navicular)

b. lunate

c triquetrum (triangular)

d. pisiform

e. trapezium

f. Trapezoideum

g. capitate

h. hamate


7.     metacarpals


8.     phalanges


9.     coxal (hip) bone*

a.         brim of pelvis

b.         pelvic inlet – space enclosed by pelvic brim

c.         pelvic outlet

d.         ilium

Identify the female pelvis below.

Explain your choice.

e.     iliac crest

f.    anterior superior iliac spine

g.    anterior inferior iliac spine

h.    posterior superior iliac spine

i.    posterior inferior iliac spine

j.    greater sciatic notch

k.    iliac fossa

l.    auricular surface (articulates with sacrum)

m.         ischium

n.     ischial spine

o.    lesser sciatic notch

p.    ischial tuberosity

q.    ramus of ischium

r.         obturator foramen

s.         pubis

t.     superior ramus of pubis

u.    inferior ramus of pubis

v.    pubic symphysis

w.         acetabulum


10.  femur*

          a.         head

            b.         neck

            c.         greater trochanter

           d.         lesser trochanter

            e.         medial condyle

             f.         lateral condyle

             g.         medial epicondyle

h.         lateral epicondyle

i.         linea aspera

j. intertrochanteric crest

k. intertrochanteric line

l. supracondylar ridges

m. patellar surface

n. popliteal surface

o. interconcylar notch (spine)


11.     patella

a.         base (superior portion)

b.         apex

c.         articular facets


12.    tibia*

            a.         medial condyle

            b.         lateral condyle

            c.         tibial tuberosity

           d.         medial malleolus

            e.         anterior crest

            f.         intercondylar eminence


13.    fibula

            a.         head

            b.         lateral malleolus

c. styloid process of fibula

14.    tarsals

       a.         talus

      b.         calcaneus

c. navicular

d. cuboid

e. 1st, 2nd, 3rd cuneiform


15.    metatarsals


16.    phalanges

D.     Identify the following structures on an articulated skeleton:

1.      spinal curves

                      a.         cervical

                      b.         thoracic

                      c.         lumbar

                      d.         sacral


2.     foot arches

                    a.         medial longitudinal

                     b.         lateral longitudinal

                     c.         transverse

Joints (Articulations)

A.     Find the major structural types of joints and be able to give an example of each on the skeleton: 

1.      suture

2.     syndesmosis

3.     gomphosis

4.     synchondrosis

5.     symphysis

6.     synovial

B.     Identify the parts of a knee joint on models and diagrams: 

1.      articular capsule (diagram only)

2.     synovial membrane (diagram only)

3.     bursae: suprapatellar, prepatellar, infrapatellar

4.     medial and lateral menisci

5.     anterior and posterior cruciate ligaments

6.     tibial and fibular collateral ligaments

7.     patellar ligament

8.     articular cartilages

9.     tendon of quadriceps femoris

Many of the bones you are using are real. Respect them and handle with care. Use a probe or the eraser end of a pencil to point out specific features of the bones.

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